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article for a periodical, I wrote the “Solemn a test of the Christian character, or to call in Review of the Custom of War,' which was pub- question the piety of those who have been adlished, I think, the very week that the Treaty of vocates and promoters of war. But I can say Peace was signed at Ghent.

with the greatest truth, that I am unacquainted “While writing that part I became thoroughly with any errors which have been adopted by any convinced that war is the effect of delusion, sect of Christians which appear to me more totally repugnant to the Christian religion, and evidential of a depraved heart, than those which wholly unnecessary, except as it becomes so from sanction war, and dispose men to glory in slaughdelusion and the basest passions of human nature; tering one another. What, we might ask with that when it is waged for a redress of wrongs, confidence, is the evil of denying or disbelieving its tendency is to multiply wrongs a hundred any one of the supposed essential doctrines of any fold; and that in principle, the best we can make sect of Christians in New England, compared of it, is doing evil that good may come. It is with the evil of believing that it is consistent now more than eight years since I began to write with the spirit and precepts of the gospel for the “Solemn Review ;' and I believe I may say Christians of different nations to engage in war with truth, that when awake, the subject of war — to meet in the field of battle, and destroy one has not been absent from my mind an hour at another by thousands and tens of thousands? If a time in the whole course of the eight years. On a man, even of apparently good character, avows the most thorough examination, I am firmly of a belief that human infants are not by nature the opinion, that there has never been any error totally sinful, there are a multitnde of churches among Christians more grossly anti-christian or who would refuse to admit him to their fellowmore fatal in its effects, than those which are ship. Yet another man who believes in the the support of war; that what are called pre- doctrine of total sinfulness by nature, may be parations for war are the natural means of pro- admitted to their communion, with his bands duciog the calamity, and that the popular reeking with the blood of many brethren whom belief that being prepared for war is the means he has slain in war, and this too while he justi. for avoiding it, has been contradicted by the fies those fashionable murders !” experience of more than a thousand years among “A Solemn Review of the Custom of War" the nations of Christendom.

is one of the most successful and efficient "Though I frankly express my own views of pamphlets of any period. It has been translated war, as perfectly needless, unjust, and opposed into many languages, and circulated extensively to the spirit of the gospel, I have no doubt that throughout the world. It is one of the chief many men better than myself, have been of a instruments by which the opinions of society different opinion. I cannot however but doubt, have been affected within the present century. whether they could have long continued of the The season of its publication was favorable; the opposite opinion, had they bestowed half as world was wearied with battles and longed for rest. much attention on the subject as I have done, It found a response in the heart of the commuor as they have probably bestowed on other nity, and many able men were ready to repeat and subjects of far less importance. I suspect that enforce its doctrines. It was followed by the no one thing in the history of Christians will formation of the Massachusetts Peace Society in cause greater astonishment to posterity in a more 1815, and by the publication of “ The Friend of enlightened age of the world, than the fact, that Peace" in 1819, and which was continued in professed ministers of the gospel have been so quarterly numbers for 10 years; being almost generally advocates and abettors of war; and entirely written by himself. that while Christians of different sects have been It is to his services in this cause of the highest alienated from each other, and have spent much philanthropy that Noah Worcester owes his chief of their time in contending about unintelligible distinction, and his claim to the reverence and dogmas, they could unite in the atrocious work gratitude of mankind. His independent and of shedding human blood in the political contests true-hearted pursuit of truth, his humble and of nations. Private or individual murders are gentle advocacy of it in catholic writing and justly esteemed and punished as among the holy living, give him a place among the eminent grossest of human crimes; yet wholesale murder disciples of Christ. In his labors for peace, he for the settlement of trivial national contro did something toward a palpable advancement versies, has been licensed, sanctioned and even of Christianity and civilization. He set in motion commended by the rulers of Christian nations, an agency which unites itself with the multiand applauded by the ministers of the Christian tude of other agencies now carrying forward the religion of almost every sect in Christendom ! progress of man, and which are so knit together

