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It is painful to think that a people professing to hold secret communings with Him by whom the worlds were made, should dare for a moment, to think of recalling immortal spirits from beyond the grave; or of attempting to hold communion with them, through any other medium than his pure spirit. It has always "been the doctrine of this religious society, that the divine, the eternal, the all-creating, but uncreated spirit of Heaven's Omnipotent and Eternal King, hath ever dwelt and spoken in the soul! That it is a brighter light, and a clearer voice than can be seen or heard through any material agency. And it is the very foundation and corner-stone of our religion that it is given to every man to profit withal! Yet with all these long cherished views of our religion and its universality, there are those who claim to hold suoh intercourse, and to hold it, through the aid of natural causes, and specially appointed mediums—limiting the revelations and the light, to those who undergo manipulations and preparations, by which the healthy action of both body and mind are impaired, and the life of both endangered. This arrogance and presumption, this confounding of religion with philosophy, and that philosophy of no doubtful character, if not actually associated with gross and sensual impiety, is manifestly the reverse of the Revelations of the infinite to which Jesus and his apostles called the disciples. And yet by this wretched and miserable delusion many have suffered themselves to be carried captive, until no hope remains for them, but the mercy and forgiveness of God.

While thus reflecting upon the divinations and enchantments by which we are surrounded, we cannot avoid cautioning our youngfriends, against the metaphysical subtleties and refined spiritualities, by which the plainest facts recorded in the sacred writings are swept from the record, and converted into metaphorical and allegorical similitudes. And when God sends his judgments, his signs, and his wonders, to admonish man of his dependence and his littleness—assumes they are not of super-natural agency—" saying these are their causes, they are natural," thus denying a special providence, introducing Deism and Atheism, the worst of foes to all the dignity and consolation of mankind, we have little faith in the so-called "improvements," that are used to justify men who think themselves wiser in their generation, than the children of light. We never expect to be better Christians, than Christianity's first great teacher! And we distrust all who doubt the authenticity of the narratives of the Evangelists, the inspirations of the prophets, or the simple facts that gave vitality to the whole system of the Christian religion.

Having been graciously permitted to witness the overshadowings of Divine love and goodness, and to feel it pervading the minds of Friends during the transaction of the business for which

we have assembled, we rejoice that the hours we have been together, have not been mis-spent, that the morning and evening dew has fallen, to vivify and impart life and energy to the drooping spirit, and has brought with it the manna for gathering: and while we make no claim to higher attainments, indulge no brighter hopes than the faithful who remain at home laboring in the vineyard, we cannot avoid believing that it has been good for us that we have been together. We believe the gifts conferred upon our fathers were greater than many attain in this generation, but we feel a love as deep and strong as theirs for the preservation and growth of Zion; and we humbly hope, the offerings made at this season may be as acceptable in the divine sight. Under the blessed assurance that the Shepherd of Israel is yet watching over his flock, the meeting adjourns to assemble again next year, at the usual time, if consistent with the Divine Will.

Caleb Carmalt, Clerk.



We noticed in the Intelligencer of 7th mo. 4, some account of Genesee Yearly Meeting, forwarded by a friend in attendance, and have since been furnished with a copy of the Extracts from the minutes of that meeting. A minute embracing the state of Society amongst them, and some of the exercises that prevailed, will be found in our present number.

Died,—On the 10th of 8th mo., 18S7, at the residence of her son, Simeon M. Lewis, in Huntsville, Madison County, Indiana, Susanna M. Lewis, widow of Abner Lewis, in her 74th year. She was interred on the 11th in Friends'burial ground at Fall Creek. A short time previous to her death, she expressed a wish to be released; on being asked if she felt any thing in her way, she said no, " she had nothing more to do, her day's work was done."

She was an affectionate mother to her children and grandchildren, and to her deceased husband she was a tender and a devoted wjfe.

, On the 2nd of 8th mo., 1857, Lydia Hokner,

widow of John Horner, in the 76th year of her ageShe was a member of St. Clairsville Particular and Plainfield Monthly Meetings, and was a valuable overseer and elder of said Meetings for many year6, filling those stations to the satisfaction and encouragement of her friends. She was a diligent attender of our religious meetings, when health and ability permitted, often surmounting difficulties many would have shrunk from, to perform that duty, frequeutly expressing her great desire for the prosperity of Zion, and the promotion of Truth.

