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The majority of the Court go so far as to del. Died, On the 4th inst., in the 69th year of her age, clare that the Ordinance of 1789 and the Mis. MARTHA, the wife of Nathan Cleaver, of Montgomery
County, Pennsylvania. She was a minister of Gwysouri Prohibition were unconstitutional. Now the ne
Now thenedd Monthly Meeting, where her loss will be deeply enactment of these laws may or not have been felt. expedient, their repeal may have been proper or A fellow laborer in the gospel says of her, in a improper; but the majority Judges assume a r: but the majority Judges assume a letter of condolence to her bereaved relatives : “ Dear
Martha ! she was one of the meek of the earth, who tremendous responsibility in venturing to pro
lifted up her voice in the assemblies of the people, to nounce such enactments unconstitutional and in direct the minds of the hearers to the Messiah! To valid. The Ordinance was passed in a Congress call to obedience and faithfulness to known duties, which embraced Madison, by a unanimous vote, that the reward might be peace.” and was signed by Washington. Similar pro.
Her health had been declining for more than a year
past, but she seldom ever failed being at Meeting, visions have been enacted by nearly every Con
though frequently under considerable bodily debility. gress, and signed and approved by every Presi- or her it might' truly be said, as was said of one dent down to President Pierce. The Missouri formerly, “Oh! woman, great is thy faith.” Early in Prohibition was declared Constitutional by Mon
the Second month, feeling - bound in the spirit," sbe roe and his Cabinet, one of whom was John C.
attended our Quarterly Meeting at Abington, much to
the surprise of many, who knew the delicate state of Calhoun. The Supreme Court, over and over, her health. After this she once attended our meeting have expressly recognised the validity of these at Gwynedd, and on being asked how she was, she acts of legislation. Judge Curtis's references to answered in substance, “ I have always served a kind the previous action of the General Government,
Master, who has furnished me with ample strength and
ability to perform every duty required of me; and I from the formation of the Constitution until re
believe my health and strength have suffered no loss on ceat times, is complete, clear and absolutely | account of my attending the Quarterly Meeting.” crushing. Every President, every Cabinet Secre.. When on her sick bed and the power of utterance tary, every Official, every Congressman, every
had very much failed, she said, on being asked her pros
I pect about her recovery: “I have not seen much Statesman, every Politician, every State, every Court, every Judge, and every Chief Justice about the event.” At another time when she could until recently, has unhesitatingly granted that not speak above a whisper she said, “ I told a dear these acts were Constitutional. This inno- friend at the Quarterly Meeting, that I have a little vating decision of yesterday imputes stupid
faith, and it would continue to the end." This was a
most invaluable testimony on this solemn occasion. misconception and usurpation of power to Presi
It was said by the divine Master, “ If ye had faith dents like Washington, Mooroe, and Jackson, to as a grain of mustard seed ye should say to this mounstatesmen like Jefferson, Macon, Madison, Silas tain be thou removed, and cast into the sea, and it Wright and Henry Clay, to lawyers like Pink shall be done, and nothing shall be impossible unto
you." ney, Binney and Webster, to Judges like Gas- :
Yea, we believe this a little faith enabled our
rase 1 dear friend to realize the language, “ Oh! death where ton, Kent, Story and Marshall. This innovat- is thy sting, and Oh! grave where is thy victory." ing decision carries no moral force, it is extra- ! When her precious spirit took its flight to the place judicial, gratuitous, unprecedented and illegal. prepared for it, a calm serenity settled on her countenThe good sense of the just and freedom-loving rood sense of the inst, and freedom loving ance. “Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death
oning of his saints." Be thou faithful unto death and I people of the United States will surely have it will give thee a crown of life." reversed.