* Notwithstanding all my zeal in the cause of that they reciprocally strengthen each other. peace, and the perfect conviction that the war The result of his labors and those of other spirit is in direct opposition to the precepts and Christians in this cause is already apparent. spirit of the gospel, I have dever felt myself The extensive change that has taken place in authorized to make my own views of the subject the sentiments of men respecting war; the disapprobation expressed in so strong terms by sentiments of others for support and encourageleading statesmen, and the diminished honor ment; but labor after true quietude and patience paid to military greatness by men of letters ; the of soul, whereby thou mayest, with comfortable readiness with which opportunities of battle are assurance in the right time, have thy head now shunned, when formerly they would have raised in hope, and thy growth in religious exbeen sought; and in which mediation bas been periences be less superficial, than I fear is often accepted for peace sake ; the frequent appeals of the case, even with those who have been put the religious press and the pulpit, which formerly forth by the Heavenly Shepherd. There is no spoke so rarely, and so often in tone of the eonsolation, no confidence, wisdom or strength, common world; all these and other signs display like that which proceeds from the deep or hid. the coming on of a better day for man. Other den spring, whereunto we must learn to dig, if causes, such as the religious, political, and com- ever we are rightly grounded in the work of mercial condition of men, have operated power sanctification; and as the divine will, is our sancfully to favor the progress of peace, but they tification, if we obey it, be not slack in surrenwork indirectly. For the permanent and in- dering thyself thereto. I write not these things destructible basis of any great improvement, from an apprehension that thou needest them there is always needed the foundation of some more than others, for my sentiments of thee great principle, well understood, and intelligently are very different; but I wish thee to set out acted upon. The world must be changed by a independent of any instrumental help, except change of its ideas ; and he does most for peace, that which is sent from the fountain of purity : who does most to change opinion respecting the and to look to no example further than is conright and innocence of war, and the duty of sistent with the holy pattern. peace, and who allies the highest truth and

SARAH GRUBB. sternest motives that govern men, in sacred and uncompromising hostility against the evil. This did Noah Worcester; and in that blessed day

THE NATURE OF FAITH. which is coming, when war shall no longer be A parent sets out upon a journey, and takes the chief occupation of governments, and the with him one of his little children, always acimmense treasures and splendid talents now oc- customed to receive benefits from his parental cupied in corrupting, shall be employed in bless- tenderness. The child plainly knows nothing ing mankind, what bigher eulogy will be found of the destined journey, of the place which he than that he wrote the “Friend of Peace?” will find, the entertainment which he will re[To be continued.]

ceive, the sufferings which he must undergo, or

the pleasures which he may enjoy. Yet the LETTER OF ENCOURAGEMENT AND TENDER child goes willingly and with delight. Why? CAUTION.

not because he is ignorant; for ignorance by itCardiff, 5th mo., 1756. self is a source to him of nothing but doubt and We are sometimes like pilgrims, whose faith fear. Were a stranger to propose to him the and patience are at a low ebb; and were it not same journey, in the same terms, he would defor the gracious condescepsion of Him who re-cline it at once; and could not be induced to gardeth the sparrows, and whose arm of ever-enter upon it without compulsion. Yet his lasting strength is underneath in seasons of ignorance, here, would be at least equally great. drooping and dismay, we should be ready at He is wholly governed by rational considerations. times to faint ; but it is the renewing of holy Confidence in his parent, whom he knows by help that becomes strength in weakness to those experience to be only a benefactor to him, and that put their trust in it, and a present sufficiency in whose affection and tenderness he has always when we are not able to provide for ourselves. found safety and pleasure, is the sole ground of May thou be fully grounded in this trust, that his cheerful acceptance of the proposed journey, thereby, in times of discouragement and sifting, and of all his subsequent conduct. In his thy stability may endure, and thy experience parent's company, he feels delighted; in his increase in the knowledge that all things work care, safe. Separated from him, he is at once together for good to those that truly love the alarmed, anxious, and miserable. Nothing can appearances or manifestations of the divine will. easily restore him to peace, or comfort, or hope,

I believe thou knowest that I dearly love but the return of his parent. In his own obethee, and I may add, have felt sweet unity with dience and filial affection, and in his father's thy spirit; and therefore hope ever freely to approbation and tenderness, care and guidance, pour into thy mind any little hints which may he finds sufficient enjoyment, and feels satisfied in that love revive toward thee. And now, and secure. He looks for po other motive than as thou hast put thy hand to a good work, let his father's choice, and his own confidence. me say, look pot back; and when the certainty The way which the father points out, although of thy being rightly anointed for it is withdrawn, perfectịy unknown to him; the entertainment which is no uncommon trial, look not then to the which he provides, the places at which he

chooses to stop, and measures, universally, which treated. The distress of his family, and his own he is pleased to take, are, in the view of the patience, courage, and piety, softened the hearts child, all proper, right and good. For his of his persecutors. Like his own Christian in parent's pleasure, and for that only, he inquires; the cage, he found protectors even among the and to this single object are confined all his crowd of Vanity Fair. The Bishop of the dioviews and all his affections.— Dwight.

