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sors to leave a memorial of our arrival. It seemed to be a tribute of thankfulness due for the success of our undertaking; and presently every one of our party was seen busied in adding the inscription of his name.—E. D. Clarke.
PRESERVE YOUR EYES.
The following article from the pen of Dr. J. H. Clark, will recommend itself to the reader, for the sound common sense view it takes of the subject treated upon:
"Infancy is a period of immature, imperfect development. One half the human race perish in our cities before the fifth, aud in the rural districts before their seventh year. In early infancy, hereditary taints and predispositions are most manifest. These years passed, an immunity is enjoyed from these tendencies to a great extent; when at certain ages they reappear.
The management of children during the period of irruptive diseases, viz: measles, kine-pock, chicken-pock, and scarlet-fever, also whoopingcough, in all of which the eyes are more or less affected, has very much to do with their future well-being. A large number of the diseases of the eye in children, and most scrofulous diseases of childhood, date at the recovery from one of the irruptive diseases. This time passed, and frequently before, the eyes suffer greatly from the child being over-fed, and only a chauge in this particular will accomplish relief. Children, too, may be under fed. Their blood may, by this means, become impoverished, when disease of a worse kind, and more unmanageable, frequently ensues. Children in health should be accustomed to considerable light, except in the eases of the newly born ; and after recovery from irruptive diseases, they should be kept in a wclliighted apartment. It is a bad practice to have the breakfast room dark, but better to permit the eye to become gradually accustomed to the intense light of noonday. Like plants, children require the open air, and sunlight, in order to accomplish their fullest development, and to secure immunity from disease. No organ of the body so soon as the eyes exhibits lack of attention to the precautions or the consequences above alluded to. The period of teething is critical in relation to the eyes. The eyes of healthy children, in consequence of this cause, together with over-feeding", often become diseased. If improperly managed, it results sometimes in permanent disorder of the organ. Children are very susceptible, and arc severely affected by irritating causes that the adult would hardly perceive. Children of scrofulous tendencies Nuffer much more at this period of life from this cause; indeed, but few escape. Attention to the digestive organs is especially neccessary, and often a reduction of diet, in quality and quantity. These children should, as much as possible, be
exposed to the out door atmosphere ; this cannot be too strongly insisted u^on.
Passing on a little later, when the child begins to read, it will often place the book very near the eye, and sit in a bent position. In this way the eye is enfeebled, and near-sightedness may thereby even be induced. The tresses of little girls, if permitted to fall carelessly over the eyes, produce squinting; an unsightly and often irreparable condition. This deformity, 1 apprehend, usually occurs in consequence of the relaxed condition of that muscle charged with the duty of drawing the eye to one side, or the disproportionate strength of the antagonist muscle which inclines it to the other side. Many children have a constitutional weakness, and require to be closely watched on this subject. Observe a group of little girls learning to draw, or reading together, and it will be seen that the slate or book almost touches their little cheeks, while they are constantly brushing their curls from beforo their eyes. The most faulty habits of vision are, in this manner, in some constitutions, undoubtedly acquired. Toy-books and children's books should be printed in large type, and toys should be made of considerable size; nothing which eommands their close attention should bo so small as to strain the organ. The child's bed should not, if possible, always occupy the same position with regard to the light, nor, indeed, should the nurse hold the child in such a manner as that the light should fall upon it always in the same direction. With regard to children constitutionally strong, all these minute injunctions are usually unnecessary, but they should be observed, and their attention enjoined on the parent. Often these causes are observed to have produced distortion, derangement, or weakness, before any suspicion has been excited, or any care has been regarded necessary. The attention of children should be drawn to distant objects, when disposed to close application ; they should be taught to hold their heads up, and full twelve inches distant from the book, the musicrack, or the worsted frame, or whatever may be occupying their attention. The want of backs to music-stools, and their small size, tends to promote this habit, because it is necessary to lean forward to rest the back, and sit securely. Perhaps in no other position is a faulty habit oftener acquired. School-rooms should be light. Basements are unsuitable for this purpose. They are usually damp, and situated too low to enjoy the most wholesome atmosphere.
