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of Egypt, the intrepidity of Dr. Livingstone, the pliant adaptability of Captain Burton, much has been accomplished. The White Nile has been examined within two degrees of the equator; advancing from the vicinity of the Cape, Livingstone has traversed the middle region obliquely,' up to the eighth parallel of south latitude; and varying his track, he has crossed the same country from ocean to ocean. Upon the latter route, from longitude 25° to the Mozambique Channel, he had been anticipated by Pereira, in 1796. Burton has recently returned from some remarkable investigations in the country back of Natal, throwing light upon tribes unvisited by Europeans. Africa nevertheless affords a vast area for research. Ethiopia is still imperfectly known. A tract as large as the United States is clothed in utter obscurity. We know nothing of the Mountains of the Moon but their name. The source of the White Nile is undiscovered. The inland sea we have referred to has never been seen or sounded. Whole nations, known to us by report, have yet to witness that phenomenon, a white man. Such is the field still open for exploration; and it is scarcely to be imagined that the adventurous spirit of our time will long leave it without cultivators. We already hear of hunting parties, and individuals pushing by degrees inward from the various European settlements upon both shores, supplying, if not exact scientific and topographical data, additional anecdotes of the Aborigines. There is, moreover, the great Egyptian expedition now upon the Nile, recruited from the European schools of science, furnished with apparatus, boats, necessaries, and a powerful escort; and instructed to stop nowhere short of the mysterious head of that river, should the search carry them to the Lunar mountains, or to the moon itself. Burton, too, at the head of a strong company, has landed in Zanguebar, on the eastern side, in latitude 5° south, designing to urge his discoveries inward until he joins the Egyptian party, and with them to seek the intercontinental sea. Should these projects be realized to the extent the character of the men engaged in them warrants, the dark curtain that has from the beginning shrouded Middle Africa will at last be uprolled, and the land of ivory and gold dust become as familiar to curious civilization as the land of the olives and myrtle.
Turning to Asia, we find great reason to rejoice that the "golden realm of Cathay" is to be thrown open to the world. The first step having been taken, Chinese obstinacy will do the rest. China isbroken. The barbarian will pour in."* Foreign intervention will satisfy and tranquillize rebellion, restore activity to industry, and by settling upon solid foundations the guarantees of trade, lend it new vitality. What immense tracts will thus be made penetrable to the curious explorer; what boundelss fields open
ed for edupational and missionary effort; what provocations presented to antiquarian and historical inquiry; what temptations to men of science; what curious and secret processes, invaluable to the agriculturist and artisan! Indeed, no anticipations, however enthusiastic, can be fairly pronounced extravagant, when we reflect that this is the eldest empire of earth, the home of one-third of the human family, the mother of those immortal arts, without which mankind might still be in the dawn rather than in the noontide of civilization. It will not be long before Japan will yield to the same pressure now applied to China, and expand to the approach of commerce and travel.
There will then remain for examination only one promising theatre of research, namely, the Australasian archipelago, still indifferently known even to the Europeans scattered about it. Australia, had our own government possessed it, would long ago have been mapped, acre by acre, in the Land Office, and its entire topography delineated minutely. We have no means of conjecture as to the time the British government will be likely to take for the same task. Certainly, in the anomalous character of the animal and vegetable life observed there, we have the prospect of results profoundly interesting to the naturalist; while for data to be supplied only by the rocks of that eccentric continent, the geologist must continue to wait patiently. Time and the enterprise of his children, will accomplish these things, and greater. In another century, perhaps the phrases, "Unexplored region," "only partially known," and other similar blazons of geographical ignorance, will cease to disfigure the map. What may we not expect from the accelerating movement of the age?
