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This sketch of Sir John Franklin's character and public services has been written by one who served long under his command, who during upwards of twenty-five years of close intimacy had his entire confidence, and in times of great difficulty and distress, when all conventional disguise was out of the question, beheld his calmness and unaffected piety. If it has in some passages assumed the appearance of eulogy, it has done so not for the purpose of unduly exalting its subject, but from a firm conviction of the truth of the statements. On the other hand, the writer has abstained, in the only sentences in which it was necessary to speak of opponents, from saying a single word more of their conduct or motives tban strict justice to Franklin's memory demanded. Franklin himself was singularly devoid of any viudictive feeling. While he defended his own honor, he would have delighted in showing any kindness in his power to his bitterest foe; and in emulation of that spirit the preceding pages have been penned.—Encyclopedia Britannica.
THE QUAKER POET.
Verses on seeing myself so designated.
"The Quaker poet!"—is such name
A simple designation;
And thy vituperation ?—
If but the former—I, for one,
Have no objection to it;
Who rationally view it.
But if such title would convey
Contemp', or reprobation, Allow me briefly as 1 may
To state my vindication.
It is not splendor of costume
That prompts harmonious numbers;
The nightingale of sober plume
The shallow brooks, in spring so gay,
In.summer soonest fail us;
Their sounds no more regale us.
While the more deep but quiet streams,
By alders overshaded,'
Their beauties uninvaded.
And on their peaceful verge we see
Hover the butterfly and bee,—
Is it the gayest of the gay,
The votaries of fashion,
Of pure and genuine passion 1
No!—hearts there be the world deems cold,
As warm, as true, as tender,
However proud their splendor.
Of mine I speak not;—He, alone,
Who form'd can truly know it; Nor of my verse; I Irankly own
Mysell no lofty poet.
But I contend the Quaker creed,
By fair interpretation,
All that fair nature's charms display,
Of grandeur, or of beauty,
Joy, grief, desire, or duty;—
All these are ours—the copious source
Of true poet c feeling:— An'! wouldst thou check their blameless course,
Our lips in silence sealing?
Nature, to all her ample page
Impartially uulolding, Prohibits neither saint nor sage 'Its beauties from beholding.
And thus the muse her gifts bestows
With no sectarian spirit, ^ Her laurel wreaths invest the brows
Which such distinctions merit. Through every age, in every clime,
Her tavor'd sons have flourish'd, Have felt her energy sublime,
Her pure delights have nourish'd. From Lapland's snow-, from Persia's bowers,
Their songs are still ascending, Then, Quaker Poets, lry your powers!
Why should you tear offending!
Each simpler decoration.
Spite of imputed wtaknesi,
The majesty of meekness!
The blameless pride of puiity,
Chast'ning each soil emotion;
The fervcr of devotion!
01 themes which they assign you,
For adght that fame could twine you,
Obtain more genuine honor,
Of him who is its l/onor!
For FriendV Intelllgrneer.
As dead to man, alive to God,
Lest doubt as-ail
And fear prevail
To slay us on the road.
In every breast—
Nor let us rest
How frequently do we read in the newspapers of the outbreak of conflagrations, more or less devastating in their character, to which it is difficult to assign an adequate origin. Some of these may doubtless be attributed to spontaneous combustion—meaning by that term a conflagration occasioned by the contact of substances which, innocuous in their normal condition, become fraught with danger when brought into collision. A few notes upon this curious subject will be interesting.
Cotton which has been wetted with oil speedily takes fire. It is well known how difficult, almost impossible, it is to prevent the escape of oil from casks; and yet, the slightest quantity of this liquid issuing from between the staves upon cotton may produce combustion. IJpon this point the following occurrence is to be found in the " Philosophical Transactions."