Her disease was hemorrhaee of the lungs, causing great suffering, yet she evinced much patient resignation to her Master's will, saying to a friend present, she hoped her patience might hold out to the end; then added, Oh! I have always had a bountiful Heavenly Father, indeed I have. She loved the company of her friends, and particularly those whom she believed to be devoted to the service of the divine Master. During her illness a Friend in the ministry called to see her. She signified her satisfaction at tbe enjoyment of his company, and was led to encourage him to faithfulness adding, "Be faithful, and then thou will do well."

She appeared to retain the full powers of her mind to the last, and was willing to be released from earth. A little before her close, observing her daughters much affected, she desired they might not grieve, but be still, that she might ,pass away quietly; and shortly after quietly and peacefully breathed her laBt, and we doubt not has received the welcome of well done, and entered upon a glorious immortality.

The funeral took place on Second day the 3rd of 8th mo., at which a large company of Friends and others were assembled. Her remains were interred in Friends' burial ground at St. Clairsville. T. F.


Juvenile Essay, No. 3.

One of the first wishes of childhood is to be happy, and as the child grows into manhood, this desire "grows with his growth, and strengthens with his strength." He naturally seeks happiness, in the company of his gay associates, and so long as he endeavors to acquire it in innocent amusement, he generally finds it here; but when he sacrifices the wishes and pleasures of others, in order to gratify his own inclinations, the sting of a guilty conscience soon deprives him of the sweet peace which he might otherwise have enjoyed. As he advances in age, his character will depend much upon the training which his youthful mind has received, and although the desire to acquire happiness will still be his ruling passion, the sources from which he endeavors to obtain it will depend greatly upon his early education. If he has been taught to consider riches the great fountain of happiness, then will he be led to reflect upon the best means of amassing great wealth. Every thing must be subservient to this great object. Health, friends, and many other things necessary to promote happiness, are sacrificed by the miser, in order to have heaps of yellow dust around him. After all, does this make him happy? He never has enough, but goes on from year to year, trying to devise means by which he can obtain still greater riches; but he is at last overtaken by death. What avail is all his riches in this hour? In vain he clutches them with the iron grasp of death, and would fain carry them with him to his last resting place; but they have now performed their office towards him, and he must be content to leave them, and also his experience, to succeeding generations. Others profiting by his failing to secure happiness in this way, determine to be wiser. Tbe most of them are willing to possess riches, but

many employ them very differently. Some frequent theatres, balls and other fashionable places of amusement; give splendid entertainments, visit the gaming-table, and thus run through great wealth, and yet fail to find the true source of happiness. Others leave home and all its endearments, to seek happiness in a foreign clime. Should they live in our much favored land, they may see the natural curiosities with which it abounds; or they may visit the balmy South, where the orange blossoms are filling the air with their fragrant perfumes. But if their roving dispositions lead them still farther, they can cross the pathless ocean and visit the land of their forefathers. Here they will find many things fraught with interest. They can climb the lofty mountains, or descend into the winding valleys; visit the icy home of the Laplander, or the sunny clime of Italy ; and in all their wanderings they will find some objects of interest. This to one whose disposition is thus inclined, would doubtless afford much real happiness. But can it not be obtained nearer home? Is it necessary for us to leave the haunts of our childhood, and the friends of our youth, in order to be happy|? Why are we formed with such feelings as to make home, dearer than any other place, if hap piness is not within its limits 'I But how is it to be obtained? Is it not in doing what we know to be right, and in endeavoring to make others happy? When is it that we feel ! most happy, if it is not when we have done a ! good deed, or when we have refrained from doing wrong?

What can give us more pleasure than to remove a worthy family from poverty, to comfort? Although they may never be ajble to return what is thus given, wo feel doubly repaid by the sincere thanks which are poured from their grateful hearts. That it has been truly said, "it is more blessed to give than to receive," will, I think, be acknowledged by all who are accustomed to acts of charity. Then is it necessary to seek happiness in the gay and fashionable world? We will most assuredly be much less likely to be disappointed, if we seek it in the humbler walks of life. If we begin at home and try to make every one happy, by kind words, and little deeds of love, we will not fail to procure happiness for ourselves. And when the final hour arrives in which we shall be summoned before our God, we will receive the meed, "Well done good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." B. L.


If Christians must contend, let it be like the olive and the vine, which shall bear most and best fruit: and not like the aspen and the elm, which shall make most noise in the world.— Jeremy Taylor.