For Friends' Intelligencer. DIED, On 2d day the 16th inst., at her residence in SUFFERINGS OF FRIENDS UNDER THE CONVENTISolebury Township, Bucks County, Pa., Ruth Betts,
CLE ACT. aged nearly 62 years. She was the wife of William
(Continued from page 10.) Betts, and the daughter of David Simpson, who was the eldest son of John Simpson, a faithful minister
In London, this conventicle act was no sooner well known in this country in the latter part of the
in force, than multitudes were imprisoned for past, and beginning of the present century.
the first and second offence, which was usually Ruth Betts was for many years an elder and member for a few days. On the 14th of 8th month, the of Buckingham Meeting. In the domestic circle she sheriff with many officers, and others armed, enfilled the stations of wife, mother, and sister with great propriety, and her removal is deeply felt on the part
tered the meeting house at Bull and Mouth, and of her husband, brother, sisters and children, who truly ordered the person who was preaching to come mourn her loss. The neighbors and the poor also are down; after which two of the officers stepped on truly in mourning. The church too in the present as a form near him, drew their swords, and struck in several similar instances of latter occurrence, are him and another Friend with such force, that one in mourning because so few can be found to fill the places now left vacant. Every living member of it!
of their swords was broken ; then they laid hold has need to enter not only the house of mourning, both of men and women, and haling out near but the house of prayer. 'For the harvest truly is two hundred, drove them to Guildhall, where plenteous but the laborers are few. “ Pray ye there they were kept prisoners till near midnight, and fore the Lord of the harvest that he would send forth more laborers into his harvest.”
then, by the Mayor's orders, conducted by lighted Sarau S. READER, sister of the above and widow
torches and a guard of balberdiers to Newgate, of Merrick Reader, died on the 7th of 4th month, 1856. where they were thrust up among felons. On much lamented and greatly missed.
the 15th, about twenty were fined and committed,
as were twelve more on the 17th, and about sixty i the volume, this Judge undertook to show that others on the 19th, some for fourteen, and others their not swearing tended to subvert the Governfor nine days. On the 21st the Mayor with the ment, that no government can stand without swearSheriffs and Alderman Brown, came again to ing, and that though the Quakers did not indeed the Meeting at Bull and Mouth. Brown, with conspire, (in which case he should proceed his usual rudeness, kicked some, pulled others another way, and try them for treason,) yet if by the hair, and pinched the women's arms until suffered to meet, they would do it, and in a short they were black; by this rude behavior, and time be up in arms. He intended immediately shameful abuse, degrading the dignity of his to have proceeded to the trial of some of them, office, and proving himself too vulgar for, and for which purpose a young lad was brought from absolutely unworthy of, the magistracy he bore, Newgate, who being asked if he were not at the in any well regulated government. The Mayor Bull and Mouth Meeting such a day, he recausing the doors to be shut, sent about one hun-plied, I was not ; whencc the judge took occasion dred and fifty nine of them to Newgate for four to reproach the Quakers with common-place redays, where they had not room to sit down, flections, saying, that for all their pretensions to nor scarce to stand, being close shut up among truth, they could lie for their interest, and to the felons without respect to age or sex.
evade suffering. On the 28th one hundred and seventy-five But this youth persisting in his denial, wit. were also sent to Newgate as privately as possi. nesses were called to prove he was there, but bly; the magistrates, it is probable, being none could be found, which the Judge observing, ashamed to expose their unrelenting severity to said some should suffer for it. He then issued the public eye. On the 4th of Ninth month, an order, that the jailor of Newgate and his men two hundred and thirty-two more were com- should attend the meeting, and be prepared to mitted.
