« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
what like fir-cones, and believed to be the fruits of the Lepidodcndra, are so numerous in some places that bushels have been collected in a single spot. It is a remarkable fact, that in many places in the coal districts of England, Europe and America, trunks of trees have been found in an erect position in the strata, piercing perhaps through several beds, and with their roots penetrating the coal itself. It is evident that they have grown upon the spots where they became entombed, and that the overlying strata have been deposited around them. More than this, trunks have been found in the same erect position, evidently snapped short by the hurricane or by decay: their soft interior has rotted away, and into the hollow thus formed the fruit cones of overhanging trees have dropped; while finally, the rest of the hollow lias been filled up with mud or sand during a period of submersion, and the trunks thus buried preserved to our day. It is also a very singular circumstance, that though the remains of some hundreds of different kinds of plants have been found in the coal strata, they belong to species which have passed out of living existence, and only their relics testify of their ever having been. No single plant or animal of the carboniferous era is now to be found alive over the whole earth.
A careful survey of the features of the plants embedded in the coal shales leads irresistibly to the conviction that a very different state of things existed at the time they were deposited, from what now obtains in the same regions of our globe. The climate must have materially differed. The size, the forms, and the whole character of the plants of the coal, indicate most decisively the presence of a tropical climate; and that they grew on or very near the spots where we now find them, also appears as indisputable. Yet, even in the latitude of Baffin's Bay did such a vegetation exist; and therefore we must believe that in those remote ages, polar ice and snows were comparatively absent, while there was in all probability no such continent as that which constitutes Europe (and perhaps Asia) j but instead of them, and occupying their places, a Polynesia, or multitude of islands, enjoying a climate much hotter than that which we now possess, yet so tempered by the surrounding ocean as to be free from those extremes of heat which render the continents near the equator truly torrid. The constitution of the atmosphere was very probably different, though it is not likely this will ever be known with certainty. It is supposed by many that it contained a much larger quantity of carbonic acid than at present. Carbonic acid is a gas which naturally forms a constituent of the air we breath, and is as essential to the life of plants as air or bread to us. They decompose it, and take up or assimilate the carbon to form fresh wood, leaves, etc. The vast quantity of a rank vegetation which must have subsisted in
those islets to form the enormous stores of coa' which the world contains, and the consequent fixation of so large a portion of carbon, have reasonably led to the theory named; but for its further confirmation we must wait.
Such was the birth place of coal. Wonderfully has our ever bountiful Creator so ordered things, that even the grass that withered and the flowers that fell away—some, apparently, of the most evanescent and perishable parts of his creations—should have accumulated for the benefit of man, in these latter ages of the world's history, a store of material so plenteous as to be almost inexhaustible, and so valuable that it may be fairly doubted whether either our comfort or civilization could have been what they are without it.—Leisure Hour.
A curious peculiarity in the transmission of messages by the Atlautic Telegraph will arise from the difference of longitude—New York time being about six hours behind London. It follows, according to the arrangement at present contemplated, that the messages which arc forwarded from London from ten in the morning till four in the afternoon—our business hours— though they arrive instantaneously at the other side, do so, according to their time, between four and ten in the morning, and at their ten o'clock these replies until their four will reach this country between four and ten in the evening, leaving them the whole night for consideration.
Flour Akd Meal.—Flour is firm but inactive. Good brands are offered at $7 25 per bbl.,'and extra and fancy brands at $8 00 a 8 50. Sales of Rye Flour at $5 00 per barrel. Sales of Pennsylvania Corn Meal at $3 87 £.r barrel.
Grans.— Wheat isqnite dull and prices lower. Sales of prime Pennsylvania red are making at $1 73 a 1 75, and $1 80 for good white. Rye is firm. Penna. is selling at * 1 10. Corn is in demaud at S9c for Southern yellow. Outs are steady ; sales at 61 a 02c per bu.
Rummer Retreat At High Land Dale.
kj The season of the year is al hand, when manycitizens leave their homes for the benefit of pure air; the attention of the readers of the Intelligencer is called to the pleasant Retreat of Ciiarles ami Catharine P. Foulkk, who have again enlarged their premises, and are prepared as heretofore to receive summer boarders.
Their farm and residence is near the crown of one of the mountain ridges in Monroe County, Pennsylvania, about two miles from Stioudsburg, the county town, and three miles from the Delaware Water Gap, in one of the healthiest situations to be found in Pennsylvania.
