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tropists have regarded with favor, the proposition to appropriate the public lands for this purpose, and it is contemplated during the present year, to hold a National Convention of those favorable to the object, with a view of discussing more fully the proposition and pressing it upon the attention of the country.
No candid man, North or South, can hesitate to admit that the antagonisms and estrangements generated by the»system of Slavery imperil the life of our beloved Union far more than a world of foreign foes would do.
Fifty years of the nation's experience prove that peace, harmony and brotherly unity can never pervade this great continental family of States while Slavery exists; but that, on the contrary, the embittering struggle will grow more and more intense and calamitous, until some competent measure be adopted for the extinction of that system.
If the Union were at war with a coalition of European powers, and could only escape subjugation by the abolition of Slavery, the Constitution, as well as the law of self-preservation, would fully sanction that summary act. Both these sources of authority would authorize the Federal Congress to take equitable and adequate steps for putting an end to the same evil, in order to vanquish a domestic foe more dangerous to the Union than all the external enemies that could be arrayed against it.
If Slavery were abolished in time of war, as a national act of self-defense, the slaveholders of the South would claim and receive indemnification for the act of manumission. If the system is to be abolished to destroy an internal enemy, which is sapping the very soul of the Republic, they should be equally compensated for the emancipation of their slaves.
For nearly fifty years the Legislatures of the Southern States have done all that their acts could achieve to legalize and sustain Slavery—to encourage the people of those States to invest theit capital in slaves. They cannot now justly tarn around and treat those acts as immoralities, and destroy the property which they have de facto created, without compensating its present holders for the loss entailed upon them. What the Southern States cannot do by themselves, consistently with justice and equity, all the States of the Union cannot do together.
The utter extirpation of Slavery from American soil should be achieved in a way and in a ipirit that wotlld attach all the members of the Confederation to each other by stronger bonds than have ever existed between them; which should bequeath to its numerous posterity of States a rich legacy of precious memories, dcepeni"g and perpetuating their sense of fraternal re
lationship, as co-heirs of the noblest chapters of American history.
Of all the parties to this great moral struggle, the well-being of the slaves will be most dependent upon the prevalence of a spirit of brotherhood and benevolence throughout the nation at the time of their manumission. Nothing but Slavery itself, of the most atrocious stamp, could be worse for them than emancipation in a tempest of malignant passions, of fierce and fiery hate. Great as the system of Slavery has grown,it may be equitably abolished without increasing the taxation of the country by a single farthing per head of its population. The public lands alone would be sufficient to pay for the emancipation of all the slaves in the Union, if appropriated exclusively to that object. Without including the lands acquired from Mexico by the treaty of 1853, this national domain contains 1,600,000,000 acres. At 75 cents per acre, they would yield, in the end, S1,:'00,000,000. Admitting $"250 per head for the whole slave population to be a fair average price, taking young and old, sick and infirm, three millions and a half would amount to S875,000,000. Thus this landed estate of the nation would not only emancipate all the slaves in its borders, but would yield a large surplus for their moral elevation and improvement
A considerable portion of the public domain lies in the Slave States, and consequently has but little demand or value. The abolition of Slavery would create, both, by the continually increasing influx of men and capital from the present Free States and from Europe. In Missouri, for example, there are lo,000,000 acres of the public lands still unsold and unappropriated. The extinction of Slavery would bring these lands immediately into market, and at a price which would yield a sum sufficient to pay for the emancipation of all the slaves in the State. Thus, Missouri might be freed from the evil without sending her a dollar from the National Treasury, or the proceeds of a single acre of land lying outside her borders.
The pecuniary results of Emancipation in Missouri would be immediate and immeasurable. There would be such a rapid development of her mineral and agricultural resources, such a great and sudden enhancement of the prices of her lands, th-it Kentucky, Tennessee, Maryland, Delaware and Virginia would be induced to follow her example, one after the other, in comparatively quick succession.
By lifting the incubus of Slavery from a single State, like Missouri, not only a powerful precedent would be established, to work upon the remaining Southern States, but great additional wealth would accrue to the nation increasing its capacity to carry on the enterprise of general Emancipation.