I give evidence at the next sessions. At the next The state of Newgate is thus described by a sessions, a bill of indictment was preferred writer who visited it some years afterwards. against sixteen Quakers for the third offence. * The prisoners are pushed so close together and They were tried and convicted, and twelve of the air so corrupted by their stench, that it oc-them sentenced to transportation, amongst whom casions a disease called the jail distemper, of which was a young woman named Hannah Trigg, a they die by dozens; and cart loads of them are person hardly sixteen years of age. Soon carried out, and thrown into a pit in the church after she was sentenced to banishment, she yard without ceremony. And to this wretcbed sickened in Newgate, and dying there, the same place many innocent people are sometimes sent, unfeeling inhumanity, insatiate with her life, and loaded with irons before their trial, not to I was extended to her lifeless corpse. Her relasecure them, but to extort money from them by tions were deprived even of the consolation of a merciless jailor; for if they have money to paying the last office of natural affection by inbribe him, they may have their irons as light as terring her as they desired, but she was carried they please." By these commitments, the prisons to the burying place where they inter felons and being overfilled, it was intended to proceed to the others who die in the jail. trial of such as were in for the third offence; On the 15th of 10th month, about forty more preparatory whereto, Julge Keeling, at the ses were brought to the sessions of the Old Bailey, sions of the Old Bailey, made a speech to the and called to the bar. They pleaded not guilty, Grand Jury against the prisoners, that, as he and the court proceeded to try them. observed, they might not be thought worthy of The witnesses against them were the under pity. He accused them of teaching dangerous keepers of Newgate and the marshal-men. The principles—this for one, that it is not lawful to first was one Dawson, a turnkey, who was greatly take an oath. The Quakers had affirmed only confounded in his testimony for having sworn that it was forbidden by Christ, and therefore that he took John Hope, who had been in prison unlawful to them who were disposed to obey this week, at the Bull and Mouth last Sunday, their Saviour's commands. You must not think, but the court endeavoring to set him right, he the Judge said, that their leaders believe this corrected himself, and said the Sunday before, doctrine, only they persuade these poor ignorant which was equally false. Afterwards, he said zouls so. But they have an interest to carry on the prisoner was brought out to him, and that against the Government, and therefore they will he did not see him in the meeting. Upon which not swear subjection to it, and their end is re- one of the jury, addressing the Judge, said, bellion and blood. He proceeded next to quote “ My lord, I beseech you, let us be troubled the New Testament against them; and not find with no more such evidence, for we shall not cast ing it quite to his purpose, concluded that the man upon such evidence as this ;” but the judge Old is positive for swearing, and they that deny endeavored to palliate it, and reproved the juryswearing, deny God a special part of his wor- man for being too scrupulous. Another turnkey ship. By arguments equally sound and cogent, testified that he saw one of the prisoners at the into which the reader may look for himself in Bull and Mouth Meeting, but it was in evidence that he did not see him till he came to Newgate.chiefs over their subjects is, according to his repOne of the jury objecting to such testimony, the resentations, exceedingly limited, and the numJudge grew angry, and told him the court would ber of persons held in slavery, for any domestic punish him for undervaluing the king's witnesses. purposes, comparatively small. . After a time the jury went out, and brought in This view of the case is remarkably confirmed their verdict that four of the prisoners were not by some very interesting statements made by guilty, and the rest they could not agree on. The Mr. Bushnell, who has spent the last eleven Judge being displeased, sent them out again years as a missionary on the West Coast of Africa. with fresh instructions; they returned with this verdict, guilty of meeting, but not of fact. The
A MISSIONARY'S OPINION OF THE AFRICAN Judge inquiring what they meant by not guilty
SLAVE-TRADE. of fact, the jury applied, " There is evidence
From the N. Y. Evangelist. that they met at the Bull and Mouth, therefore
The Rev. Mr. Bushnell, now in this city, has we say, guilty of meeting; but no evidence of been a missionary on the Western Coast for thir. what they did there; therefore we say, not guilty teen yea
Say not vuilty, teen years. He is stationed on the Gaboon River, of meeting contrary to the liturgy of the church (right o
of the church right on the line of the equator and in the heart of England." The Judge asked the jury of the slave region. Their first mission-house was whether they did not believe in their consciences on the site of an old Portuguese slave-factory, that they were there under the color and pretence where the trade had been carried on for more of worship : to which one of them replied, " than two centuries. On an island at the mouth do believe in my conscience that they were met of the river are heavy guns, brought there by the in deed and in truth.” Another said, “ My lord, Portuguese two..."