On this high elevation and near the domicile is a large spring of excellent water, w hich supplies a Bath House attached to the premises,—while within doors there is much to give comfort and create a home feeling, and make this a very desirable mountain Retreat.
The cars leave Camden in the morning and arrive at the Stroudsburg station within two and a half miles of High Land Dale, early in the afternoon.
5th mo. 16— 6t. T. B. L.
EDITED DY AN ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS.
PUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE, No. 321 South Fifth Street, I'HII.ADKLPHIA. Every Seventh day at Two Dollars per annum, paynlltin advance. Three copies sent to one address for Five Dollar*.
Communications must he addressed to the Publisher, freeof expense, to whom all payments are to be made.
An a-count o f the life, travels, and Christian exptritncexin the work of the ministry of Samuel Bucnas.
(Continued from pnpe 1G1.)
I had for my companion in this journey, a young man who had a fine frift, his name was Isaac Thompson. We visited sundry meetings in our way to Carlisle, finding our understandings much enlarged in the openings of divine truths, and our service grew upon us, and we went on with boldness and cheerful minds, meeting in our way with our dear and worthy friend James Dickenson, who was intending a visit into Ireland. And in our journey from the Border | to Dumfries, we had very profitable conversation (f good service to us both, because we, by reason if youth, and want of experience, were often very weak, and doubting whither we were right or not in the work; so that this our dear friend, by Li- tender and fatherly care over us, and advice to ns, was of great encouragement, in letting us know bow weak and poor lie often found him-c-if; which so much answered my condition, that it was as marrow to my bones.
We had sundry meetings to our good satisfac'i&n, and had some meetings farther north, 1= at Itiverary, Kiiimuke, A worthies, &c. Then Uck to Ury by Aberdeen, taking our journey to hdrabnrgh, visiting the small meetings,and some other places we inclined to visit in our way thither; we had but one little meeting there, and then went for Kelso, where we staid with them two meetings on the First-day of the week, and in the evening Friends there laid before us the desire they bad for going to Jedburgh, a town about seven miles from them, and not much 'yal of our way to England: We considered the matter, but not the exercise that might attend us in going there; so next morning wo went, mi when we came to the town, (Samuel Robinson being our guide) the landlord at the inn weuld Dot give us entertainment; but we went
to another inn, and the landlord took us in, withal telling us how indecently the minister had railed against the Quakers the day before, asserting they were the devil's servants, and that by his assistance they did in their preaching what was done, with very many vile words; but observing one of his hearers taking what he said in short-hand, he called out, charging him not to write what he spoke at random against the Quakers; with much more to the same effect. However, we called for some refreshment, but my mind was under so much concern, I could neither eat nor drink. We called to pay for what we had, and wo gave the landlord charge of our horses and bags, whereby he suspected that we were going to preach; he took me by the hand; and begged that we would not go into the street, but preach in his house, and he would have his family together, and they would hear us. I looked steadily upon the poor man, who trembled very much, telling him, we thought it our place and duty to preach to the inhabitants of the town ; and thinkest thou (said I to him) we shall be clear in the sight of God (whom we both fear and serve) by preaching to thee and thy family, what we are required to preach to the people in the town? The poor man I found was smitten in himself, and his countenance altered greatly, but he made this reply; "Is this the case, Sir '<" I said it was. "Then, said he," " go, and God preserve and bless you; but I fear the mob will pull down my house for letting you have entertainment, and kill you for your good will." 1 Lid him not fear; for He whom we served was above the Devil, and that not a hair of our heads should be hurt without his permission. He then seemed pacified to let us go, aud followed at a distance to see our treatment.