There is no object more national, patriotic or politic, to which the public lands could be appropriated, than this peaceful and gradual extinction of Slavery, State by State. They constitute a resource fully adequate to remove the great evil from our land, without imposing a tax, or occasioning a loss, which its poorest inhabitant would feel. Unless appropriated to this patriotic enterprise, they will be frittered away upon speculating railway companies, or upon objects of a local character in the new States and Territories.
Even in thus appropriating the Public Domain to the emancipation of the slaves, it would not be absolutely necessary to withhold judicious grants to railway companies; for it is assumed that the every alternate section reserved by the Government, in making these donations, will produce as much as both sections without the railway. Thus, no honest and useful railway enterprise in the new States would necessarily be deprived of any legitimate aid by the plan proposed.
The Federal Congress would not in the slightest degree transcend its legitimate prerogatives, nor infringe upon the sovereignty of any Southern State, by making this generous offer of compensation, whenever it might be disposed to emancipate its slaves. Such an offer would not impair its right to retain or abolish Slavery at its own will. Should it prefer, on due consideration, to put an end to the system, it would perform in and by itself every act of legislation necessary to effect that object. It would distribute the money received from the National Treasury among its slave-holders in its own way, and by its own officers.
Suppose that $250 per slave should be the average compensation allowed to every Southern State for emancipation, it would require the income from the public lands for nearly three years to pay Maryland for manumitting her slaves. In case she should follow the example of Missouri at an interval of only a year, about $15, 000,000, over and above the revenue from the national domain, in that space of time, would have to be raised for her. If the annual expenses of Government were limited to $60,000,000, a surplus averaging $20,000,000 a year might be realized, up to the end of the century, from customs duties alone. This surplus jmight be loaned to the Emancipation Fund from Public Lands, should it be needed in any year, to pay off such a State as Virginia. Thus it might be seldom, if ever, necessary for the nation to borrow money for carrying on the work of gradual emancipation. Even in such a contingency, it would greatly promote political morality and national economy even to be in debt, or under the necessity of saving money for some grand reproductive enterprise.
The Free States can afford not only to be just but generous to the South. Their commercial, religious and political partnership with it in
sustaining Slavery has been most intimate and extensive. They have had the handling of all the great staples of the South.' Cotton, rice and tobacco have constituted their currency in trading with Europe. In this they have mostly paid for their importations of foreign goods, which they have again sold to the South; thus making large profits in their various transactions in slave-grown produce. They have doubtless realized more than half " the wealth that sinews bought and sold have earned '•' in America. They would, with the same certaiuty, share equally in all the increased wealth and prosperity which Emancipation would bring to the South.
The foregoing are a few of the considerations urged in favor of Compensated Emancipation.
New Britain, Conn., April 8, 1^57.
Died,—At his residence in Caroline Co., Md., on the 5th inst., Daniel P. Bowers, a minister belonging to Thirdhaven Monthly Meeting, in the 58th year of his age. His dying testimony was encouraging to meekness and humility, giving clear evidence of his peace having been made, and his will subjected to the Divine will.
, At her residence in Saratoga Co., N. Y.,
Rebecca L. Dorland, wife of Andrew Dorland, and daughter of Isaac and Rebecca Leggett, in the 59th year of her age.
She was an elder of Saratoga MonthlyJVf eeting, and a faithful attender of all our meetings for worship and discipline, being concerned to take her family with her, and when unable to attend herBelf, would encourage her children to accompany their father. She often expressed a desire that the youth would walk in the path that leads to happiness and peace. Her close was quiet and composed, aud Wp. believe she is now reaping the reward of a well spent life.
, On Sixth day, the 5th inst., of typhoid pneumonia, at the residence of his son-in-law Dr. Joseph Thome, near Norristown, Pa., Job Englk, in the 7Sth year of his age, recently a member of Gwynedd Monthly and Norristown Particular Meeting, formerly a member of Lower Evesham Monthly Meeting, N. JAs he lived so he died, possessing in a remarkable degree a meek and quiet spirit, and thoush dead yet speaketh —follow me as 1 have followed Christ.
, On Sixth day morning, the 8th ult., Jesse
Kendail, a worthy member of Milford Particular and Monthly Meetings, in the 67th year of his age. We doubt not but he rests from his labors and bis works do follow him.
ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE. Professor Agassiz says that more than a lifetime would be necessary to enumerate the various species of insects and describe their appearance. Meiger, a German, collected aud described six hundred species of flies, which he collected in a distance of ten miles circumference.— There have been collected in Europe twenty thousand specimens of insects preying on wheat. In Berlin two professors are engaged in collecting, observing aud describing insects and their habits, and already have they published five large volumes descriptive of the various kinds of iusects which attack forest trees.