A wealthy merchant remarked a few days since that he was fully convinced, from his own experience, that the means to achieve success lay in a nut-shell—Do Right; "When I say success," said he, "I mean not only the accumulation of fortune, but the ability to enjoy it
to live a useful happy life." What is the use of much wealth if we know that it was obtained by wronging the widow and orphan, by the tricks of trade, selling articles for what they were not, and a thousand modes of unfair dealing? Granting that men grow better by doing kindly acts, and feel the better for seeing others do them, how sickening it must be to the true man to know that by false dealing he has curdled the milk of human kindness in one breast, turning it to bitter gall! If wealth comes by such means, let it not come at all. Shall an active man possessed of God-given powers, at his dying hour turn back to his past life and be able only to say : I have done nothing to add to the wealth of the world in gold or silver, or in artistic productions, but have coveted the labors of others, heaped treasures sordidly to myself, foolishly supposing that I might trample down all feelings and sympathies not directly productive of gain? or shall he rather be able to say that, While I have industriously gathered wealth, I have done it with cheerful looks, kindly words, warm sympathies; I have done it by making things which have added to the comfort of men, by bringing within the reach of the poor great means of present enjoyment, the opening of a brilliant future, by throwing lights of sympathy on the dejected, lifting up the down-fallen, strengthening the weak, infusing in all a fervent belief in the brighter part of their being? Such a life will enable a man to throw off his wealth as a scale, at the last day, bearing away only the imperishable soul, which has accumulated strength along with the mass of worldly goods justly and usefully obtained. Would you, young man, belong to the latter class, Do Right. How much better to do right, if you die not worth a farthing, and feel that you have rather added to the good faith in the higher life on earth, than to die while rolling in the luxury, pomp, and pride of illgotten gains! Then Do Eight ! Do Right ! and if tempted for momentary ease and vanity to abuse your better nature, rest assured that both the body and spirit will suffer in a ratio corresponding to the transgression. There is but one road to happiness and contentment—Do Right.
BY J. B. TALBOT, F.R.S.
There's a charm in the soft and gentle wind,
As it carols its onward way;
Or the child at its guileless play.
There's a charm in the sweet expanding flower
As it sheds its fragrance round;
Her heart not fettered nor bound.
There's a charm in the sea's wild rolling wave,
As it heaves its white crested foam;
There's a charm in the mountain's frosted brow,
As it lifts its broad forehead on high;
There's a charm in the pencilled evening sky,
As all nature sinks to rest;
In prayer for the loved and the blest.
There's a charm in the rainbow's blended hue,
As it circles the lofty sky;
While it lists to the mourner'6 cry.
There's a charm in the lively twinkling star,
As it sparkles in azure blue; 'Tis like the bright spot when seen from afar, Though darkness and gloom may the prospect mar,
And joys be but scanty and few.
There's a charm in the bright sun's golden ray,
As it shines o'er the field and flood;
To the home of thejust and good.
There's a charm in the vivid lightning's flash,
And the thunder's pealing roar; ,
There's a charm in the step of a rosy boy
As he gambols with freedom gay;
Through many a looked-ior day.
There's a charm in the thought of a happy home,
Where the loved ones cluster in glee;
There's a charm in the mother's sparkling eye,
As she looks on her sleeping child ;t
Atiuned by the meek and mild.
There's a charm in the City's crowded street,
With its noise, its pleasure, its strite;
As they tread the pathway of life.
With its loves and its friendships true;
And opens glad scenes to the view.
Whether palace or cottage or plain;
Where the ransomed forever reign.
As it gilds the palh of the just;
Inspiring a heavenly trust.
If truth charm my soul in this mortal life,
And guide me as onward I rove; My days will be marked by no wearisome strife, And nature's passions will never be rife,
While my heart will be filled with love.
Come truth, then, and shed thy peace-giving beam
Enlighten my heart and my soul; Now give me to drink from thine own blessed stream, Then the troubles of time will only seem
Like moments, as swiftly they roll.
The scenes of this world will soon pass away.
And hasten my spirit to rest;
Till I enter the realms of the bless'd.
[ From nr. Kitchio's Book, " The Night Side of London." ] THE GREAT MODERN BABYLON.
Think of what London is! At the last census there were 2,362,230 persons of both sexes in it; 1,100,558 males, of whom 146,449 were under 5 years of age. The unmarried males were 670,380; ditto females, 735,871; the married men were 309,098 ; the wives, 409,731; the widowers were 37,089; the widows, 110,076.
On the night of the census there were 28,598 husbands whose wives were not with them, and 39,231 wives mourniug their abseut lords.
Last year the number of children born in London was 86,833. In the same period 56,786 persous died.
The Registrar-General assumes that with the additional births, and by the fact of soldiers and sailors returning from the seat of war, and of persons engaged in peaceful pursuits settling in the capital, sustenance, clothing, and house accommodation must now be found in London for above 60,000 inhabitants more than it contained at the end of 1855.