Mr. Golding, an olScial of the East India Oompauy, had left a bottle containing oil upon a table in the arsenal, beside a chest filled with coarse cottons. The bottle was overturned in the night, probably by rats; it broke upon the lid of the chest and the oil penetrated the cot-1 tons. When the chest was opened upon the ensuing morning, the cottons were found burning and partially consumed, while the chest itself was upon the point of bursting into flames. In his first alarm Mr. Golding imagined that an at- j tempt had been made to set the arsenal on fire ; | but as no traces of inflammable materials were found, after the strictest search in the vicinity of the chest, he commuuicated the matter to Mr.' Humphries, a brother official. This gentleman 1 had studied chemical works, among others that of Hopson, in which various cases of spontaneous combustion were detailed. Struck by the similarity of the occurrence which had just taken place, to some of those of which he had read, he determined upon essaying an experiment.
"For this purpose he moistened a piece of cotton, of a similar description to that which had been burnt, with linseed oil, and placed it in a small box, which he then locked. Three hours after, the box began to smoke, and upon being opened, the cotton was discovered in precisely the same condition as Mr. Golding had found the contents of his chest."
In 1781, some Russian ships at Cronstadt, upon which it was well known no fires had been lighted for five years, suddenly burst into flames, without ostensible cause. The Empress gave orders to the Academy at St. Petersburg to institute inquiries and experiment upon the subject, and it appeared that the soot proceeding from vegetable substances—that is to say, pinetree soot, and such as proceeds from trees containing resin—when wetted with hemp-oil, is liable to spontaneous combustion, which is not the case with soot arising from animal substances.
1 The fearful conflagration of the large rope-magazine at St. Petersburg, as well as a fire at the dockyard of Rochfort, in 1757, were ascribed to similar causes. In 1757, the sail-magazine at Brest was entirely consumed in consequence of heaping waxed cloths upon one another, which had been painted upon one side and dried in the sun. Authentic reports of experiments instituted to discover the cause, ascribe this calamity to spontaneous combustion. Saladin and Carette have demonstrated that vegetable stuffs, boiled in oil or grease, and even some time afterwards placed upon one another, burst into flames upon the admission of air; and it is very remarkable that the same substances, if they were damp before being placed in oil, speedily consume, while they smoulder away into ashes without flaming if previously well dried.
Papermakers know that the heaps of rags which lie piled up in their factories, would speedily break out into spontaneous combustion if precautionary measures against their becoming unduly heated were not adopted in proper time. The danger of damp or wet hay kindling is a matter with which no farmer is unacquainted. Wheat also occasionally becomes inflammable, but far less frequently than hay, owing to its being seldom stacked in so damp a condition, as well as to greater care being exercised. Tobacco leaves in casks will likewise become heated at times.
Count Marozzo relates a ease of spontaneous combustion, accompanied by an explosion, which took place in a flour magazine at Turin. This was ascribed to a quantity of flour dust, which, in consequence of the removal of some of the sacks, was floating in the air, having caught fire at the flame of an open lantern, and having thus communicated with the remaining contents of the magazine; but the cause of the conflagration was never accurately ascertained.
Frequent instances have been known of the spontaneous combustion of wools, particularly of those still in the grease; pieces of cloth in a greasy condition have also been seen to burst out into flames without apparent cause. Occurrences of this description, however, have only been observed to take place when the superincumbent substances possessed a certain amount of dampness, the decomposition of the water by the increased temperature occasioned by fermentation feeding the conflagration. From this may be seen how careful one should be in heaping bales of wool, which frequently arrive in a damp condition, one upon the other, and how necessary to their preservation it is that they should be throughly dried before being placed in store. Cotton and oil should always be carefully separated; the former should never be preserved in cellars, from their liability to impart dampness, occasioning the very danger it is desired to avoid. Wool and cotton smoulder, as long as no free current of air is admitted; when this takes place they burst into flames. VOL. XIV.
It is unnecessary to enter upon the many other cases in which spontaneous combustion may occur. Its causes are extremely diverse, tending more or less to the same conclusion—that the utmost care should be observed in magazines which contain inflammable substances. These should never be stored in large quantities, especially when in a damp condition; they should l>e frequently examined, and measures of precaution adopted if the slightest tendency to heat be manifested, for the least delay may lead to conflagration. If the examination is undertaken at night, it should not be by the light of a naked flame, as the gases which these substances develop are frequently kindled by the contact.— Leisure Hour,
CHARACTER OF TIIE CHINESE PEOPLE.