cese, Dr. Barlow, is said to have interceded for

him. At length the prisoner was suffered to BUNYAN AND HIS WRITINGS.

pass most of his time beyond the walls of the

jail, on condition, as it would seem, that he At length Bunyan began to write, and, though remained within the town of Bedford." it was some time before be discovered where his He owed his complete liberation to one of strength lay, his writings were not unsuccessful. the worst acts of one of the worst governments They were coarse, indeed, but they showed a that England has ever seen. In 1671 the Cabal keen mother-wit, a great command of the homely was in power. Charles II. had concluded the mother-tongue, an intimate knowledge of the treaty by which he bound himself to set up the English Bible, and a vast and dearly-bought Roman Catholic religion in England. The first spiritual experience. They therefore, when the step which he took towards that end was to corrector of the press had improved the syntax annul, by an unconstitutional exercise of his and the spelling, were well received by the prerogative, all the penal statutes against the humbler class of Dissenters.

Roman Catholics; and, in order to disguise his Much of Bunyau's time was spent in contro- real design, he annulled at the same time the versy. He wrote sharply against the Quakers, penal statutes against Protestant non-conformwhom he seems always to have held in utter ab- ists. Bunyan was consequently set at large. In horrence. It is, however, a remarkable fact, that the first warmth of his gratitude he published a he adopted one of their peculiar fashions : his tract in which he compared Charles to that practice was to write, not November or Decem-humane and generous Persian king who, though ber, but eleventh month and twelfth month., not himself blessed with the light of the true

He wrote against the liturgy of the Church of religion, favored the chosen people, and perEngland. No two things, according to him, mitted them, after years of captivity, to rehad less affinity than the form of prayer and the build their beloved temple. To candid men, spirit of prayer. Those, he said with much who conaider how much Bunyan had suffered, point, who have most of the spirit of prayer, and how little he could guess the secret design of are all to be found in jail; and those who have the court, the unsuspicious thankfulness with most zeal for the form of prayer are all to be which he accepted the precious boon of freedom found at the ale-house. The doctrinal articles, will not appear to require any apology. on the other hand, he warmly praised, and de- Before he left his prison he had begun the fended against some Arminian clergyman who book which has made his name immortal. The had signed them. The most acrimonious of all history of that book is remarkable. The author bis works, is his answer to Edward Fowler, was, as he tells us, writing a treatise in which afterwards bishop of Gloucester, an excellent he had occasion to speak of the stages of the man, but not free from the taint of Pelagianism. Christian progress. He compared that progress,

Bunyan had also a dispute with some of the as many others had compared it, to a pilgrimage. chiefs of the sect to which he belonged. He Soon his quick wit discovered innumerable points doubtless held with perfect sincerity the dis- of similarity which had escaped his predecessors. tinguishing tenet of that sect, but he did not Images came crowding on his mind faster than consider that tenet as one of high importance ; he could put them into words, quagmires and and willingly joined in communion with pious pits, steep hills, dark and horrible glens, soft Presbyterians and Independents. The sterner vales, sunny pastures, a gloomy castle, of which Baptists, therefore, loudly pronounced him a the court-yard was strewn with the skulls and false brother. A controversy arose which long bones of murdered prisoners, a town all bustle survived the original combatants. In our own and splendor, like London on the Lord Mayor's time the cause which Bunyan had defended Day, and the narrow path, straight as a rule with rude logic and rhetoric against Kiffin and could make it, running on up hill and down hill, Danvers was pleaded by Robert Hall with an through city and through wilderness, to the ingenuity and eloquence such as no polemical | Black River and Shining Gate. He had found writer has ever surpassed.