Think of that—the population of a large city absorbed in London, and no perceptible inconvenience occasioneuby it? Houses are still to let; there are still the usual tickets hung up in the windows in quiet neighborhoods, intimating that apartmeuts furnished for the use of single gentlemen can be had within; the country still supplies the town with meat and bread, and we hear of no starvation in consequence of deficient supply.
London is the healthiest city in the world.
During the last ten years the annual deaths have been on the average 25 to 1,000 of the population; in 1856 the proportion was 22 to 1,000, yet, iu spite of this, half of the deaths that happen on an average in London, between the ages of 20 and 40, arc from consumption and diseases of the respiratory organs.
The Registrar traces this to the state of the streets. He says: There can be no doubt that the dirty dust suspended in the air that the people of London breathe, often excites diseases of the respiratory organs. The dirt of the streets is produced and ground now by innumerable horses, omnibuses and carriages, and then beat up in fine dust, which fills the mouth and inevitably enters the air passages in large quantities. The dust is not removed every day, but, saturated with water in the great thoroughfares, sometimes ferments in damp weather; and at other times ascends again under the heat of the sun as atmospheric dust.
"London," says Henry Mayhew, "maybe safely asserted to be the most densely populated city in all the world; containing one fourth more people than Pekin, and two thirds more than Paris, more than twice as many as Constantinople, four times as many as St. Petersburg, five times as many as Vienna, or New-York, or Mad
rid, nearly seven times as many as Berlin, eight times as many as Amsterdam, nine times as many as Rome, fifteen times as many as Copenhagen, and seventeen times as many as Stockholm."
It covers an area of 122 square miles in extent, or 78,029 statute acres, and contains 327,391 houses.
Annually 4,000 new houses are in course of erection for upward of 40,000 new comers.
The continuous- line of buildings stretching from Holloway to Chainberwell is said to be 1'] miles long.
It is computed that if the buildings were set in a row they would reach across the whole of England and France, from York to the Pyrenees.
London has 10,500 distinct streets, squares, circuses, crescents, terraces, villas, rows, buildings places, lanes, courts, alleys, mews, yards, and rents.
The paved streets of London, according to a return published in 1856, number over 5,000, and exceed 2,000 miles in length; the cost of this paved roading was £14,000,000, and the repairs cost £1,800,000 per annum.
London contains 1,900 miles of gas pipes, with a capital of nearly £4,000,000 spent in the preparation of gas.
The cost of gas lighting is half a million. It has 360,000 lights; and 13,000,000 cubic feet of gas are burned every night.
Last year along these streets the enormous quantity of upward of 80,000,000 of gallons of water rushed for the supply of the inhabitants, being nearly double what it was in 1845.
Mr. Mayhew says: If the entire people of the capital were to be drawn up in marching order, two and two, the length of the great army of Londoners would be no less than 670 miles, and, supposing them to move at the rate of three miles an hour, it would require more than nine days and nights for the average population to pass by.
To accommodate this crowd, 125,000 vehicles pass through the thoroughfares in the course of 12 hours; 3,000 cabs, 1,000 omnibuses, 10,000 private job carriages and carts, ply daily in tBe streets; 3,000 conveyances enter the metropolis daily from the surrounding country. Speaking generally, Tennyson tells us:
"Every minute dies a man, Every minute one is born."
In London, Mr. Mayhew calculates, 169 people die daily, and a babe is born every five minutes. The number of persons, says the Registrar-General, who died in 1856, in 116 public institutions, such as workhouses and hospitals, was 10,381.
It is really shocking to think, and a deep stigma on the people or on the artificial arrangements of society, by which so much poverty is perpetuated, that nearly one person out of five, who died last year, closed his days under a roof provided by law er public charity. It is calculated 600 people are drowned in the Thames every year. In the first week of the present year there were five deaths from intemperance alone. How much wretchedness lies in these two facts—for the deaths from actual intemperance bejar but a small proportion to the deaths induceu by the immoderate use of intoxicating liquors; and of the 500 drowned, by far the larger class, we have every reason to believe, are of the number of whom Hood wrote:
"Mad with life's history,
Aeeordiog to the last reports, there were in London 143,000 vagrants admitted in one year iiiti) the casual wards of the work-houses.