For Friends' Intelligencer.
Review of Oie Weather, Sfc, for Fifth Month.
Rain during some portion of the 24 hours, 9 d's 13 d's do. " the whole or nearly whole day, 5 3 Cloudy days without storms, ..54 Ordinary clear days, . . . 12 11 Rain during the mo., per Pa. Hospital, 2.59 in. 5-54 in. Mean temperature of do. . 60 J)eg. 60.85 Deg. do. of the three Sjiring months 48.73. 48.38.
The average temperature of Fifth mo.,
for 68 years past has been 62.63 "Highest do. during do. (1826) 71 "Lowest do. do. do. (1848) 51.75
The average Spring temperature for 68 years
past has been 50.68 "Highest do. during (1826) 65
"Lowest do. do. 1799—1843. 46
Deaths, during the Fifth month of last year, 955—the present year 88(i—the record for both years, com prising yiceenftVe werks to the month.
It will be seen, that with only two days more in the month on which r;iin has fallen, this year than last, the quantity has been more than dou bled.
The average for the month under review for twenty years past has been about four inches. It may also be observed that the average temperatures of the month the present year, vary but little from those of last year, while the entire spring temperature, this season, has been about two and a third degrees below the average for sixty eight'years past. J. M. E.
rhUa. Gth month, 1857.
DANGERS OP ABSOLUTE POWER.
Absolute puwer wax not meant for man. There is, indeed, an exception to this rule. There is one case in which God puts a human being, wholly defenceless, into another's hands. I refer to the child, who is wholly subjected to a parent's will. But observe how carefully, I might almost say anxiously, God has provided against the abuse of this power. He has raised up for the child, in the heart of the parent, a guardian, whom the mightiest on earth cannot resist. He has fitted the parent for this trust, by teaching him to love his offspring better than himself. No eloquence on earth is so subduing as the moaning of the infant when in pain. No reward is sweeter than that infant's smile. We say God has put the infant in the parent's hands. Might we not more truly say that He has put the parent in the child's power? That little being sends forth his father to toil, and makes the mother watch over him by day, and fix on him her sleepless eyes by night. No tyrant lays such a yoke. Thus God has fenced and secured from abuse the power of the parent; and yet even the parent has been known, in a moment of passion, to be cruel to his child. Is man then to be trusted with power over his fellow creature, who instead of being commended by nature to
his tenderest love, belongs to a despised race, is regarded as property, is made the passive instrument of his gratification and gain? I ask no , document to prove the abuse of this power, nor do I care what is said to disprove them. Millions may rise up and tell me that the slave suffers little from cruelty. I know too much of human nature, human history, human passion, to believe them. I acquit slaveholders of all peculiar depravity. I judge them by myself. I say that absolute power always corrupts human nature, more or less. I say, that extraordinary, almost miraculous self-control is necessary to secure the slaveholder from provocation and passion; and is self-control the virtue which, above all others, grows up amidst the possession of irresponsible dominion ?—Channing.
BAYARD TAYLOR IN NORTHERN EUROPE.
Correspondence of the N. Y. Tribune.
Juoxengi, in the Frigid Zone, Jan. 6, 1857. I was obliged to remain three days in Haparanda, applying poultices, gargles and linimeuts, according to the doctor's instructions. As my Swedish was scarcely sufficient for the comprehension of prescriptions, or medical technicalities in general, a written programme of my treatment was furnished to Fredrika, the servantmaid, who was properly impressed with the responsibility thereby devolving upon/ her. Fredrika, no doubt, thought that my life was in her hands, and nothing could exceed the energy with which she undertook its preservation. Punctually to the minute appeared the prescribed application, and, if she perceived or suspected any dereliction on my part, it was sure to be reported to the doctor at his next visit. I had the taste of camomile and mallows in my mouth from morning till night; the skin of my jaw blistered under the scorching of ammonia; but the final result was, that I was cured, as the doctor and Fredrika had determined.