I have been much interested in the pleasant little story of the late Railway Engineer, George Stephenson; and believing that some of your young readers may be instructed by his experience, I send it for publication in your columns. His persevering industry, self reliance, and patient application of the humble means within his reach, were eminently crowned with success, and afford another instance that, even in temporal affairs, it is the diligent that prosper. H.

George Stephenson, according to the " rechester" in the family Bible of his father—the fireman at the old pumping-engine of the colliery at Wylaui, near Newcastle,—" was Born June 9 day, 1781."

George was the second of six children, two of whom were daughters. The parents " belonged to the ancient and honorable family of the workers." The father was never anything more than a humble laborer, with a love for Nature and a fund of capital stories, which brought an audience of children of various growths about . him and his engiue-fire. The mother was a "rale canny body," which, in Northumbria, is the highest compliment that can be paid to woman. The early duties of George were to run on village [ errands, to nurse his younger brothers and sisters, and to see that they did not get run over by the ] horse-drawn coal-waggons on the wooden railway | in front of the cottage. At eight years of age, he was promoted to be the same sort of guardian over a neighbor's cows,—a service which was munificently remunerated at 2d. per day. The child thus early experienced the inexpressible enjoyment of "earning his bread." Sweet is the produce of labor, though it be but 2d. per day gained as a cowherd.

While he had his eye upon the cows, he modelled clay engines, and nourished in his young heart the modest ambition of being employed, as his father was, in some colliery. But this envied position was only reached by slow degrees. He had first to be a hoer of turnips at 4rf. per day, and a clearer of coal from stones and dross at 6(Z. a day, before—at the age of fourteen—he was promoted to be assistant to his honest old father, at Dowlay, at Is. per day. All the children were by this time little bread-winners, and the family income sometimes rose to 21. per week; but that was during years when the price of wheat ranged from 75«. to 1308. per quarter. Nevertheless, George must have had nourishing food, or he never could have performed the feat of raising sixty stones weight, or perhaps his requirements were small; for, being appointed plugman at 12*. a week, the boy

broke forth with the shout, "I am now a made man for life!" A very few years later, when he had saved his first guinea, he looked at it with honest joy, and exclaimed, "I am now a rich man 1" It is of such stuff that your hero is composed.

He could not read, even his letters, but he imitated everything. He loved the engine which he now had to tend, as a Mahratta cannoneer loves his "gun." It was a pleasure to him to keep it clean, bright, and in thorough working gear. He speedily rose above his father, at which his sire was as proud as an old sexton might be who sees his son in a curacy. His strong intellect was for ever at work on the subject of engines. Then came the necessity for book-learning, and George went humbly to a night school and learned reading, writing, and arithmetic, till he not only had outstripped the adult class, but had exhausted his master. Therewith, he was no absentee from manly sports. He played, as he worked, heartily; drank little, read much, thought more, and finally, having become "brakesman," and being in the receipt of nearly a pound a week, with a conviction that in his brain his " banks were well furnished," he did exactly what he ought to have done.—he fell in love with sweet-tempered, modest, sensible, and bonny-looking Fanny Henderson. He soled her shoes. Do not smile superciliously, 0 reader! Our worker had learned the gentle craft in his leisure hours, and turned it to pecuniary account. But do you suppose when he had soled the little shoes of charming Fanny Henderson that lie returned them to her with or without his little account? Not he! The honest-hearted lover put them into his bosom ; warmed them at his manly breast; took them out to gaze upon, perhaps,— nay, assuredly, to kiss them; and held them aloft with the significant and self-congratulatory remark, that it was " a capital job I" And so it proved. The brakesman, now--of Willington Quay, furnished a cottage, married Fanny at Newburn Church, in 1802, and rode proudly home fifteen miles on horseback with young Mrs. George Stephenson behind him on a pillion. They had a magnificent escort with them; angels and heavenly blessings were around and about them.

For see ; soon in that humble but happy cottage, there is a busy mother, and a studious father with a child at his side, scattering sunshine by tuB smiles. However, accidents of course visit them; and their cottage is damaged by fire, and still more by water, and soot, and smoke. George looked round at the devastation and characteristically began his repairs, by setting the eight day clock to rights! The steam and the soot had clogged the wheels, and Stephenson was uneasy till he had once more set the machine in motion. He did this, however, so well that he soon was widely employed as the best "clock doctor in the country." He left that part of it in 1804 to proceed to West Moor, Killingworth, seven miles north of Newcastle. There, his employers recognized his qualities as a practical workman and inventor. There he laid the broad foundation of his lofty renown, and there commences a new period in his eventful and honorable history.