There is a class of children whose nervous systems preponderate, who had better have no education, except what they can get incidentally during their childhood's years. They need most physical development; mental culture they cannot receive to any great extent without loss of physical power. The eyes or some other organ will exhibit evidence of suffering if education is forced upon them. The world is filled with examples of the melancholy results of unthinking, indiscreet ambition on the part of parents, who, having become proud of the precociousness or excellence of a "smart child," crowd him on, disregarding the unmistakeable evidences of suffering and injury. Who has not heard of the prince who envied the boy that could play in the mud-bunk, while he must be dressed up and remain within the palace walls? The muflba.rtk is better than the infant-school; out-door air and dirty fuces, than tidiness and the overheated nursery; misdirected thoughts than mental discipline, at least for a large class of children. It has been well said, that a child learns more, and has more to learn incidentally before ten years of age, than all the years afterwards.
A case is related of a boy who attended school from 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. with only half an hour's intermission, and spent the whole of his evenings in the perusal of "Chambers' Edinburgh Journal," a work printed in small type. The eyes were permanently injured by this course. Feeble girls, with scrofulous constitutions and chalky complexions, are frequently sent to high-priced boarding-schools, where they must be taught the most in the shortest possible time. Their apartments are heated to the highest degree, and badly ventilated. Their periods of exercise are short and few. They breathe the out-door atmosphere at long intervals, and arc forced to conduct themselves so genteelly, that the native buoyancy of childhood has little opportunity for development. Nature, thus cramped and fettered, rebels, and the results are seen in the constitutions of those subjected to this kind of training. The natural development of the system is checked, and the martyred being is crippled in body and mind. Subject to a perpetual succession of tiresome, sedentary occupations of some kind, reading, writing, French, Latin, composition, drawing, logic, needlework, music, &c, fill up every moment of time. The eye has no opportunity to bo occupied with distant objects, and its premature failure is only an indication of the feebleness of the whole framework.
ty-four horses produces in twenty-four hours, according to the notes of Charles Schinz, about 2,400 pounds of dry, good pulp, which would make it cost, including fuel, labor, etc., about one cent per pound.
A MAN IN BED FORTY NINE TEAKS.
Sharpe died recently, in England, in his 79th year, having kept his bed voluntarily forty nine years. At the time of Sharpe's death, the window of his room had never been opened for thirty-four years. In this dreary abode did this strange being immure himself. He constantly refused to speak to any one, and if spoken to never answered, even those who were his constant attendants His father, by his will, made | provision for the temporal wants of his eccentric j son, and so secured him a constant attendant. | During the whole period of this self imposed confinement, he never had any serious illness, the only cause of indisposition those about him can remember, being a slight loss of appetite for two or three days, caused apparently by indigestion, and this not withstanding be ate on the average as much as any farm laborer. Though arrived at the age of 79 years, his flesh was firm, fair and unwrinkled, save with fat, and his weight was estimated at about 240 pounds.
Floi-b Awd Mill.—Flour is firm but inactive. Good brands are firmly held at $7 50 per bbl., and brands for borne consumption at $7 62 a $7 75, and extra arid fancy brands at S7 88 a 8 75. There is very little demand for export, and little stock to operate in. R}> Flour is firm at $5 00 per barrel. List sales ol Peminsylvania Corn Meal at S4 00 per barrel.
Grain.— Wheat is qnite dull and little offerihg. Last sales of prime Pennsylvania red were made at $1 78 a SI 85, and Si 92 for good white. Rye is unsteady. Penna. is selling at $1 10. Corn is in demaud at 94 a 95c for Southern yellow in store and atloat. Oats are steady; sales of Pennsylvania and Delawai e at GO a 61c per bu.
WOOD FOR TAPER.
In Switzerland grated wood is mixed with rags as a material for paper-making, with good effect. White kinds of wood are ground up with water, by the aid of a grindstone some four feet in diameter and three feet thick, the wood being continually pressed up against the stone by the action of the machinery. The wood pulp thus formed is strained five times, separating it into five qualities, the coarsest of which is beaten in the common paper machine before it is fit for use. A wood engine requiring a power of twen
(JUIIMER RETREAT AT HIGH LAND DALE.
The season of the year is at hand, when many citizens leave their homes for the benefit of pure air; the attention of the readers of the Intelligencer is called to the pleasant Retreat of Chari.ks ant! Catharine P. Foulke, who have again enlarged their premises, and are prepared as heretofore to receive summer boarders.