This good-hearted girl was a genuine specimen of the Northern Swedish female. Of medium height, plump, but not stout, with a rather slender waist and expansive hips, and a foot which stepped firmly and nimbly at the same time, she was as cheerful a body as one could wish to see. Her hair was of that silky blonde so common in Sweden; her eyes a clear, pale blue, her nose straight and well-formed, her cheeks of the delicate pink of a wild-rose leaf, and her teeth so white, regular and perfect that 1 am sure they would make her fortune in America. Always cheerful, kind and active, she had, nevertheless, a hard life of it; she was alike cook, chambermaid and hostler, and had a cross mistress to boot. She made our fires in the morning darkness and brought us our early coffee while we yet lay in bed, in accordance with the luxurious habits of the Arctic zone. Then, until the last drunken guest was silent, toward midnight, there was no respite from labor. Although suffering from a distressing cough, she had the out-door as well as the in-door duties to discharge, and we saw her in a sheepskin jacket, harnessing horses, in a temperature of 30c below zero. The reward of such a service was possibly about eight American dollars a year. When, on leaving, I gave her about as much as one of our hotel servants would expect for answering a question, the poor girl was overwhelmed with gratitude, and even the stern landlady was so impressed by my generosity that she insisted on lending us a sheepskin for our feet, saying we were " good men."
There is something exceedingly primitive and unsophisticated in the manners of these Northern people—a straightforward honesty, which takes the honesty of others for granted—a latent kindness and good-will which may at first be overlooked, because it is not demonstrative, and a total unconsciousness of what is called, in highly civilized circles, "propriety." The very freedom of manners which, in some countries, might denote laxity of morals, is here the evident stamp of their purity. The thought has often recurred to me—which is the most truly pure and virginal nature, the fastidious American girl, who blushes at the sight of a pair of boots outside a gentleman's bedroom door, and who requires that certain unoffending parts of the body and articles of clothing should be designated by delicately circumlocutious terms, or the simple-minded Swedish women, who come into our bedrooms with coffee, and make our fires while we get up and dress, coming and going during all the various stages of the toilet, with the frankest unconsciousness of impr&priety? This is modesty in its healthy and natural development, not in those morbid forms which suggest an imagination ever on the alert for prurient images. Nothing has confirmed my impression of the virtue of the Northern Swedes more than this fact, and I have rarely felt more respect for woman or more faith in the inherent purity of her nature.
We had snug quarters in Haparanda, and our detention was therefore by no means irksome. A large room, carpeted, protected from the outer cold by double windows, and heated by an immense Russian stove, was allotted to us. We had two beds, one of which became a broad sofa during the day, a backgammon table, the ordinary appliances for washing, and beside a number of engravings on the walls (among them a portrait of the Rev. Dr. Baird,) our window commanded a full view of Torneaa, and the ice-track across the river, where hundreds of persons daily passed to and fro. The eastern window showed us the Arctic dawn, growing and brightening through its wonderful gradations of color, for four hours, when the pale orange sun appeared above the distant houses to slide along their roofs for two
hours, and then dip again. We had plentiful meals, consisting mostly of reindeer meat, with a sauce of Swedish cranberries, potatoes, which had been frozen, but were still palatable, salmon roes, soft bread in addition to tbe block shingles of Jladbrod, English porter and excellent Unieaa beer. In fact, in no country inn of the United States could we have been more comfortable. For the best which the place afforded, during four days, with a small provision for the journey, we paid about seven dollars.
The day before our departure, I endeavored to obtain some information concerning the road to Lapland, but was disappointed. The landlord ascertained that there were tkjuts, or relays of post-horses, as far as Muonioniska, 210 English miles, but beyond this I could only learn that the people were all Finnish, spoke no Swedish, ! were miserably poor, and could give us nothing to eat. I was told that a certain official personage at the apothecary's shop spoke German, and hastened thither; but tbe official, a dark-eyed, olive-faced Finn, could not understand my first question. The people even seemed entirely ignorant of the geography of the country beyond Upper Torneaa, or Matarengi, 40 miles off. The doctor's wife, a buxom, motherly lady, who seemed to feel quite an interest in our undertaking, and was as kind and obliging as such women always are, procured for us a supply of Jladbrod made of rye, and delightfully crisp and hard—and this was the substance of our preparations. Reindeer mittens were not to be found, nor a reindeer skin to cover our feet, so we relied, as before, on plenty of hay and my Scotch plaid. We might, perhaps, have had better success in Torneaa, but I knew no one there who would be likely to assist us, and we did not even visit the old place till we had taken the precaution of getting the Russian vise, together with a small stock of roubles at Stockholm, but now find that it was quite unnecessary. No passport is required for entering Torneaa, or travelling on the Russian side of the frontier.