Last evening, at the meeting of the Ethnological Society, held at the Society's house, Cavendish square—Alderman Kennedy in the chair—
Dr. Hodgkin read a very interesting paper upon the character of the Chinese people. The present he thought the most opportune moment tor endeavoring to dispel the prejudice against the poor Chinese, which had been so cultivated by many newspapers and books published in England and America. He most strongly denied that the people of China were that worthless race they were generally represented to be. China was the most misunderstood country in the world. It had existed from the time of an J event, before the pyramids of Egypt were built, had outlived the Persians, Greeks, and Romans, and would outlive the Arabs ; and now, although so ancient, China possessed as much vitality as the youngest of nations. He strongly condemned the sweeping calumnies so generally circulated against the Chinese people, who were a moral, intellectual, persevering, and altogether an extraordinary race—a race the English nation had always been taught to despise, but one worthy of the support of the whole civilized world.
The Chairman, seeing the great traveller, Montgomery Martin, in the room, and knowing his extraordinary knowledge of the character of the Chinese people, would be glad to hear a few remarks from him.
Montgomery Martin said the Chinese people numbered not less than 400,000,000, which was a large proportion of the entire population of the earth—that being 1,000,000,000. There were about 15,000,000 Tartars, who were the principal impediment in the way of progress at the present time. Previous to 1644, when the Tartars were first introduced, European nations were freely admitted into China, and enjoyed uninterupted intercourse with the natives. Any alteration that had taken place in this respect had been occasioned by the Tartars. No doubt
could be entertained that the Chinese were highly civilized long before Christ. The Chinese understood the mariner's compass, gunpowder, the manufacture of glass, printing on blocks, manufacturing paper, when the ancestors of Englishmen were naked savages. They constructed canals thousands of miles in length, and made roads superior to those built by the Romans. Every trade has its guild, as in tho city of London; and every town its wards, as existed at the present time all over England. But about eight hundred years ago the high state of civilization in China appeared to be suddenly arrest'd; he knew not how, except by the will of the Great Redeemer, in consequence of their refusal to acknowledge the true God. Certain it was that they were stopped short in the advancement of knowledge in a most mysterious manner, and from that time to the present they had rather retrograded than improved in civilization. It was like a spell placed upon them for some distinct purpose unknown to man. The European could do anything with the Chinese, and, with tho exception of the inhabitants of Canton, where .the people had been taught to look upon them as barbarians and spiteful enemies, the Chinese regarded Europeans with much affection, and reposed the greatest confidence in them. As an illustration, he stated that on one occasion upwards of 200 Chinese fled from him, when they could have crushed him had they so desired, for he only menaced them with a small stick. They did not flee because they wero afraid, for they would fight among3t themselves, and scorces would be killed during the day; but he was a European, and that was enough. The Chinese too, were the most industrious people in the world—they were the ants of the earth ; their indefatigability was most extraordinary; they would turn sandbanks into fields, which they would till with the greatest success; they would reclaim waste land, and rapidly turn it to good account; their agriculture was more like horticulture, so beautifully was it was managed. They were very courageous when properly led, and their physical power was extraordinary. He trusted steps would be taken to' prevent an unnecessary slaughter at Canton, and to open the hand of friendship to the Chinese of the south, as the Chinese of the north held it out to the Englishman. The Chinese people were eminently adapted for religion, and gladly received any religious instruction from whomsoever it came. Then China had done much for England. The introduction of tea had achieved more than all the moralists in the world. Great freedom existed in China. Any person might travel from one end of the country to the other, without being stopped, or asked questions respecting tolls or passports. The press was perfectly free, and newspapers were very numerous, and not a vil
'lage existed without a library. The amount of printing was enormous, not even the smallest fishing village being without its printing press. The love of learning was extraordinary in the extreme, and many sacrifices were made in order to gratify the wishes of the Chinese in that respect. In conclusion, he hoped the unhappy affair at Canton would not extend, but would result in a more extended intercourse with the people, in order that peace and happiness might prevail for the future.