The chief street was very broad, with a considerable ascent, aud near the head of the ascent was a place made to cry things on, to which we then walked, where we paused a little, but I had nothing to do there at that time; returning back to the market-cross, which was at the foot of the hill, for that had an ascent of three or four steps, and a place to sit on at the top, where we sat down; but we had not sat long before a man came to us with a bunch of large keys .in bis hand, and took me by the hand and said, I must go into the Talbooth, (meaning the prison.) I asked him for what? He said, for preaching. 1 told him we had not preached. Ay! but quoth he, the provost (meaning the mayor) has ordered me to put you in the Tolbooth. For what? I again replied. I tell you for preaching. I told him, I did not know whether we should preach or not; but it was soon enough to make prisoners of us when we did preach. Ay! says he, I ken very weel that you'll preach by your looks. Thus we argued the matter, he endeavoring to pull me up, and I to keep my place, and when he found I was not easily moved, he turned to my companion, who likewise was unwilling to be confined, and then he went to Samuel Robinson, our guide, who was easily prevailed on to go; and the easier, for that he had been there but the week before with two Friends, viz: John Thomson and Thomas Brathwaite, both of our county of Westmoreland. By this time we had a large assembly, and Samuel Robinson supposing we should have a better conveniency to preach to them in the prison, ns the Friends afore-naraed had the week before, we were conducted there, just by the cross where we held the parly, and put in at the door. But Samuel Robinson soon saw his mistake, for the week before the windows of the prison were all open, nothing but the iron gates in the way, the windows being very large for the sake of air, but now all made dark, and were strongly fastened up with deals. We had been but a short time there, before a messenger came to offer us liberty, on condition we would depart the town without preaching ; but we could make no such agreement with them, and so we told the messenger. A little after he was gone, I wrote the following lines to the Provost.
"It is in my mind to write these few lines to thee, the Provost of this town of Jetlburgh, to let thee understand that our coming within thy liberties is not to disturb the peace of your town, nor to preach false doctrine or heresy, (as is by your teachers maliciously suggested, whose interest it is, as they suppose, to make the people believe it,) but in obedience to our Lord Jesus Christ, whose servants we are, for he hath bought us with his most precious blood; and we are no more our own, but his that has bought us, whose power is an unlimited power, and all power is limited by him, so bis power is not to be limited by any other power; therefore we his servants dare not limit ourselves, or promise any man wo will do this, or we will do that, but commit our cause to him, as his (the Lord's) servants did of old, knowing that if we please him he can deliver us, but if not, we can make no promise to any man on this account, because we ourselves know not what he has for us to do; and therefore we endeavor to stand clear from all engagements,.ready to do what he requires at our hands. But I must tell thee, that the manner of our imprisonment looks very rigid and uncommon in these times of liberty, so far below a Christian, that 'tis hardly humane, that we should be here
detained as evil doers, before we are examined, or any breach of law appears against us. Doth your Scotch law judge a man before it hears him? if so, 'tis very unjust indeed, and looks very hard, that the King's subjects may not have the liberty to walk in your streets as elsewhere, which was all we did, besides sitting down on the market-cross in a thoughtful sense of our duty to God, not opening our mouths but to him that violently forced us into confinement; nor do we know that we should have spoken to tbe people in way of preaching at all. But that is the work of our Master, and we must, wait his will and time, to know both when and how to do it, therefore if thou tliinkest to keep us until we promise thee or any of thy officers not to preach in your streets, it will be loDg that we must abide here. Therefore I desire thee to take the matter into a Christian consideration, to do as thou wouldst be done unto, and give thyself liberty to think for what end the magistrate's sword is put into thy hand, that thou rnayst use it right, lest thou shouldst be found one of those that turn justice backwards, so that equity cannot enter. This is from one that wisheth thy welfare and salvation, Samuel Bownas."
Jedburgh Tolbooth, the 18th of the Ninth Month, 1701.
When I had writ this, it was very hard to persuade any one to carry it to the Provost, for now they were so affrighted about having any 1 thing to say or do with us, that they durst not appear to talk with us; and whether he bad it or not, I cannot be certain.
