« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
cern, as cause or effect, in the natural phenomenon before us. But we perceive at the present time so much tendency to make use of this great power as the basis of vague and fruitless speculation, that we are always suspicious in the outset, when we find its agency invoked/to solve a physical problem. In the present instance we see no especial reason for having reoourse to it. The physical conditions of the Gulf-«tream—its definite direction, its force, its temperature, its saltness, its relation to Atlantic winds and storms, and its tardy intermingling with the mass of ocean—may be referred, with more or less probability, to other natural causes in certain and constant operation. We cannot exclude electricity from the number, but we must not invoke it on the slender evidence which our author places before us.
BEATTIE'S METHOD OF TEAOHINQ.^18 Son.
In the corner of a little garden, without informing any person of the circumstance, I wrote in the mould with my finger the three initial letters of his name, and sowing garden cresses in the furrows, covered up the seed, and smoothed the ground. Ten days after this he came running to me, and^with astonishment in his countenance, told me that his name was growing in the garden. I laughed at the report and seemed inclined to disregard it; but he insisted on my going to see what had happened. "Yes," said I carelessly, on coming to the place, " I see it is so; but what is there in this worth notice? Is it not mere chance V and I went away. He followed me, and taking hold of my coat with earnestness, "It cannot have happened by chance—somebody must have contrived matters so as to produce it?" "So you think," said I, " that what appears as theAetters of your name cannot be by chance J"' "Yes," said he, with firmness, " I think so." "Look at yourself," I replied, "and consider your hands and fingers, and legs, and feet, and other limbs; are they not regular in their appearance, and useful to you 1" He said they were. "Came you then hither," said I " by chance?" "No," he answered, "that cannot be; something must have made me." "And who is that something f" I asked. He said, "I do not know." I had now gained the point I had aimed at, and saw that his reason taught him (though he could not express it) that what begins to be must have a cause; and that what is formed with regularity must have an intelligent cause. I therefore told him the name of the Great Being who made him, and all the world; concerning whose adorable nature I gave him such information as I thought he could in some measure comprehend. The lesson affected him greatly, and he never forgot either it or the circumstance that introduced it.—Beattie's Life.
What regal vestments can with them compare!
Tho' griefs unnumbered throng thee round,
Still in thy God confide, Whose finger marks the seas their bound,
And curbs the headlong tide.
K AMBLINGS IN THE OLD DOMINION.
Leaving Harrisonburg for Weyer's Cave, we pass in nearly a southerly direction, through a hilly yet productive country, watered by the south branch of the Shenandoah. This stream we were obliged to ford, (for the " Old Dominion" has yet to form the intimate acquaintance of bridges,) though it was very much swollen, and fording rendered quite dangerous by the late rains.
The Cave is situated in the northern part'of Augusta county, 17 miles north-east of Staunton, and about the same distance south of Harrisonburg, in a hill a few miles west of the Blue Ridge. We arrived at the Hotel kept by the guide, about 9 o'clock A. M., and were informed that 11 was the hour for entering the Cave.
In the meantime we were entertained by an account of its discovery—by our polite host, the guide. He said that in the year 1804, these hills and the mountains to the east were ranged by a veteran Nimrod in the person of Bernard Weyer. One day, while visiting some traps set upon the side of this hill, he missed one, and traced the robber (a lawless ground hog) to his domicil, a hole near by.
Prompted not so much by the wish to discover and arrest tho thief, as to recover his trap, Weyer, one day, with spade and pickaxe, made a vigorous assault upon his hiding place, and a few moments' labor brought him to the antechamber of this stupendous cavern. He entered it and there found the trap for which he was searching, safely deposited. At that time the entrance was rather difficult of access, but by the enterprise of the present proprietor of the cave, it has been enlarged and rendered quite commodious. Hence, by a mere accident, one of the most beautiful and wonderful of nature's master-pieces, after having been concealed for ages from the gaze and investigation of man, was thrown open to his view; and now is the resort of the admirers of nature's beauties, of the curious loving and wonder searching-world.