nother said. - My lord, Portuguese two hundred and fifty years ago. I have that venerable respect for the Church of
Thus ample time has been given for the great England, as to believe it is according to the experim
experiment of civilization. By this time the Scriptures, which allow of the worshiñ of God / Slave Coast ought to be the seat of a high state in spirit, and therefore, I conclude, that to wor
of civilization. But the missionaries seem to ship God in spirit, is not contrary to the liturgy;
think that this intercourse with other nations has if it be I shall abate of my respect to it.” “In only caused a deeper night to descend on taat short, neither persuasions nor menaces could in
dark continent. Mr. Bushnell even goes so far duce the jury to alter the verdict; whereupon
as to say that the slave trade is the great curse six of them were bound in £100 each to appear
of Africa; that it renders the wildest savages at the king's bench bar, the first day of the next
still more fierce and cruel, and that it baffles all term.
attempts at civilization. To be continued.
Of course all other commerce is killed by this
traffic. The country is rich in natural products, For Friends' Intelligencer.
and might furnish a large esport. But all is Temperature of the Weather for the three Winter kept down by this one trade. So soon as a months at Bloom field, Prince Edward Co., British squadron, hovering on the coast, puts the C. W.
slavers in fear, and causes their trade to languish,
No. of No. of other branches of industry revive. The chiefs, coldest. Mean, Mean
days be-1 days from 5 6) P.M. of both.
low zero. above 320 finding less demand for human flesb, bring down to 7A.M.
other commodities-ivory, palm-oil, gold dust,
dye woods and ebony. Thus the instant the 12th mo. 14.54 | 20.03 | 17.25 41.5 19 | 42 51 5 1857.
slave-trade is checked, there springs up a legiti1st mo.1 3.19 9.54 | 6.37 | 34 | 32.5 | 12 | 9 | 0 | 0 | mate commerce. But while that is in full blast, 20 m . | 25.
it kills everything else, for it is more exciting G. H. B.
and more lucrative. The trade in slaves is more From the New York Tribune.
profitable than trade in ivory, for it is easier to It has been a favorite idea with the partisans | steal a child than kill an elephant. of the slave trade, that the Africans are nearly! But the commercial loss is nothing to the all slaves at home, so that the transporting them moral desolation which it leaves bebind 11. 110 across the Atlantic and setting them at work on slave trade is the cause of almost all the walls American sugar, coffee and cotton plantations is.) between different tribes. It keeps them com after all, only a change of masters; and most stantly fighting to procure fresh victims. It likely a highly beneficial change. since it is not excites them to attack defenseless villages, and to be presumed that a civilized and Christian to seize men, women and children. Tous" planter can be a barsher master than a savage stimulates to burnings, to murder and to bass African chief. The observations, however, of sacre. Dr. Livingstone, in his recent African travels, Mr. Bushnell has taken away our chief consoof which we gave a statement in a recent article, lation in this trade, which was tbat these poor go entirely to contradict this representation of wretches were only taken from being slaves. In African society. The power of the African their own country to be slaves in ours—whic
27.57 | 26.28
2 li li l 13
seemed a great improvement. But he informs grief, at the wedding or the funeral—their hearts us that but for this foreign trade they might not find vent in song. be slaves at all! In fact, he doubted whetber And do these simple children of nature feel Slavery existed on this Western Coast until two nothing when torn from their homes and country? or three centuries ago, when the Portuguese “When I first landed on the coast,” says Mr. tempted the chiefs to sell the bodies of men. It! Bushnell, “ the slave-trade was flourishing, and was Christian traders who first taught the poor there were many factories near us. I often natives these arts of cruelty. At any rate, if visited the barracoons, and such utter woe and slavery existed at all before, the whole system despair I never saw on any human faces." Their has been extended and fortified, and increased in lightness and gayety was all gone. Their horrors by the demand for slaves for export. If songs were hushed, and they sat silent and left to itself, it would soon dwindle-and die; for gloomy. It was not a grief which burst forth there is no internal cause to sustain it. Labor in wild lament, nor a despair which nerved is not of value enough. A slave is good for them to fierce resistance, but a wan and weary nothing to keep, but only to sell. It is the cu- look, a despair which was speechless and hope. pidity of West Indian traders which spurs on the less, as of those doomed to die. There they sat natives to burning and butchery, and which upon the shore chained together, now turning a brings upon this desolate coast all their woes. last fond look to the hills and palm groves in the