Trusting to luck, which is about the best plan , after all, we started from Haparanda yesterday at noon. The day was magnificent, the sky cloudless and resplendent as polished steel, and the mercury 31° below zero. Tbe sun, scarcely more than the breadth of his disc above the horizon, shed a faint orange light over the broad, level snow-plains, and the bluish-white hemisphere of the Bothnian Gulf, visible beyond Torneaa. The air was perfectly still, and exquisitely cold and bracing, despite the sharp grip it took upon my nose and ears. -These Arctic days, short as they are, have a majesty of their own—a splendor, subdued though it be; a breadth and permanence of hue, imparted alike to the sky and to the s,nowy earth, as if tinted glass was held before your eyes. I find myself at a loss how to describe these effects, or the im
pression they produce on the traveller's mood. Certainly, it is the vary reverse of that depression which aecompanies the Polar night, and which, even the absence of any real daylight might be considered sufficient to produce.
(To bo concluded.)
BY MARY HOWITT.
I love the fields, the woods, the streams,
The wild flowers fresh and sweet,
The crowded city street;
Life's most extreme estates,
The prison's doleful gates:
With hunger in his eye;
Their arras chambers know!
From all the world beside;
Can deepest thought impart,
Are kindred to my heart;
Go, still the heaving ocean's roar,
Go, chain the viewless wind,
Till earth is left behind.
And quench the sun in night,
Then downward bend thy flight;
When thou hast chained the wind,
Then turn and fetter Mind.
To every thing beneath the sun there comes a last day—and of all futurity, this is the only portion of time that can in all cases be infallibly predicted. Let the sanguiue then take warning, and the disheartened take courage; for to every joy and to every sorrow, to every hope and to every fear, there will come a last day; and the man ought so to live by foresight, that while he learns in every state to be content, he shall in each be prepared for another, whatever the other may be.
[From the Rural New Yorker.] SUNFLOWER CULTURE AS A PREVENTIVE OF THE AGUE AND FEVER.
BY LIEUT. M. F. MAUKY.
Every experiment that has for its object the solution of any question in the affairs of man is instructive. Whether the experiment be successful or not, it is not the less instructive, for experience is acquired by the failure as well as by the success of experiments. Every tiller of the earth, from Adam down to the whistling plough-boy that saw his first furrow not longer ago than last autumn, has been given more or less to the making of experiments. A farmer "tries" this crop, or that plan, and his experiments are the ground-work of the experience which givesintelligent direction to his husbandry.
None of the great industrial pursuits is more fruitful of experiments than that of agriculture; 1 and if all the experiments that have been and are now making in this branch of industry had been systematically conducted, and if proper accounts of them had all been collected and published, what a valuable and instructive work should we have had! Take the Chinese sugarcane as an example for illustration. How many thousands of farmers intend to make a "trial" of it this year ?—and among this great number, how many, think you, will give for the benefit of agriculture any account of their experiment and its results? Perhaps a dozen or two. The aggregate experience of all the rest will be lost to the agricultural community—and yet, if collected and embodied together, it would be of incalculable value.
I have been led into this train of remarks in consequence of an experiment that I made last year with the cultivation of sunflowers as a preventive or protection against ague and fever, and if you will publish an account of this experiment, with an explanation of what was sought to be accomplished by it, and the results obtained, perhaps some of your many thousand readers will join and assist in carrying it out, for with such assistance a sanitary quesiion of great importance may be satisfactorily settled, one way or the other, in a little while.
The dwelling of the Superintendent is adjoining the Observatory, which is situated on a hill on the left bank of the Potomac, in lat. 38 deg., 39 min., 53 sec. It is 94 feet above the low water of ebb tide, and about 400 yards from the river. The grounds pertaining to it contain about 17 acres, inclosed by a brick wall on the east, south and west sides, with a picket fence on the north. The south wall runs along nearly parallel with the river, and so does the west. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, fringed by a single row of sycamores of some twenty years' growth, separates the wall from the river. In fact the river, with its marshes at the foot of the hill, encircles the grounds of the Observatory half way round,