At about 300 yards from Weyer's is the entrance to Madison's Cave, which was well known, and much visited long before the discovery of Weyer's, and the beauties of which were honored with a description from the pen of Jefferson, but it is now passed by the visitor, as unworthy his notice when compared with its younger yet more imposing rival. But the hour has arrived for entering, and a company of twenty ladies and gentleman are waiting impatiently to start. After providing ourselves with clothes, which an occasional splashing of mud, or dropping of water, or clambering over rocks will not injure, we commence the ascent of the path leading from the hotel to the cave. We arrive at the entrance, and by request of our guide, seat ourselves in the wooden cot built over it, until we are each provided with a candlestick and lighted candle.
Upon enquiry our guide informed us that there never had been found any poisonous gases in the cave, and that the air (the temperature of which is 54 J Fahrenheit at all times,) was bracing and healthful. After our company had given an emphatic "yes" to the call of "all ready," we commenced descending, at an angle of about 20°, and a few moments brought us to the Statuary Chamber, which has received its name from a number of perpendicular stalagmites, resembling small statues, scattered about the floor. Directly above this chamber and connected with it by an aperature through its roof, is another room irregular in shape, called the Gallery. From the Statuary Chamber, we pass through a high yet narrow passage into Solomon's Temple, thought by many to be the finest room in the cave. Its general shape is irregular—yet its general course is at right angles to the direction of the cave. Hire the first curiosity that meets the eye of the visitor, is a seat or throne, glittering in the light of the candles with sparry incrustations, and reminding him at the first glance of the idea he has formed of its namesake, Solomon's Throne. To tho right of this is a wave-like stalagmitio formation, reaohing nearly from the ceiling to the floor, not unaptly named the Cataract. Near its centre, and raised perhaps two feet from its surface, stands a stalagmite, to which some unskilled nomenclator has given the name of Sam Patch. With little veneration and less appropriateness, we find the name of "the wise man" prefixed to nearly every object of interest in this chamber.
Our guide next conducted us to the Shell
Room, which from its peculiar beauties is thought by many equal to any in the cave.
To convey upon paper, or even without seeing to imagine, correct ideas of the magnificence of this room is impossible. The ceiling is inlaid with the most brilliant stalactites resembling cone-shaped shells, and the sides are variegated with sparkling incrustations of the most fragile texture, making the scene one that might well shame the gaudy, affected magnificence and pompous splendor of the finest oriental palace. Compared with this, the finest, the most complicated and wonderful works of art, are mere common-place, unsightly structures. As this is a side chamber, we return to the side opposite the entrance of the Temple, just passed through, | and from thence pass under a swinging gallery to a chamber containing stalagmites, supposed by some to resemble heathen deities, the Madonna and her infant, birds, &c, and hence called the Pantheon. There is little worth examining here and we pass on to the left into one of the two passages leading into the Lawyer's Office, thence to Weyer's hall, the Armory, and back again by the other. In Weyer's Hall are two stalagmites which have been named after himself and dog, in honor of his discovery of the cave. In the Armory, hung from the ceiling, is a thin, circular-shaped stalactite deposite, called from the resemblance it bears to that ancient implement of war, Ajax's Shield.
But were we to dwell upon particulars here, and minutely describe every object of interest, the task would be, if not endless, at least tedious, to both writer and reader.