A natural effect of such a trade in flesh and' distance, and now looking to the slave-sbip which blood is to produce a frightful disregard of human began to show its dark hull on the horizon. life. It has reduced the value of a man to the Thus they watched and wept, their stifled sobs trifle that he will bring from the trader. Many answering to the desolate moanings of the sea. a man has been bought for a cask of rum. Lately Such is the slave-trade, of which men in this the price has risen, so that now an able-bodied Christian land speak in gentle phrase, and which man will fetch about $10, and a boy or girl some propose to revive. Many might be found perhaps half that sum.
who would not only defend it, but delight in it; Of course it tends to destroy natural affection. who would find in this buying of men, not only The natives are simple-hearted, and strongly the most lucrative commerce, but the most exattached to their kindred. But when every bad citing sport. When Capt. Smith confided to us passion is excited, imbruted by war and mad. bis experience in a slave ship, his eye shot fire dened by rum, the father will sometimes sell his' as he depicted the scenes on the African Coast. own child. “I have even known,” says Mr. ' " Ah !" said the hero, “that's the place for fun !" Bushnell, “a husband to sell his wife !"
It is often said that those poor Africans do not suffer much, for that they are incapable of
OUR HEAVENLY FATHER. feeling. They are little above the beasts, add, On a bright Sabbath morning, in the beautiful spring like animals, all places are indifferent to them. of 1840, I attended Friends' meeting at Fallowfield, * Having food and raiment, they are there with and heard a discourse from Jesse Kersey, which imcontent.” But our informant tells us that, on! mont tells us that an pressed me as more than usually touching and tender.
The following lines were composed immediately after, the contrary, they are a very sensitive race. and may be considered a rather close paraphrase of all Natives of that torrid clime, they are true chil- its principal features : dren of the sun. Living in the open air, they Our Heavenly Father, kindly wise, drink in bright influences from sunshine and
Has spread before our sight from sky. Their feelings are quick. The slight The loveliness of earth and skies, est thing exalts them to a heaven of rapture or
To claim our praise aright.
That while our eyes with rapture see plunges them into an abyss of grief. When
Each good and pleasant thing, left to themselves, they are a careless, heedless,
Our tender gratitude may be bappy race; full of mirth, and dance, and song. An unfeigned offering. In many a sylvan glade, under the wide-spreading The blossom'd shrubs that charm the grovepalms, may be witnessed scenes which would de.
The streamlets flowing there ; light the imagination of a pastoral poet.
And song of wild-birds as they rove They have a passionate love of music. The
In the soft vernal air;
Were they not given to endear our hearts gondoliers of Venice, floating on their grand
To him who reigns above ? canal, were not more spontaneous and gushing Whose ever-bounteous band imparts in their melody than these Africans, floatiog on
Such unask'd gifts of love. their inland waters. As the boat glides along
Is not the earth with plenty fill'd ? the lagoons and rivers, the oarsman keep time
Do not the fields o'erflow, with a rising and falling strain. If any inci And almost without culture yield dent occurs in the sail, tbey instantly improvise
Whate'er the clime can grow? a rude poetry, and accompany it with a wild
And shall our stubborn hearts refuse
The gratelui song to raise ? melody. Thus everywhere—in their boats or
And while each pleasant gift we use, bamboo huts, in every scene of gladness or of
Neglect the Giver's praise ?