out, as most people would have said, by accident, During the years which immediately followed | as he would doubtless have said, by the guidance the Restoration, Bunyan's confineinent seems to of Providence, where his powers lay. He had have been strict. But as tbe passion of 1660 no suspicion, indeed, that he was producing a cooled, as the hatred with which the Puritans masterpiece. He could not guess what place had been regarded while their reign was recent his allegory would occupy in English literature; gave place to pity, he was less and less harshly I for of English literature he knew nothing. Those who suppose him to have studied the Fairytimes. The eighth edition, which contains the Queen might easily be confuted, if this were the last improvements made by the author, was pubproper place for a detailed estimation of the lished in 1682, the ninth in 1684, the tenth in passages in which the two allegories have been 1685. The help of the engraver had early thought to resemble each other. The only work been called in; and tens of thousands of children of fiction, in all probability, with which he could looked with terror and delight on execrable compare his Pilgrim, was his old favorite, the copper-plates, which represented Christian thrustlegend of Sir Bevis of Southampton. He would ing his sword into Apollyon, or writhing in the have thought it a sin to borrow any time from grasp of Giant Despair. In Scotland, and in the serious business of his life, from his exposi some of the colonies, the Pilgrim was even more tions, his controversies, and his lace tags, for the popular than in his native country. Bunyan has purpose of amusing himself with what he con- told us, with very pardonable vanity, that in sidered a mere trifle. It was only, he assures us, New England his dream was the daily subject at spare moments that he returned to the House of the conversation of thousands, and was thought Beautiful, the Delectable Mountains, and the worthy to appear in the most superb binding. Enchanted Ground. He had no assistance. He had numerous admirers in Holland, and Nobody but himself saw a line till the whole was among the Huguenots of France. With the complete. He then consulted his pious friends. pleasures, however, he experienced some of Some were pleased, others were much scandalized. the pains of eminence. Knavish booksellers It was a vain story, a mere romance, about put forth volumes of trash under his name, and giants, and lions, and goblins, and warriors, envious scribblers maintained it to be impossible sometimes fighting with monsters, and some that the poor ignorant tinker should really be times regaled by fair ladies in stately palaces. the author of the book which was called his. The loose atheistical wits of Will's might write He took the best way to confound both those such stuff to divert the painted Jezebels of the who counterfeited him and those who slandered court! but did it become a minister of the Gos him. He continued to work the Gold-field which pel to copy the evil fashions of the world ? he had discovered, and to draw from it new There had been a time when the cant of such treasures, not indeed with quite such ease, and fools would have made Bunyan miserable. But in quite such abundance as when the precious that time was passed ; and his mind was now in soil was still virgin, but yet with success which a firm and healthy state. He saw that, in em- | left all competition far behind. In 1684 appearploying fiction to make truth clear and goodness ed the second part of the Pilgrim's Progress. attractive, he was only following the example It was soon followed by the Holy War, which, which every Christian ought to propose to him if the Pilgrim's Progress did not exist would self; and he determined to print.

be the best allegory that ever was written.The Pilgrim's Progress stole silently into the “ New Biographies of Illustrious Men.world. Not a single copy of the first edition is known to be in existence. The year of publication has not been ascertained. It is probable,

THINK-SPEAK-ACT. that during some months, the little volume cir. Would that every one could realize the vast culated only among the poor and obscure sec- importance of these little words; think, speak, taries. But soon the irresistible charm of a act. In this world where character is continubook which gratified the imagination of the ally in a state of formation, and scarce ever reader with all the action and scenery of a fairy reaches a climax, it is no little thing, but it tale, which exercised his ingenuity by setting behooves us that we reflect how to speak, think him to discover a multitude of curious analogies, and act. In our lives is not visible the effects which interested his feelings for human beings, of our actions, but their influences will show frail like himself, and struggling with tempta-themselves when onr bodies are laid beneath tions from within and without, which every the sod. The influence of many words and moment drew a smile from him by some stroke actions never dies, but like circles in water when of quaint yet simple pleasantry, and neverthe- a stone is cast into its bosom, keeps widening, less left on his mind a sentiment of reverence till we can scarce define it, or our eyes reach its for God and of sympathy for man, began to boundaries. Many times our words and actions produce its effect. In puritanical circles, from may touch a chord in the harp of humanity, the which plays and novels were strictly excluded, influence of which will vibrate throughout eterthat effect was such as no work of genius, though nity; and it is the same if the influence be for it was superior to the Iliad, to Don Quixote, or to good or evil. Not a thought in our mind, not Othello, can ever produce on a mind accustomed a word escapes our lips, not an action is perto indulge in literary luxury. In 1678 came formed, but that God is witness of. How imforth a second addition with additions; and portant it is, then, that our every endeavor be then the demand became immense. In the four for the good, and that we weigh well everv following years the book was reprinted six thought word and action. If we do thus, our

influence will assuredly be good, and such that marily to M'Clure, who, from the heights of Barwe shall never have the cause to regret. Jing's Island, saw, seventy nautical miles away,

across impassable ice, points which Parry had Selected for Friends' Intelligencer.