Their farm and residence is near the crown of one of the mountain ridges in MonroeCounty,Pennsylvania, about two miles from Stjoudsburg, the county town, and three miles from the Delaware Water Gup, in one of the healthiest situations to be found in Pennsylvania.
On this high elevation and near the domicile is a large spring of excellent water, w hich supplies a Bath House attached to the premises,—while within doors there is much to give comfort and create a home feeling, and make this a very desirable mountain Retreat.
The cars leave Camden in the morning and arrive at the Stroudsburg station within two and a hall miles of High Land Dale, early in the afternoon.
5th mo. 16-6t. T. B. L.
Merrihew A Thompson, Prs., Lodge St., North side Penno-Bant.
•PHILADELPHIA, SIXTH MONTH 13, 1857.
EDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF FK1ENDS.
PUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE, No. 324 South Fifth Street, PHILADELPHIA. Every Seventh day at Two Dollars per annum, paycblt in adtance. Three copies sent to one address for Five Dollars.
Communications must be addressed to the Publisher, free of expense, to whom all pay ments are to be made.
An account of tfte life, travels, and Christian experiences in the icork of the ministry of Samuel Bownas.
(Continued from page 179.)
By this time the day was much spent, and concluding to stay that night, we ordered some refreshment to be got for us, for I found myself in want of it : it was soon pot ready, and we intiled our host to share with us, who willingly did, chewing his good liking to what had beeu said ; adding, he never saw the people so struck, and give so good attention ; nor ever did he see so large a multitude that heard all so intelligibly dqwn to the very foot of the hill, which was, as be supposed, not much less than two hundred vards in length, and I took, by computation, the street to be upwards of thirty yards wide, and all that space much crowded. 1 gave him a bint of his fear, putting him in mind that our duty, in preaching to that multitude, could not possibly be discharged by preaching to him and his family, aud he ackuuwledg d it was right in us to do as we did.
By this time the evening closed in, and sundry gentlemen sent word that they would gladly pay us a visit, if we would permit it, and the landlord, I'gaw, earnestly desired thaC we would, and he had a very large room, into which we went, and they soon came to us, and quickly fell into conversation (for they are very full of talk about religion, and very tenacious in their opinions upon it.)
After much argument on various subjects, they came to preaching, and slated the question thus; «• Our own teachers, we know how they come by their ministry, aud by what authority they preach : (meaning their learning, and the 'laying ou of the hands, as they term it, of the I*re*bytery at their ordiuatiou, &c ) But wc want to know, how your preachers come by their minijstry? And by what authority they preach V Here, our Friend reasoned with them some time,
but they either could not, or would not be convinced with his words; so he told the company plainly, that he never did preach, and therefore would leave it to them that did, to give account how they came by it themselves. I was, all the time that they banded this affair, under a great concern, fearing how wo might come off; but when Samuel Kobinson had laid the matter so justly and fairly at our door, there was so considerable a space of silence, that they expected nothing from us, but began other discourse, until 1 could no longer withhold; and bespeaking their silence and attention, was willing to relate to them how I came by my ministry; at which they all listened with close attention. Then I premised thus, as an introduction before I came to the matter itself. Although in the thread of my discourse, something might appear liable to an objection, I entreated tho favor of them all to hear me out, by reason what I might say afterwards would perhaps solve their objections, without giving me or themselves any interruption. Which, with one voice, they all assented to, that it was a reasonable and just request. Then I proceeded as follows.