Do not the gales that round us breathe
Through the shining ranks of angels,
I shall fly on eager wing,
Through the legions of archangels,
To the footstool of my King.
Let me go ! I long to be
In such blessed company !
Now, at length, the day is breaking !
Evening shadows flee away!
My bewildered soul is waking
To the light of perfect day.
Let me go! the night is past.
Morning dawns on me at last!
Flushing, L. 1.
Special correspondence of the Pennsylvania Inquirer.
JAPAN AND THE JAPANESE.
The Americans at Canton—Interesting letter
from an American Officer.
WHAMPOA, Dec. 15th, 1856. 66 And He who was our morning light,
Mr. Editor: I will now proceed to conclude Shall be our evening song."
the observations on Japan; and give you a short
J. W. T. resumé of events bere since my last. Fountain Hill, Chester Co., Pa., 1851.
In accordance with the treaty made by Commo
dore Perry with the Japanese, we found that a From Friends' Review.
good stone landing place had been constructed, “LET ME GO."*
with houses for the accommodation of parties waitNow, at length, the morn is breaking ! Now the shadows dee away!
ing for boats, or fatigued with walking. Several My bewildered soul is waking
hundred tons of coal had also been brought from To the light of perfect day!
the interior and been collected near the landing. Dreary was my night of woe !
This was surface coal, but proved to be of exDay is dawning! let me go!
cellent quality. Joy, my soul! the day is breaking!
During our first rambles ashore, the people, Thy redemption dra weth nigh!
especially women and children, all ran at our ap. Joy, oh heart! thou art awaking ; See thy day-star in the sky!
proach, and could not be induced to come near Let me yo; the night is past,
us. If we entered a shop, it was instantly desertMorning breaks on me at last!
ed; and in many cases, they were shut up. Why, dear friends, your looks of sadness ?
| Police officers followed us everywhere, and were Ye should rather joy with me,
only to be got rid of by threats of violence. Even That, from agony and madness,
then, although they kept out of sight, they were My beleagured soul is free.
still near; and after a long walk, when suppoeing Ligni, with calm, majestic flow, Breaks upon me ; let ine go!
them gone, a sudden turn would reveal their
presence: so perfect is this system of espionage I have drunk Life's bitter chalice, Drained the wine my soul abhorred;
in Japan. These men only acted in obedience But the Arch-fiend's proudest malice
to their orders; and when an attempt was made Shall not rend me from the Lord.
to drive them off, they would make signs, indiPitying my want and woe,
cating that if they did not act in obedience to Jesus calls me; let me go!
their instructions, they must perform the Hari All my unbelief confessing,
Kari, or self-immolation; and thus preserve their Casting all my care on Him,
The houses are all generally of two stories,
and roofed with substantial and handsome black As a Father on his child.
earthen tiles. They are kept remarkably neat With supernal brightness glowing,
and clean. Hung with star and stalactite,
In examining the town and the habits of the Flashing in the river, flowing,
people, we were forcibly struck with the accuracy Twixt the smiling banks of light,
of Kampfer's account of Japan; and we saw so O'er-arched by an emerald bow, Is the way through which I go.
many things which so exactly correspond with
his descriptions, as to justify us in placing the *[These were the last words of one whose morning utmost confidence in the fidelity and correctness sun'having been clouded by insanity, went down in of this old writer. The dress-the boats-the brightness. After uttering them, she fixed her eyes upon her attendant friends, with a look eloquent of warning houses
bathing houses-the moxa, are all to be seen to surprise, wonder and joy, a look, which none who this day, as he has described and figured them. saw it can never forget, and died.]
1 Every afternoon about five o'clock, the people