reached from the opposite side; and like the We live at an epoch full of splendid discov- Spaniard, who, “silent upon a peak in Darien," ery. No period in history, equally brief-one first saw the Pacific, locked down Barrow Strait at the close of the fifteenth century, when Co-homeward. Yet no little fame will be his, who, lumbus found the Western world, and De Gama working his way through intervening ice, effects, the way to the Eastern, alone excepted—has not merely demonstrates the passage. So like. yielded so brilliant a harvest of reliable geo-wise the honor of proving an open polar sea begraphical knowledge as the six years closing longs to Dr. Kane; while a large residuum of with 1855. The period covers the investigations credit is reserved for the sailor who shall attain of Barth, Vogel, and De Lauture in Middle Àfrica; and navigate those unvisited waters. Nor is the of Oswell, Livingstone and Andersson in the field of unfinished labor at the North confined to South; of Lieutenant Burton in the East. It these two enterprises. The coast line of the covers the perquisitions of Layard, Rawlinson, North American Continent is yet to be defined; and Place, in Assyria. It covers the highly the extent and direction of various straits, bays interesting, but curiosity-provoking excursions and inlets, separating the Arctic islands, are to of Herndron and Page up the Maranon and be ascertained; the islands themselves are to be Parana into the heart of South America. It surveyed; Greenland is to be circumnavigated. covers the explorations of M'Clure, Collinson, All these things will doubtless be accomplished Rae, and Kane, within the Polar circle. It up before 1957; the most of them during the curfolds an index of courage, labor and patience, rent century. An expedition furnished with all well rewarded, that might stimulate the most in the results of M'Clure, Collinson, and Kane, dolent in civilized life into the spirit of adven- and instructed thoroughly by their experience of ture. The index is that of a bulky volume, con ice and cold, is already planned in England; and, taining stores of facts precious to science, with if managed with sense, intrepidity, and attended very little that is not tributary to some depart- with good fortune, may foregather the labors of ment of knowledge. But foremost and chief, as a generation or two. The propriety of expeditthe leading discoveries of the time, and the ing overland from Canada a subsidiary company, crown and compliment of all preceding research, provided completely with the appliances of scienrank these three: .

tific and geographical observation will not, we 1. The discovery, in 1849, by Captain Os- suspect, be overlooked by Her Majesty's Cowell and Dr. Livingstone, of the great Lake lonial office. Ngami, in Southern Africa, thus partially con-' In South America, the grand labors of Humfirming Greek and African tradition, and the con- boldt and Boppland-only less valuable because jectures of geologists, that the unknown deserts effected before the natural sciences had assumed of that continent beneath the Lunar range are their present better classification with the diversified with expanded sheets of water, and minor attempts of Herndon and Page, only whet possibly an inland sea.

the appetite for information. Paraguay is still 2. The discovery, in 1850, by Captain M'Clure, a terra incognita ; the upper waters of the Amof a Northwest passage to China, three hundred azon have been but cursorily noted; the hammer years after Sir Hugh Willoughby first attempt of the geologist has scarcely disturbed the echoes ed to find it, and after three hundred years of of the Andes, with their wonderous peaks and gallant endeavor and matchless suffering in the table-lands, abrupt chasms, and irregular stratifipursuit.

cation; the shelves of our museums boast very 3. The discovery, in 1855, by Dr. Kane, of few representatives of the animal and vegetable an iceless circum polar sea, the existence of fecundity which throngs the prolific plains at which had been pre-supposed by science. their feet. The southern half of our hemisphere

The latter two achievements leave oply second is, in fact, a vast arena for remunerative rerate honors to subsequent maritime exploration. I search-an arena uninterrupted and unimpoverNot but that there is a world of work to be done ; ished by desert sands. The Emperor of Brazil, not but that there are as valuable facts in the we are glad to note, has organized an expedition sea as ever came out of it. But the main glory to so much of the course of the Amazon as lies of adventure consists in pioneering the way, within his dominions. It is designed to start which, once indicated, they who follow are but early in the coming autumn. instruments in the hands of the true discoverer. Africa more than makes up for the deficienIs not the discovery of the planet Neptune credi- cies of South America in the article of sand. ted to Le Verrier, who demonstrated its place in Its animal kingdom is also upon a more stuthe concave, rather than to the star-gazer, who, pendous scale, adding that formidable obstacle guided by his data, found it? So will the glory to other peculiar perils of exploration. Neverof finding the Northwest Passage belong pri- theless, thanks to the enterprise of the Viceroy

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