But sorrow came before renown. The sunlight of his house was taken from him, and with the death of his wife darkness covered his hearth. He abandoned Killingworth for a while, went afoot into Scotland in search of work, and returned heart-sore to be near his boy. He came back to find his father blind and helpless, but George took him to his poor house, and in order to support his parents and to procure a good education for his motherless child he spent a portion of the nights which followed days^f labor, in mending clocks and watches, in making shoes and lasts, and in cutting out suits of clothes which the colliers' wives made up for their husbands. "Geordy Stevie's cut" is not yet out of fashion in the district of Killingworth. Altogether, these were very hard times. He had even to purchase a substitute for the militia, for which he was drawn, when substitutes were at war-prices ; but his heart never failed him. "Perseverance" was his device and principle,—and that and endurance purchased him a richly compensating triumph. The ropes at the pit where he was employed as brakesman wore out rapidly, and he invented a remedy to prevent this wear. Engines became crippled and powerless, and when he suggested means for both prevention and cure, oflieial and helpless engineers sneered at, and were obliged to have recourse to, him. For one invaluable service in rendering efficiency to an engine that had been pronounced incurable, he received ten guineas, promotion with increase of wages, and promise of future advantages. To a squad of engineers "drowned out" of a coal-pit, he said he could erect a thing no bigger than a kail-pot that should clear the pit. He kept his word, and they accounted him a wizard. And the opinion seemed well founded, fof his oottuge was crowded with models, plans, drawings and diagrams; and he had, moreover {ior he could turn his mind to anything,) put all the cradles in the district in connexion with their respective smoke-jacks, and thus made them Self-acting. He had besides contrived to save* a hundred guineas. If all this was not wizard's work, what was it? Well, it was the simple result of " Perseverance." And another result was his appointment at Killingworth colliery as "engine-wright," at 100/. a yeSr. He was now fairly on his way to "revolutionize by his improvements and inventions the internal communications of the civilized world." He hardly looked so far himself, but it was not long before his great mind looked to great ends, and prophesied their accom

plishment. Sagacious men listened, wondered' and were disposed to believe. Matter-of-fact men shook their heads and doubted. Conceited men charged him with conceit, and thought him a fool.

There was a time, in the days of Cardinal Richelieu, when gay French sight-seers used to repair to the madhouse near Paris to see Solomon de Caus, who was shut up there, for boring to death his family, friends and the Government with the assertion that ships might be navigated and carriages moved by the steam of boiling water. Keepers and visitors held their sides with laughter as they heard poor Solomon repeat his conviction. In the next hundred and fifty years, although Watt had, by adding his own ideas to those of many illustrious predecessors, rendered practically useful the " steam of boiling water," locomotives were yet unknown. Many improvements had to be made in the old, short, and primitive railways along which coal was "hauled" by horse-power, before Mr. Outram, in 1800, " used stone props instead of timber for supporting the ends and joinings of the rails." The Outram, or (according to the fashion we alluded to in reviewing Luttrell's 'Diary,' by which we call a popular thing by the head or tail of its name) the tram road was pretty generally adopted,—and though railway wagons still continued to be drawn by horses, various deepthinking men began to talk of conveying passengers as well as goods, and that by locomotive power. The experiments were many and so were the failures, but even these taught something. Stephenson was the first to realize the greajt fact, accomplishing for the locomotive what James Watt had done for the steam-engine. Lord Ravensworth (1813) supplied him with the money for building the first locomotive. People called Lord Ravensworth "a fool:"—Stephenson built his engine, and called it "My Lord."

It drew eighty tons weight, at four miles an hour, and was about as dear as horse-power. So you see, nothing has been gained, remarked the scientific people. Everything has been gained, said Stephenson, who saw what was wanted, and inventing the " steam blast," as the simple process is called, by a turn of his magic, doubled his speed, and made at once practicable all that has since been realized. This was in 1815, and the world was as thoroughly revolutionized thereby as it was by the victory of the same year on the plains of Mont St. Jean. It was, indeed, a year of double triumph to Stephenson, for it was then that he produced his safety-lamp for miners. He was a little before Sir Humphry Davy, though the Baronet's lamp was found to be something more perfect than what was called "the invention, claimed by a person, an engine-wright, of the name of Stephenson." The controversy about the lamps has gone out, leaving to the mechanic and the philosopher their respective dues, but at Killingworth the men continue to prefer the "Geordy" to the "Davy." "It is worthy of remark," says Mr. Smiles, "that under circumstances in which the wire-gauze of the Davy lamp becomes red-hot from the high explosiveness of the gas, the Geordy lamp is extinguished, and we cannot but think that this fact testifies to the decidedly superior safety of the Geordy."