The Archdeacon of Cardigan said he had recently had an interview with the Bishop of Hong Kong, who stated that the antagouisui to the English was entirely confined to Canton, where he hoped soon to see missionaries allowed to enter, as in other parts of China.
After a few remarks from the chairman, in corroboration of the previous speaker, the meeting separated.—London Morning Star.
"P h ILADELPH1A MARKETS.
Flour Abd Meal.— The market is dull, and mixed brands are offered at $7 00 per bbl., and brands tor borne consumption at $7 00 a $7 50, and extra and fancy brands at $7 81 a .8 75. There is very little demand lor export, and little stock tu operate in. Rye Flour $4 70 per barrel. Pa. Corn Meal 3 92 per barrel.
Gkain.—There is little demand for Wheat. Sales of prime Pennsylvania red were made at $1 85 a 1 87, and $1 90 a 1 95 for good white. Rye is dull. Penna. at Si 02. Corn is in demand at 90c, afloat. Oats are steady ; tales ol Penna. and Delaware at 53c.
OPR1NGDALE BOARDING SCHOOL—This kj School, situated in Loudoun Co., Va., was founded by an Association of Friends belonging to Fairfax Quarterly Meeting, in order to afford to Friends' children, of both sexes, a guarded (duration in accordance with our religious principles and testimonies. The next session will open the 7th day of the Ninth month and close the 11th of Sixth month following.
Thorough instruction is given in the branches usua<ly embraced in a good English education, and lectures are delivered on History, Natural Philosophy, and Chemistry. A philosophical apparatus, a cabinet of minei als, and a var.ety of instructive hooks, have been provided lor the use of the school.
Experience confirms us in the belief, that in classing together boys and girls in the recitation room, we ] have adopted the right method, as it stimulates them to greater diligence, and improves their deportment. They have separate school rooms and play grounds, and do not associate, except in the presence of their teachers. None are received as pupils except the children of Friends, or tho;e living in Friends'families and intended to be e- ucated as Friends.
1'trtnt.—For hoard, washing and tuition, per term of 40 weeks, $110, payable quarterly in advance. Pens, ink, lights, &c., fifty cents per cuarter. Drawing, and the French language each $3 per quarter. Books and stationery at the usual prices.
The stage fiom Washington to Winchester stops at Purcelville within two miles of the school. There is a daily stage fiom the Point of Rocks, on the Bait, and Ohio R. Road, to Leesburg, where a conveyance
may he had to the school, a distance of 9 miles
Letters should be directed to Purcelville, Loudoun
HENRY SUTTON I „ . , . ,
7 mo. lllh, lb07—8w.
/1ENESEE VALLEY BOARDING SCHOOL FOR VJGIRLS, AT WHKAITLAND, MONROE CO., N. Y. The School Year is divided into Three Terms, of fourteen weeks each.
The Fall Term will commence on the 3d of 8th mo., 1857.
The Course of Instruction in this school, embraces an elementary, practical, liberal, and thorough English Education, including Drawing. Lectures will be given on the different branches of Natural Science, which will be clearly and fully illustrated by experiments, with appropriate apparatus.
The School is located in a healthy and pleasant situation, within a hundred rods of Scotttvilte Station, on the Genesee Valley Rail Road, ten miles south of Rochester.
Ii will be the aim of the Managers and Teachers to render the pupils as thorough as possible in the studies pursued, and also to inculcate habits of Older and propriety of conduct.
No pains will be spared that tend to promote the best welfare of the pupils.
Terms, $42 per Session of 14 weeks, for Tuition, Board, Washing, Fuel, Pens and Ink,—one half payable in advance, the other half at the end of the Term.
Class Books furnished by the school, for the use of which $1.00 per Term will be charged. No extra charges, except for Languages, whirh will be $5 per Term for each. Stationery furnished at the usual prices.
Each Pupil will provide herself with a pair of Overshoes, Wash-Basin, Towels, Tooth-Biush anil Cup. Each article of clothing to be distinctly marked.