But we return to the main passage through the Pantheon, and the next room which we pass through is called the Twin Room, from the pairs of stalactites and stalagmites scattered over it. Upon a close examination of the concretions which line the walls and ceiling of this room we find much that resembles the finest and most exquisitely wrought, fret and filigree work, laid off and arranged in the most fantastic manner. We are next led to the Balustrade Room, from which a passage leads, directly above the one we have just passed, back to Solomon's Temple. This, however, is only accessible by dint of hard climbing, and none of our party ventured the task. From the Balustrade Room, by a descending passage, we next pass to the Tapestry Room, which from the fine tapestry which decorates its walls, is very appropriately named. Here is much to admire, much that resembles the finest tapestry, and so fancifully is it arranged, and with such uniform, graceful folds, that at the first view the beholder can hardly believe that he is not entering some recently vacated legislative hall, or some fashionable parlor, so striking is the resemblance of the tapestry he sees.
But a minute examination, or even a second view, dispels the delusion, and convinces him that nowhere can such tapestry be found but in "halls not made with hands." It is full of beauties, from the largest curtain so gracefully hung from the ceiling, to the smallest tassel which decorates the Bishop's Desk, everything reminds one but too forcibly, of the vanity, the presumption, of the Artist, who would choose for his motto " Excelsior." Farther on in this Hall, there are massive pillars, and colossal statues lying promiscuously about the floor, and huge columns still standing, making the scene a strange medley o.f beauty and decay, not unlike that of the mouldering ruin of some ancient oastle, which may be said to be even " beautiful in ruin." At the farther extremity of the room is a thin stalactitic partition extending from the ceiling to the floor, which when struck emits a deep bass sound not unlike that of the bass drum, from which circumstance this part of the room is known by the name of the Drum Room. From tliis descending a flight of natural steps, and then an artificial stairway we enter the far famed Ball Room which is one hundred feet in • length, thirty-six in width, and twenty-five in height, and is at right angles to the general course of the cave. Adjoining this room, and j connected with it alone, is a small chamber called j the Dressing Room, from the fact that it is used , for that purpose when parties meet in these sub- | terranean halls " to trip the light fantastic toe." I —Near the centre of the room stands a large calcareous formation, which furnishes & good position for music, and hence has received the 1 name of Paganini's Statue. Here a portion of our party, to the discordant notes of a three stringed, antique violin, had the courage, or j rather the presumption to commence an "accom-1 paniment," which terminated as we had anticipated—in a series of serious "collisions" and contusions. What could art do to add to the j effect or beauty of such a scene? We fancied that that arch, those massive pillars, and pendant stalactites, frowned rather than smiled upon such desecration, and said silently yet audibly, " better that solemn than mirthful thoughts should haunt you here." We left the Ball Room by a gradual ascent of a few feet called Suntag's Hill. Here, a few years since, a circumstance occurred of unusual'novelty, from which the hill takes its name. A gentleman belonging to the French legation at Washington became unexpectedly immured in what, to some, might seem tho most dismal of dungeons.—The following account, written by himself, of that perilous adventure, is copied from the Album of the cave, and I give it entire.
"This morning, in my way to Weyer's Cave, reflecting on the state of those visitors who found their graves in the Catacombs of Rome and Paris, I observed to my young guide that his two candles, without any means of re-lighting
them in case of accident, were not a sufficient proviBion for such an excursion, but I was far from expecting that I should so soon afford an illustration of my remark. After we had gone through all the beautiful grottoes, we were coming back, when my foot happening to slip I fell, and the commotion occasioned in the air by the fall extinguished the two candles. A deeper darkness cannot exist, and our first impression was most unpleasant; but soon recovering his presence of mind, my guide undertook to direct me through that fearful obscurity and out of those dangerous defiles. After half an hour passed in this situation we began to see the light of the sun, and soon got out of the cave without further accident. I cannot commend enough the intelligence, skill and intrepidity of young Mohler, (he conducted us through the cave,) and I am much indebted to him for his attentions, attended with great danger to himself, for he tried every foot of the ground in our way, and went frequently reconnoitering in different directions in order not to miss the right one."