When Stephenson talked of accomplishing high rates of speed by locomotives upon railways, —not in his time, perhaps, but years after he was dead, (he lived to see it all,) he was told that iron was incapable of adhesion upon iron, and that roughness of surface was essential to produce "bite." He thought it over, communed with himself and his son, made sun-dials and other scientific toys while he was thinking, and married Elizabeth Hindmarsh, a farmer's daughter. He sent his son to Edinburgh University, and had the joy of seeing him bring back, in six months, the prize for mathematics. He worked incessantly, persevered in the track of his old thoughts, saw light, made use of it, got among men of enterprise, money, and larger views, and persuaded them that he was not so visionary a mechanic as he was accounted by many great philosophers, and a number of persons who thought themselves qualified to judge as well as the philosophers, who were indeed no judges at all.

Great wants produce, under certain circumstances, great and desired ends. Manchester was always wanting her cotton of Liverpool, but the two cities combined, canals, roads and all, had not means of transit to supply the demand. Cotton, destined for Manchester, lay longer at Liverpool than it had taken to come across the Atlantic. The manufacturers were often in despair, the operatives as often in idleness, want and discontent. A railroad would remedy all this, but the dream of eflFecting more than this was not very fondly indulged in. Stephenson was consulted, for his name, and his engine, and his engine's name at Killingworth had given him a.dignity and reputation which made of him an indispensable person in such a novel process. And what a time of it the surveyors had; how road-trustees and aristocratic canal proprietors cursed them, how landlords hooted them, how farmers jeered them, hoy peasants pelted them, how the very women and children assailed them with words and other missiles! The assistants were mobbed and roughly treated; the chainman was threatened with being thrown into a pit; stidks and guns were presented at the man who held that terrible and detested mystery, the theodolite; and when he could be caught at advantage clambering over a stile or gate, the savage rustics helped him over by pricking him with a pitchfork.

The opposition was, for a time, too strong for tho proprietors, and the scheme for a railway between Manchester and Liverpool was tempo

rarily suspended. Meanwhile, Mr. Edward Pease had seen Stephenson's engine at work at Killingworth, and the result was, not only the appointment of the latter to the office of engineer to the "Quakers' line," the Stockton and Darlington Railway, at a salary of S001. a year, but Mr. Pease entered into partnership with him for the establishment of a locomotive foundry at Newcastle. Thus the mechanic became a master of men. He was a kind yet firm master. He respected the men's manhood, and they respected his masterhood.

The line was opened for traffic in 1825. The first trip comprised coals, flour, and 250 living persons. There were thirty-eight vehicles in all, the whole weight being about ninety tons. "Mr. Stephenson" drove the engine, and local chroniolers were more out of breath than the locomotive, at recording its occasional pace of ten miles an hour! The Earl of Durham, then Mr. Lambton, looking sharply to his own profit, had forced a clause into the bill for the regulation of this line, whereby the proprietors were j compelled to haul all coals to Stockton for shipment at a halfpenny a ton per mile. This low rate was fixed in order to protect his own coal shipped from Sunderland. He thought, and the railway proprietors felt, that coal could not be carried at such a price without great loss, if not ruin. But the great free-trader, turned Protectionist in his own behalf, was exquisitely shortsighted. The railway proprietors were, in their turn, agreeably disappointed. They had only looked to a limited coal-carrying; but when they found themselves, in course of time, called upon to carry half a million tons annually to the seaside, they saw with equal surprise and pleasure that the profits were large, and that the low rate had had exactly the opposite effect to what had been contemplated by the patriotic Mr. Lambton.

(To be oourluded.)


Is it any wonder that wo rarely if ever see such a thing as good potatoes in this city, where every dealer takes the most effectual way in his power to spoil them for food '( It is possible that people who grow potatoes, or those who are constantly dealing in them, do not know that they are always injured by exposure to the light, and if the exposure is continued long enough , they are utterly ruined? So great is tho change that a tuber, naturally mealy, nutritious and palatable, is changed by exposure to light, and by that alone, during its ripening period, to a green, bitter, watery mass : and every hour that a potato is exposed to the light, after taking it out of its dark bed where it grew, it is injured in some degree though not actually spoiled until it has been exposed for a long period.!'

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