Conduct-papers will be forwarded to the Parent* or
STEPHEN COX, Principal,
"ith mo. 2jth, 1857.—4t.
1/ALLSINGTON BOARDING SCHOOL FOR J; GIRLS.— Beclah S. Lower and Esther Lower, Principals. The first session of this school will commence on the 14th of 9th mo. next.
In this Institution w ill be taught all the branches of a thorough English education, and no etToits will be spared on the part of the Principals in promoting the comfort and happiness of those under their care.
Terms.— For tuition, board, washing, the use ol" books and stationery, $75 per session of 20 weeks. French and Drawing each $5.per session extra.
For further particulars and references address B. S. and E. LOWER, Fallsington, Bucks Co. Pa.'
7th mo. 11th, 1857 8w.
PHILADELPHIA, EIGHTH MONTH 1, 1857.
EDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS.
PUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE,
No. 324 South Fifth Street,
Every Seventh day at Two Dollars per annum, payable in advann. Three copies sent to one address for Five Dollars.
Communications must be addressed to the Publisher, free of expense, to whom all payments are to be made.
An account of the life, travels, and Christian experiences in the work of the ministry of Samuel Bownas.
• (Concluded from page 291.)
We have given copious extracts from the the life and travels of this dedicated servant, to the year 1740, the time" of his return from his second visit to Friends in America. The succeeding three years were occupied in visiting a second time the North of England, and Ireland, in which journey he says, "I travelled in Ireland, exclusive of sea, six hundred and seventy-eight miles, and in England, nine hundred and thirty miles, which in all is sixteen hundred and eight miles, and save my illness at Bury, had my health as well as I uould expect, being humbly thankful that I was M strengthend both inwardly and outwardly to accomplish my journey so well, not having, that I remember, left any thing undone in that nation, save something I had to say in the men's meeting at Dublin, but their hasty breaking up prevented it, which gave me uneasiness for some weeks after, and I remark it here for a caution to others; for I missed such an opportunity as I could never more expect to have, and this added to my uneasiness. Thus I saw that my fear of breaking in upon the meeting, and hindering their business, .made me lose my time, so that 1 came off with a burden upon my mind."
A circumstantial account is given of the next six years, after which his journal appears to have been discontinued; but the following testimony issued by the Monthly Meeting of which he was a member, furnishes a brief account of his labors during the four years subsequent to his death.
From our Monthly meeting held at Bridport, the 2\st of the Ninth month 1755, to Friends at their Second-day's Morning-meeting in London.
Dear Friends and Brethren,—The journal of our dear and worthy friend Samuel Bownas, seems to break off somewhat abruptly, ending the 2d of the Ninth month, 1749, and we cannot find he kept any account of his travels, labors and services in the ministry, from that time to to the time of his decease, which was on the second day of the Fourth-month 1753, during which time he took no long journeys, for being advanced in years, his hands shook and eyesight failed him much, but he was very diligent in attending meetings both at homo and in the neighborhood,'for twenty or thirty miles round, as long as his health and strength continued; and his ministry was lively and powerful to the last, to the edification and comfort of those that ■ were favored with it, and his removal was a great loss to Friends in these parts, but we have reason to believe it was his great gain, for in his last illness, which was very short, he seemed quite sensible of his approaching change, saying,, that he oould not stay long with us, and hoped that kind Providence would be pleased to take him to himself.
Signed in and on behalf of the said meeting, by Joseph Curtis,
and several other Friends.
TOLITENESS AND TRUTH.
Many persons plead a love of truth as an apology for rough manners, as if truth was never gentle and kind, but always harsh, morose, and forbidding. Surely good manners and a good conscience are no more inconsistent with each other than beauty and innocence, which are strikingly akin, and always look the better for companionship. Roughness and honesty are indeed sometimes found together in the same person, but he is a poor judge of human nature who takes ill-manners to be a guarantee of probity of character; or suspects a stranger to be a rascal, because he has the manners of a gentleman. Some persons object' to politeness, that its language is unmeaning and false. But this is easily answered. A lie is not locked up in a phrase, but must exist, if at all, in the mind of the speaker. In the ordinary compliments of