We next proceed through a long, narrow passage, to a small room called the Ice House, and thence down a flight of natural steps called Jacob's Ladder, to the Senate Chamber. Here a large horizontal shelf of calcareous deposite extends from the sides about ten feet from the floor, over half the room, which is fifty feet in diameter. This deposite seems to have set at defiance all acknowledged and established laws of geological formation. That by the continual dripping of the limestone water from the ceiling, stalactites and stalagmites should form in a perpendicular position, and finally unite and form columns, is easily accounted for, but how a horizontal shelf should form of uniform thickness and mathematical regularity twenty-five feet in width and supported only by one side by the same process, is, to say the least, a question not so easily solved. And in this connexion let me remark, that here are formations which have assumed nearly every conceiveable angle of inclination from 1° to 90°, the Leaning tower of Pisa, and the Mammoth Oyster Shell, for instance, and others of a similar kind.
We now pass to Congress Hall, so called from its proximity to the last mentioned one, rather than any appropriate form peculiar to it. Ten feet from this is a small room called the Lobby, for at the present day such an appendage is as necessary in the manufacturing of laws as the legislative halls themselves. By a descent of a few feet, our party is ushered into the most magnificent hall in the whole cavern. This is named after the founder of our nation, Washington's Hall, and is well worthy of the title it bears. It is 250 feet in length, and about thirty feet high and wide. The general form is very regular, and the floor is quite smooth and level the whole length. Here are a hundred objects of interest, commencing with the Sword of Democles, the Shield of Achilles, the Tower, the Pyramids, &c, to give even the names of which would swell this cursory sketch to a small volume. Not far from the centre of the hall stands a single stalagmite, eight feet in height, resembling a statue clothed in beautiful drapery, called Washington's Statue. By the dim light of only two .or three candles held in a particular position, We could easily imagine that we saw the features and expression commonly given in the portrait of its great .namesake. The Hall was then illuminated by upwards of two hundred candles, and the effect produced by the reflection from the thousand mirrors upon every spar and stalactite upon each other and the eye, was most striking.
The beholder stands and in mute astonishment gazes at the scene around him, conscious that a word, a foot-fall may dissolve the charm, and traces in every direction, upon every ornament, the unmistakable "footprints of a Creator." The mind unconsciously forgets the things of time and sense, and in the enthusiasm of the moment is drawn from the admiration of its visible surroundings to the adoration of their invisible omnipresent Creator.
From this hall our party were conducted through a long, narrow passage, to the Church, a hall 120 feet in length, fifteen to twenty feet wide, and fifty feet high ! from one extremity of which shoots up a tall white spire, called the Steeple, by which no doubt the name of the room was suggested. Passing on we soon come to the Garden of Eden, which though very inappropriately named has some remarkable curiosities. Immense stalactites hanging from the roof have united with the stalagmites formed upon the floor, forming curtains, amidst which one can pass as through the mazes of a labyrinth. They are from one-half to an inch in thickness, and quite translucent, so that our candles, when placed behind them, shed a dim light upon the room, giving it the appearance of a Winter scene by moonlight. After passing the Natural Bridge, the Causeway, the Tower of Babel, all of which are immense stalagmitio concretions, which at the present rates of formation could never have been formed in millions of years, we arrive at Jefferson's Hall, the farthest room in the cavern. We had now travelled upwards of half a mile, and spent four hours in these submandane labyrinths, and yet there are a thousand and one curiosities which we have not mentioned, and as many side rooms and cavities, which we have not seen. For the variety and beauty of its natural ornaments, for its splendid hangings and finely wrought fret work, Weyer's Cave must • vor remain one of the greatest of nature's cariosities. It must be seen to be known. After
four hours wandering in the streets of this natural Herculaneum.
"Still wonders here on wonders crowd,
EMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES.
According to official documents, 4,212,624 persons of foreign birth arrived in the United States, during the period of 36? years, ending Twelfth mo. 31st, 1855.