"My father was a cordwainer, that lived by bis small trade of making shoes, who died before I was a month old, aud left my mother a small patrimony to live on, of about four pounds a year, to keep herself, me, and one Sod more, who was about seven years old when my father died. My mother gave me a religious education in this same way. When I was fit to go to school, I was sent there, until I was ten or eleven years old, and then was taken from school and put to keep sheep: my earnings, though very small, giving some assistance to my mother, who had bound my brother an apprentice, I was kept close to attend the flock when wanted, and afterwards put an apprentice to a blacksmith, still going to our own meetings, but did nut understand the rudiments of that religion I was trained up in, but was addicted to the pleasures of the times; and when I went to meeting, knew not how to employ my thoughts, and often, yea, very often, the greatest part of the meeting (for want of a proper employment of thought) I spent in sleeping; for the preaching (which was pretty much) was what I did not understand. Thus two or three years of my apprenticeship I spent with very little sense of God or religion. But so it fell out, that a young woman came to visit our meeting, and in her preaching, seemed to direct her words to me, which were these, or to the same effect; 'A traditional Quaker, thou goes from the meeting as thou comes to it; and thou comes to it, as thou went from it, having no profit by doing so; but what wilt thou do in the end thereof!" These words were so pat to my then state, that I was pricked to the very heart, crying out in secret, Lord! how shall I do to mend it? I would willingly do it if I knew how. A voice in my breast replied, Look unto me, and thou shalt find help. From that time forward I found it true, that what is to be known of God and true religion, is revealed within ; and relying on the Lord, who began thus to reveal his power in me, and let me see that I must depend on him for strength and salvation, the scriptures seemed to be unsealed, and made clear to my understanding ; such as, being born from above, and that which is to be known of God, is made manifest in us; and also that text which says, 'the kingdom of God is within.' (Luke xvii. 21.) The Lord opened my understanding by his spirit, to see the proper qualification and call of true ministers, that it was not external but internal, and the heart must first be sanctified, before the divine anointing could be expected. Thus for some time I went on in my religious duties with great success, and I found I gained much in spiritual aud divine knowledge. And as I was going to meeting on that day commonly called Sunday, it came into my mind, that if I was watchful and obedient, carefully minding to keep my place, and to that Guide I was now acquainted with, I should be made a teacher of others: I proceeded on my way to meeting, and bsing sat down therein, in a short time I felt the power of the spirit strong upon me, to speak a few sentences : but oh ! the reasoning and excuses that I formed in my weak mind, that I might be spared from this work some time longer; and the weight seemed to be taken from me for that time. But oh! the trouble and uneasiness which I afterwards went through, made me enter into convenant, that if ever the like offer was made me, I would give up to the heavenly vision. The trouble of my mind affected my countenance so much, that it gave my master (being of the same way) reason to examine me, how it was? I gave hira a candid account, withal adding, my fear that my offence was so great, I should be rejected as a cast-away. But he comforted me, with urging various examples of flic like kind, for my encouragement, no way doubting but that at the next meeting the same concern would come upon me, and to which he advised me to give up, with a sympathising spirit of love, in various and comfortable exhortations confirmed by scripture examples: and as he had said, the next meeting, before I had sat there an hour and a half, the same concern came upon me, which was this; (and I had
now to deliver the same words with the same authority as I did when in that meeting) ' Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather tear him who is able to destroy both body and soul in hell. I say, fear you him who will terribly shake the earth, that all which is moveable may be shaken and removed out of the way ; and that which is immoveable may stand.' This was the first appearance, in the words abovesaid, that I made in public, as a preacher." By this time I found that the power of the gospel was over them, by their wiping of their eyes, and I was assisted to go on with strength of argument and demonstration, further adding, " that then I had near three years of my time to serve, which I did with great faithfulness to my master; and before the time was expired, preaching a little at times, but not very frequently, yet to the great satisfaction of my brethren, I found a concern upon me to travel abroad asa minister; and Iacquaiuted mymaster therewith, who had been as a father to me. He told me, before I went on that errand I must acquaint the elders therewith, and lay it before the Monthly meeting," (enlarging on the peculiar end of those meetings, setting forth the service thereof, to take care of our poor, and to deal with offenders who were a scandal by their ill conduct to their profession, aud sundry other matters cognisable in those meetings,) "that they might judge, whether my concern was right, and give me a letter of recommendation or certificate, to signify their unity aud satisfaetion therein : which I did accordingly, aud with some very suitable advice to my then present infant state as a minister, they gave me a certificate or a letter of recommendation, and signed it in the meeting, as is usual in such cases. I accomplished that journey, and was, at my return, called upon to give an account thereof, and to deliver up my certificate.
"After which, in a short time, I had another journey before me, and by our discipline, or church government, was obliged to go to the same meeting for a fresh certificate, which was readily granted; and the brethren rejoiced at my improvement, advising me to render the honor thereof where due. A t my return, I was obliged to attend the said meeting, and give account of my travels as before : this practice amongst us is judged needful, lest any one should swerve from their first foundation, and undertake to preach without a right commission, and so impose upon our Friends who know them not.