Here we have always in our midst 107 burglars, 110 housebreakers, 38 highway robbers, 773 pickpockets, 3,657 sneakmen or common thieve*, 11 horse-stealers, 141 dog-stealers, 3 forgers, 28 coiners, 317 utterers of base coin, 141 swindlers, 182 cheats, 343 receivers of stolen goods,'2,768 habitual rioters, 1,205 vagrants, 50 begging-letter writers, b6 bearers of begging-letters, 6,371 prostitutes, beside 470 But otherwise described, making altogether a total of 1G,9U0 criminals known to the police.
These persons are known to make away with £42,000 per annum; the prison population at any particular time is 6,000, costing for the jear £170,000. Our juvenile thieves costs us £300 a piece.
.Mr. Timbs calculates the number of profes>ioual beggars in London at 35,000, two-thirds of whom are Irish. Thirty thousand men, women and children are employed in the costermonger trade; besides, we have, according to Mr. Mayhew, 2,000 street sellers of green stuff, 4,000 street sellers of eatables and drinkables, 1,000 street sellers of stationery, 4,000 street sellers of other articles, whose receipts are three i sterling, and whose incomes may be put at one million. Let us extend our survey, and we shall not wonder that the public houses, and the ginpalaces, and the casinos, and the theatres, and the penny gaffs, and the lowest and vilest places of resort in London are full. In Spitalfields there are 70,000 weavers, with but 10s. per week; there are 22,479 tailors; 30,805 shoemakers; 43,928 milliners; 21,210 seamstresses; 1,769 bonnet makers; and 1,277 cap-makers. What wretched work is theirs! There are two worlds in London, with a gulf between—the rich and the poor. We have glanced at the latter; for the sake of contrast, let us look at the former. Emerson says the wealth of London determines prices all over the
globe. In 1847 the money coined in the Mint was £5,158,440 in gold, £125,730 in silver, and £8,960 in copper.
The business of the Bank of England is conducted by about 800 clerks, whose salaries amount to about .£190,000. The Bank in 1850 had about twenty millions of bank-notes in circulation. In the same year there were about five millions deposited in the savings banks of the metropolis.
The gross customs revenue of the port of London in 1849 was £11,070,176; sixty-five millions, is the estimate formed by Mr. McCulloch of the total value of produce conveyed into and from London. The gross rental, as assessed by the property and income tax, is twelve and a half millions.
The gross property insured at £166,000,000, and only two-fifths of the houses are insured. The amount of capital at the command of the entire London bankers may be estimated at 64 millions; the insurance companies have always 10 millions of deposits ready for investment; 78 millions are employed in discounts. In 1841, the transactions of one London house alone amounted to 30 millions. In 1839, the payments made in the clearing-house were 954 millions, an enormous sum, which will appear still greater when we remember that all sums under £100 are omitted from this statement. All this business cannot be carried on without a considerable amount of eating and drinking. The population consumes annually 277,000 bullocks, 30,000 calves, 1,480,000 sheep, 34,000 pigs, 1,600,000 quarters of wheat, 310,405,000 pounds of potatoes, 89,672,600 cabbages. Of fish the returns are almost incredible. Besides, it eats 2,742,000 fowls, 1,281,000 garof, exclusive of those brought from the different parts of the United Kingdom; from 70 to 75 millions of eggs are annually imported from London into France and other countries. About 13,000 cows are kept in the city and its environs for the supply of milk and cream; and if we add to their value that of cheese, and butter, and milk brought from the country into the city, the expenditure on produce daily must be enormous. Then London consumes 65,000 pipes of wine, 2,000,000 gallons of spirits, 43,200,000 gallons of porter and ale, and burns 3,000,000 tons of coals; and 1 have seen it estimated that one-fourth of the commerce of the nation is carried on in its port.
In London, in 1853, according to Sir R. Mayne, they were 3,613 beer-shops, 5,279 public houses, and 13 wine-rooms.
And now to guard all this wealth, to preserve all this mass of industry honest, and to keep down all this crime what have we? 6,367 police costing £373,968; 13 police courts, costing £45,050; and about a dozen criminal prisons, 69 union relieving-officers, 316 officers of local boards, and 1,256 other local officers.
We have 35 weekly magazines, 9 daily newspapers, 5 evening, and 72 weekly ones. Independently of the mechanics' institutions, colleges, and endowed schools, we have 14,000 children of both sexes clothed and educated gratis, in the National, and British and Foreign schools in all parts of London, and Sunday schools.