Of these, 207,492 were born in England; 747,930 in Ireland; 34,559 in Scotland; 4,782 in Wales, and 1,348,682 others were born in Great Britain and Ireland, the division not designated; 2,343,445, total number born in the United Kingdom; 1,206,087 were born in Germany; 35,895 in Prussia; 17,583 in Holland ; 6,991 in Belgium; 31,071 in Switzerland; 188,725 in France; 12,251 in Spain; 6,049 in Portugal; 3,059 in Demmark; 29,441 in Norway and Sweden; 1,318 in Poland; 938 in Russia; 123 in Turkey; 7,185 in Italy; 108 in Greece; 338 in Sicily; 706 in Sardinia; 9 in Corsica; 116 in Malta; 526 others were born in Europe, the division not designated; 91,699 were born in British America; 5,440 in South America; 640 in Central America; 15,969 in Mexico; 35,317 in the West Indies; 16,714 in China ; 101 in the East Indies; 7 in Persia; 16 others were born in Asia, division not designated ; 14 were born in Liberia; 4 in Egypt; 5 in Morocco; 2 in Algiers; 4 others were born in the Barbary States, the division not designated; 2 were born at tbe Cape of Good Hope; 118 others were born in Africa, the division not designated; 278 were born in the Canary Islands; 1,288 in the Azores; 203 in Madeira; 22 in Cape Verde; 59 in Sandwich Islands; 5 in Society Islands ; 79 in South Sea Islands; 3 in Isle of France; 14 in St. Helena; 20 in Australia; 157,537 in countries not designated by the returns.
Ireland contributed the largest portion, for it is estimated that in addition to the number above stated, 747,930 who arrived in the United States, and were known to have been born in Ireland, at least one million of the number attributed to Great Britain and Ireland were also born in the latter country. This would make the the total Irish immigration 1,747,930.
The common people do not accurately adapt their thoughts to the objects; nor, secondly, do they accurately adapt their words te their thoughts; they do not mean to lie; but, taking no pains to be exact, they give you very false accounts. A great part of their language is proverbial; if anything rocks at all, they say it rocks liko a cradle; and in this way they go on.—Joknton.
The Phenomena of cold forms the subject of some interesting statements by a writer in the Scientific* American. It appears that for every mile we leave the surface of our earth the temperature falls five degrees. At forty-five miles distance from the globe we get beyond the atmosphere, and enter, strictly speaking, into the regions of space, whose temperature is 225 degrees below zero; and here cold reigns in all its power. Some idea of the intense cold may be formed by stating that the greatest cold observed in the Arctic Circle, is from 40 to 60 degrees below zero j and here many surprising effects are produced. In the chemical laboratory, the greatest cold that we can produce is about 150 degrees below zero. At this temperature, carbonic acid gas becomes a solid substance like snow; if touched it produces just the same effect on the skin as a red hot cinder; it blisters the finger like a burn. Quicksilver, or mercury, freezes at 40 degrees below zero—that is, 72 degrees below the temperature at which water freezes. The solid mercury may then be treated K uotucr metals, hammered into sheiti or uadi fntbspoons; such spoons, hpw^j j.,A»ouIa melt in water as warm as ice. '*
Flour And Meal.—The market is dull, and mixed brands are offered at $7 00 per bbl., and brands for home consumption at $7 00 a $7 12, and extra and fancy brands at $7 50 a 9 50. There is very little demand /or export, and little stock to operate in. *Rye Flour is held at $4 75 per barrel, and Pennsylvania Corn Meal $3 94 per barrel.
Grain.—There is little demand for Wheat. Sales of prime Pennsylvania red were made at $1 80 for good prime Southern red, and $1 90 a 1 93 for good and fair white. No new offering. Rye is dull. Pennsylvania is worth $1 00. Corn is in demand. Sales of Pennsylvania yellow at 90c, afloat. Oats are steady; sales of Pennsylvania and Delaware at 59c.
AFEMALE TEACHER, to take charge of the male department, of Friends School, at Salem N. Jersey, is wanted.