The next day there was a country gentleman came into the town, and sent his servant to invite us to his house;* to which we replied, we know not yet, when we should have our liberty; but desired our thiinks might be returned to his master, for that kind invitation. lie replied, we should soon be at liberty, for his master was gone to the Provost; knowing they had no pretence to keep us there. Accordingly in less than two hours after, we were set at liberty, and went to our inn to refresh ourselves. The town was very full of country people, it being market-day, and we went to the market-cross, which was so much surrounded with people selling their ware, that there was no room for us, without great damage to them. We therefore, after a short pause, walked up the street to the place beforenamed, and the street and balconies being filled with people, with the sashes and casements open, and crowded with spectators, some computed the number to be above 6000, but such guesses at numbers are uncertain. But there I stood up (being above tbe people, both by the advantage of the ground, and the place where I stood) and opened my mouth, being full of the power and spirit of grace, saying, " Fear the Lord and keep his commandments, who by his servant said, I will put my laws in their minds, and write them in their hearts; and I will be to thorn a God, and they shall be to me a people. Now if you be obedient to this law, you will do well, and thereby become the people of God; but if disobedient, you will lie UDder his wrath and judgments.'' With more, distinguishing between the happiness of them that obeyed, and the unhappiness of the disobedient. Then I stepped down, in expectation that my companion might say somewhat, but he was willing to be gone; and I was concerned to step up again, and kneeling down, was fervently drawn forth in prayer; but after I had begun, two men came and took me by the arms, and led me down the street praying, and by the time we came at ttie foot of the ascent, I had done praying. After which I took a view of the people, who shewed great respect indeed, but I was conveyed to the prison door, where was a sentry of two soldiers, who stood by and heard what I said to the officers that brought me there, which was to this effect: "That the day before I was forced in there against my will, and contrary to law, but that I would not now go there again, without first being examined by the Provost, or by their priest and elders 'of their Church, or other chief officers in the town, and if then any thing did appear that I had broken any law, or done ought worthy of imprisonment, having a mittimus setting forth my crime, I would willingly suffer, and not refuse going there; but without such an examination I refused to go there again, unless forced to it by violence, and that, 1 hoped they would not be guilty of." At which one of the soldiers, taking his musket by the small end, advancing the butt, said, his countryman had spoken right, and what he said was according to law and justice, and ought to be observed as such; and therefore if you will (said he) take him before the Provost in order for examination, you may; but if Dot, touch him that dare. At this bold attempt and speech they both left me, and I was advanced above the people about six or seven steps, and turning about to them, there being a little square before the door, surrounded with the guard chamber on one side, the tolbooth on the other, and a wall facing the street about four feet high, 1 had a very good opportunity to speak to them, which I did, about a quarter or near half Bd hour, and they were very quiet and civil. When I had done, and acknowledged the soldier's kindness and civility towards me, who said, it was his duty to do it, I came down the steps, the people crowding very close to see as well as hear me, but tbey divided soon, making a lane for my passage, shewing me considerable respect in their way.
[To be continued.]
William Penn and his colony of Quakers were surrounded by warlike savages, for seventy years, without losing a drop of blood.—
Once those savages saved the colony from starvation. Such was the safety afforded them by justice, forbearance and charity—by abstaining from all resistance of evil with evil.—Practical Christian.
For Friends* Intelligencer.
In the following sermon of William Savery there is a clear and beautiful exposition of " the Quaker faith, " in the teachings of the spirit, as well as an expression of the most extensive charity in relation to difference of opinion on religious subjects. It is a compendium of the views of Friends, and what has often been called the Foxite doctrine, "mind the light," and except one small paragraph, which is printed in italics, is entirely consistent throughout.
The history of that paragraph is remarkable. When the sermon was first printed in London, whilst William Savery was there, it was put into his hands. He immediately discovered the interpolation, and had an interview with the stenographer, in which William told him he had not uttered that part of the discourse alluded to; asking how he could have done such a thing? His reply was to this import: " Mr. Savery I know you did not. Butasyou are a very popular pieacher, and the sentiments of Priestly are doing much mischief at the present time, I thought a few words from you would do great good I"
This circumstance, often repeated by Samuel R. Fisher who knew it to be a fact, is a convincing evidence of the lengths to which men sometimes are carried by an undue zeal in favoring their own opinions, by committing what are termed pious frauds.
The following Prayer and Sermon were delivered at the Meetinghouse of friends, at the Borough New Market, London, on Firstday evening, Seventh Month 31st, 1796.— Taken in Short-hand by Job Sibly.
O thou great adorable Being, who art exalted in goodness, and majesty, and in power, beyond all finite comprehension, who dwellest in the light whereunto none can approach thee, but as thou art pleased in thine adorable mercy to open an access to-us; and though heaven is thy throne, 0 God, and earth is thy footstool, yet we remember that thou hast promised that thou wilt condescend to look down upon the poor, and upon the contrite, and those that tremble at thy word.