The more direct religious agency may be estimated as follows: In the " Hand book to Places of Worship, published by Low in 1851, there is a list of 371 churches and chapels in connec
church sittings, according to Mr. Mann, is 409,184; the Independents have about 140 places of worship, and 100,436 sittings; the Baptists 130 chapels, and accommodation for 54,234; the Methodists, 154 chapels, 60,696 sittings; the Presbyterians, 23 chapels, 18,211 sittings; the Unitarians 9 chapels and about 3,300 sittings; the Roman Catholics, 35 chapels and 35, 994 sittings; 4 Quaker chapels, with sittings for 3,151; the Moravians have 2 chapels, with 1,100 sittings; the Jew's have 11 synagogues and 3,692 sittings. There are 94 chapels belonging to the New Church, the Plymouth Brethren, the Irvingites, the Latter day Saints, Sandcmanians, Lutherans, French Protestants, Greeks, Germans, Italians, which chapels have sittings for 18,833.
We thus get 691,723 attendants on Divine exercises.
of muscles join in the rescue; nearly one-half the body arouses against the intruder; from the muscles of the lips to those of the abdomen, all unite in the effort for the expulsion of the grain of snuff. Let us consider what occurs in this instantaneous operation. The lungs become fully inflated, the abdominal organs are pressed downwards, and the veil of the palate falls down to form a barrier to the escape of air through the mouth; and now all the muscles, which have relaxed for the purpose, contract simultaneously, and force the compressed air from the lungs in a torrent out through the nasal passages, with
with the Establishment; the number of j the benevolent determination to sweep away the
particle of snuff which has been causing irritation therein. Such, then, is the complicated action of a sneeze; and if the first effort does not succeed, then follows a second, a third, and a fourth; and not until victory is achieved, do the army of defenders dissolve their compact, and settle down in the enjoyment of peace and quietude.—Journal of Medical Reform.
To be useful is to be happy; to be loved of God is to be blessed.
THE PnilOSOrHY OF SNEEZING.
A sneeze always indicates that there is something wrong. It does not occur in health, unless some foreign ageut irritates the membranes of the nasal passages, upon which the nervous filaments are distributed. In case of cold, or what is termed influenza, these are unduly excitable, and hence the repeated sneezings which then occur. The nose receives three sets of nerves : tfie nerves of smell, those of feeling and those of motion. The former communicate to the brain the odorous properties of substances with which they come in contact, in a diffused or concentrated state; the second communicate the impressions of touch; the third move the muscles of the nose, but the power of these muscles is very limited. When a sneeze occurs, all these faculties are excited in a high degree. A grain of snuff" excites the olfactory nerves, which despatch to the brain the intelligence that "snuff has attacked the nostril I" The brain instantly sends a mandate through the motor nerves to the muscles, saying, "Cast it out!" and the result is unmistakable. So offensive is the enemy besieging the nostril held to be, that the iiw, ,.- not left to its own defence. It were too keoie iv, accomplish this. An allied army
The noblest revenge we can take upon our enemies, is to do them a kindness, for to return malice for malice, and injury, will afford but a temporary gratification to our evil passions, and our enemies will only he rendered the more bitter against us. But, to take the first opportunity of showing them how superior we are to them, by doing them a kindness, or by rendering them a service, the sting of reproach will enter deeply into their souls; and, while unto us it will be a noble retaliation, our triumph will not unfrequently be rendered complete, not only by blotting out the malice that had otherwise stood against us, but by bringing repentant hearts to offer themselves at the shrine of friendship.
Flouk Abd Meal.—Flour is not very active. Good brands are held at $7 50 per bbl., and brands for home consumption at $7 75 a $8 00, and extra and fancy brands at $8 75 a 10 00. There is very little demand for export, and little stock to operate in. Rye Flour is held at $4 75 per barrel, and Pennsylvania Corn Meal at $4 00 per barrel.
Grain.— Wheat is dull,and the market bare. Sales of prime Pennsylvania rtd were made at $1 85 a 1 87. and $1 90 a 1 92 for good white. Rye is scarce. Penna. is selling at *1 10. Corn is less active. Sales of Penna. yellow, afloat, at 87 a 85c. Oats are steady; sales of Pennsylvania and Delaware at 60c per bn.