"In a little time I was concerned to take another journey, and laid before the said meeting my concern as abovesaid, and had a certificate. At my return I gave account as before, and delivered my certificate. After which, I had another concern to visit this nation in this very journey, and laid my concern before the said meeting, had a certificate readily granted' me (and pulling it out of my pocket-book said) and there it is." At which, one of them took it, and, at the desire of the rest, read it up; and it was returned me with a profound silence: so I proceeded to add, " that [ had visited all that kingdom, where I found drawings in my spirit to go, and this (so far as I yet see) is the last place: and now I must leave you to judge, whether it's not reasonable for you to conclude, at least that I think myself concerned by an almighty power, else how could I have exposed myself to such an unruly mob as I have preached to this day?" Here I stopt; aud one in the company asked, if all our preachers came by their ministry this same way? To which I replied, "I could not give account how another man might receive his ministry, but I have given you a faithful and caudid account how I received mine."
Here mycompanion wasfull of matterto relate, by giving them an account how he came by his ministry, but let in a fear, that what he might add, would hurt the cause. One of the company said, it's enough what we have heard, and so he was very handsomely excused.
The night (by the time this was over) being far spent, it being some time past the middle, a reckoning was called, and they would not allow as to pay any part thereof, but took leave of us with great affection ; and the country gentleman, that was assisting to our liberty, gave us a very kind invitation to his house, which we received very thankfully ; but being engaged in our minds for England, had not freedom to go with him: so we parted in a very loving and friendly manner. We being uow left to ourselves, I had an opportunity to reflect on what had passed, and to examine my whole conduct all that day; a practice I frequently used, after a more than common day's service, and indeed after every opportunity of an enlargement, in my gift, by experience finding the best instructor in my own bosom, to shew where I hit the matter or missed it: and considering why 1 began so low as my father, setting forth my manner of education and trade, which seemed to have no relation to my call to the ministry, I saw the reason thereof, and found it to be this, that they might not think my ministry to have, in the least, any dependence upon literature; a qualification much depended on for the work of the ministry amongst them, and some of them will not take any notice of any other sort; if a. man (for they will not admit a woman to have any part in this work) be he never so divinely fitted by the spirit, yet if he want human learning, it's all nothing with them. Thus the wisdom of truth, which I did not sec so plainly at first, appeared to my understanding very clearly. And on a close and oarrow inspection into this day's work, I found inward peace, a joy spring in my heart that I Muld not set forth by words.
[To be continued.)
For Friends' Intelligencer.
This our beloved mother was a member of Milford Particular and Monthly Meetings, in the State of Indiana. She was diligent aud exemplary in the attendance of our religious meetings, and for a number of years stood acceptable in the station of an elder. She was zealously concerned for the support of our Christian testimonies and the good order of the church, and as she kept her eye single to the light within, she was often led to appear in public testimony, inviting others to come, taste and see that the Lord is good. She was a faithful and devoted wife, and a kind and tender parent. During the whole course of her sickness her mind was preserved in a sweet and heavenly state. To her children and grandchildren who were present, she often gave instructive counsel, saying, "ray greatest desire for you is that you may live in love and seek religion, and not put it off, for it will sweeten every bitter cup," as she knew by her own experience.- On the morning previous to her decease, on being asked how she rested through the night, she said she rested pretty comfortably, and that she was favored with a precious visitation of divine love, such a one as she had never witnessed before, whereby she felt a renewed and satisfactory evidence of her divine acceptance. Shortly before her close she said, " my suffering is great, but the end would crown all." She continued gradually to sink away until the 11th of 1st month, 185ft, wheu she quietly departed this life in the 67th year of her age, and we doubt not has entered into that rest prepared for the righteous from the foundation of the world. She left some observations in writing from which the following is an
7lh mo. 7th, 1849.
I have thought it right to pen these few lines for the encouragement of my dear children when I may be removed from them and centered in my eternal home, desiring that, so far as I have endeavored to follow Christ, so far they may follow me. I charge you to follow no man nor set of men farther than they follow Christ. Walk in the light, that you may become the children of the light, and children of the day, and thereby be favored to arrive nearer to a state of Christian perfection than I have attained to. My desire for you is not that you may be rich or filled with this world's goods, which perish with the using; but that you may devote your time and talents to serve the Lord all the days of your lives. Thus, when the evening of your day draws near, you will find that you have oil in your lamps and are ready to go forth and meet the bridegroom of souls with jny and not grief.
Being retired to Test at evening, and desirous