The School to be opened about the 1st of 9th month next, apply to ELISHA BASSETT, or
8mo.l-4t ELIJAH WARE.
Salem N. J.
SPR1NGDALE BOARDING SCHOOL.—This School, situated in Loudoun Co., Va., was founded by an Association of Friends belonging to Fairfax Quarterly Meeting, in order to afford to Friends' children, of both sexes, a guarded education in accordance with our religious principles and testimonies. The next session will open the 7th day of the Ninth month and close the 11th of Sixth month following.
Thorough instruction is given in the branches usually embraced in a good English education, and lectures are delivered on History, Natural Philosophy, and Chemistry. A philosophical apparatus, a cabinet of minerals, and a variety of instructive books, have been provided for the use of the school.
Experience confirms us in the belief, that in classing together boys and girls in the recitation room, we have adopted the right method, as it stimulates them to greater diligence, and improves their deportment. They have separate school rooms and play grounds,
and do not associate, except in the presence of their teachers. None are received as pupils exo-pt the children of Friends, or those living in Friends'families and intended to be educated as Friends.
Terms.—For board, washing and tuition, per term of 40 weeks, $115, payable quarterly in advance. Pens, ink, lights, &c, fifty cents per cuarter. Drawing, and the French language each $3 per quarter. Books and stationery at the usual prices.
The stage from Washington to Winchester stops at Purcelville within two miles of the school. There is a daily stage from the Point of Rocks, on the Bait, and Ohio R. Road, to Leesburg, where a conveyance may be had to the school, a distance of 9 miles.— Letters should be directed to Purcelville, Loudoun Co., Va. S. M. JANNEY, Principal.
HENRY SUTTON ( „ . , . ,
7 mo. 11th, 1857—8w. /
G1.ENESEE VALLEY BOARDING SCHOOL FOR I GIRLS, AT WHEATTLAND, MONROE CO., N. Y. The School Year is divided into Three Terms, of fourteen weeks eacm
The FallTerm will commence on the 3d of 8th mo., 1857.
The Course of Instruction in this school, embraces an elementary, practical, liberal, and thorough English Education, including Drawing. Lectures will be given on the different branches of Natural Science, which will be clearly and fully illustrated by experiments, with appropriate apparatus.
The School is located in a healthy and pleasant situation, within a hundred rods of Scottsville Station, on the Genesee Valley Rail Road, ten miles 60uth of Rochester.
It w ill be the aim of the Managers and Teachers to render the pupils as thorough as possible in the studies pursued, and also to inculcate habits of order and propriety of conduct.
No pains will be spared that tend to promote the best welfare of the pupils.
Terms, $42 per Session of 14 weeks, (pf Tuition, Board, Washing, Fuel, Pens and Ink,—one half payable in advance, the other half at the end of the Term.
Class Books furnished by the school, for the use of which $1.50 per Term will be charged. No extra charges, except for Languages, which will be $5 per Term for each. Stationery furnished at the usual prices.
Each Pupil will provide herself with a pair of Overshoes, Wash-Basin, Towels, Tooth-Brush and Cup. Each article of clothing to be distinctly marked.
Conduct-papers w ill be forwarded to the Parents or
STEPHEN COX, Principal,
1th mo. 25/A, 1857.
FALLS1NGTON BOARDING SCHOOL FOR GIRLS.—Betlah S. Lower and Esther Lowes, Principals. The first session of this school will commence on the 14th of 9th mo next.
In this Institution will be taught all the branches of a thorough English education, and no efforts will be spared on the part of the Principals in promoting the comfort and happiness of those under their care.
Terms.—For tuition, board, washing, the ose of books and stationery, $75 per session of 20 weeks. French and Drawing each $5 per session extra.
For further particulars and references address B. S. and E. LOWER, Fallsington, Bucks Co. Pa. 7th mo. 11th, 1857.—8 w.
Merrihew t Thompson, Frs., Lodge St., North side