0 thou, unsearchable in holiness, and glorious in power, we pray thee to look down upon the present congregation this evening, with an eye of compassion and divine pity. Thou beholdest all men wheresoever they are scattered upon the face of the whole earth, with an equal eye of mercy, and thou hearest the prayers of all those who draw nigh unto thee with sincerity. Be pleased, 0 God, to cause thy animating presence to be with us, to bring the minds of all the people into an holy solemnity before thee. We know, 0 God, that no man can promote thy glorious cause, of truth and righteousness in the earth, but as thou art pleased to be with him, and to furnish him with the necessary qualifications for the great and important work whereunto thou art calling thy servants and ministers. 0 blessed Father, forsake them not, but be pleased, as in generations that are past, to pour forth thy spirit upon thy ministers, that, in that wisdom which thou art pleased to grant from season to season, they may go forth in thy name, with the word of reconciliation and faith.
0 Lord, thou hast many souls that are wandering up and down this great and populous country, who are seeking after thy glorious and blessed rest, which thou alone canst lead them into the enjoyment of. We humbly and reverently pray thee, 0 God, to draw the minds of the people more and more off from thy ministers to thyself. O gracious God, unseal the fountain whereat thy Prophets, thy Apostles, thy servants, in all generations, have so freely drank and been filled. Cause those that hunger and thirst after righteousness to be more and more tilled at thy bountiful table; that so, Father, there may be among all ranks of the people more of the knowledge of thee, and more of an increase in following after thee in the way to everlasting rest.
0 God, thou seest how weak we are; how suwounded with infirmities, how blinded with prejudices, how turned aside by a variety of fluctuating opinions; cause, we pray thee, thy holy uniting word to be read more and more in the hearts of the people. Sound the alarm, we pray thee, yet louder and louder to them that are at ease and forgetful of thee : that so, Father, there may be many more brought to drink at the fountain of thy goodness and mercy, and with reverence of soul to acknowledge that thou art good, and worthy to be worshipped here, and to be obeyed and served by all the workmanship of thy hands. O gracious Father, proclaim a sign in this assembly, while with one accord, in humility of soul, which thou has granted us, we may draw nigh unto thee, and offer up at this time for all thy former mercies, and for thy present mercies; and gather us together in this manner, 0 Father, ascribing untothee glory and honor, thanksgiving and praise, which are thy due, both now and for evermore.
There are some weighty and interesting expressions which we find iu the Revelation of John, (Revelations, xiv 7, 8,) that appear to be my duty, since I last took my seat, to mention in this assembly.
"And I (John) saw another angel fly in the
midst of heaven, having the everlasting Gosftl to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, a?id kindred and tongue, and people, saying Wth a loud voice, Fear God and give glory to Him: /or the hour of Bit judgment is come; and wor-diip IIim that madt heaven and earth, and the sea, and the fountain) of waters."
Now John, we find, calls this the everlasting Gospel; which seems to be comprised in a very short and compendious manner; which no man in all this congregation, 1 trust, can be at a loss to understand. And though, my friends, we may be something various in our opinions concerning mocfes, manners and forms of worship, yet I believe there are very few of God's rational creation any where, either amongst those who are professing the name of Jesus Christ, or those that have not been favored to be acquainted with the gospel as we are, but are sensible, thai to God belongs glory, honor, and worship; who behold him as the great and universal Parent, the glorious, blessed, and all-wise Architect oi the universe, and all things that are therein, and that sustains all things by the word of his invincible power; for the same almighty creating Word that brought all things into the glorious order in which we see them, that said, let therebe light, and there was light—no man can dispute but he at his pleasure also could again say. let there bo darkness, and there would have been darkness:—again, let the heavenly luminaries depart from their appointed spheres, and let all things resort to their primitive rest, and it would undoubtedly have been done. So that he is not only the cause of all things, but the gracious supporter, daily and hourly sustainer of all that he has made, without whose blessed providence there is not an ear of corn nor blade of grass could possibly have been produced. So that, my friends, a daily dependauce upon that God who created us—all his creation calls for. and with every solid and reflecting mind it will naturally produce an offering of worship, adoration, and praise; and I am glad in believing, my friends, that here are in this Urge multitude a considerable number who worship God in spirit and in truth ; though differently educated, and of various opinions in things of little importance, but in the great, important, and essential point of every man's duty, speak the same language; aid 1 believe, my friinds, this is the case both with the nations that are called refined, and with those that are termed harbarians. God has placed his law in the hearts of all men; he has written there the great essential duty which he requires at our hands, and under every name and in every nation, " they that fear God and work righteousness (so said the Apostle) are accepted of htm." So that, my friends, he makes no such distinction as many of us poor, finite and weak creatures are apt to make; he