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DARE AND DO.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHEAPNESS.
THE LUCIFER MATCH.
Some twenty years ago the process of obtain. Dare the wronged and scorned to bless. ing fire, in every house in England, with few exDare from custom to depart;
ceptions, was as rude, as laborious, and as uncerDare the priceless pearl possess;
tain, as the effort of the Indian to produce a flame Dare to wear it next your heart;
by the friction of two dry sticks. Dare, when sinners curse, to bless.
The nightlamp and the rushlight were for the Dare forsake what you deem wrong;
comparatively luxurious. In the bed-rooms of Dare to walk in wisdom's way;
the cottager, the artisan, and the small tradesDare to give where gifts belong;
man, the infant at its mother's side too often Dare God's precepts to obey.
awoke, like Milton's nightingale, darkling,'-Do what conscience says is right;
but that nocturnal note was something differDo what reason says is best, Do with willing mind and heart;
ent from harmonious numbers. The motber Do your duty and be blest.
was soon on her feet; the friendly tinder-box was duly sought. Click, click, click ; not a spark
tells upon the sullen blackness. More rapidly WONDERS AND MURMURS.
does the flint ply the sympathetic steel. The BY S. C. HALL.
room is bright with the radiant shower. But Strange, that the wind should be left so free,
the child, familiar enough with the operation, is To play with a flower or tear a tree ;
impatient at its tediousness, and shouts till the To range or to ramble where'er it will,
mother is frantic. At length one lucky spark And as it lists, to be fierce or still;
does its office—the tinder is alight. Now for Above and around, to breathe of life, Or to mingle the earth and sky in strife;
the match. It will not burn. A gentle breath Gently to whisper with morning light,
is wafted into the murky box; the face that leans Yet to growl like a fettered fiend ere night?
over the tinder is in a glow. Another match, Or to love, and cherish, and bless, to-day!
and another, and another. They are all damp. What to-morrow it ruthlessly rends away!
The baby is inexorable ; and the misery is only Strange, that the sun should call into birth
ended when the goodman has gone to the street All the fairest flowers and fruits of earth,
door, and after long shivering has obtained a Then bid them perish, and see them die, While they cheer the soul and gladden the eye ;
light from the watchman. At morn its child is the pride of spring
In this, the beginning of our series of IllusAt night a shrivelled and loathsome thing!
trations of Cheapness, let us trace this antique To-day there is hope and life in its breath
machinery through the various stages of its proTo-morrow it shrinks to a useless death.
duction. Strange doth it seem that the sun should joy To give life, alone that it might destroy ?
The tinder box and the steel had nothing pe
culiar. The tinman made the one as he inade Strange, that the ocean should come and go, With its daily and nightly ebb and flow
the saucepan, with hammer and shears; the other To bear on its placid breast at morn,
was forged at the great metal factories of Shef. The bark that ere night will be tempest torn;
field and Birmingham ; and happy was it for the Or cherish it all the way it must roam,
purchaser if it were something better than a rude To leave it a wreck, within sight of home; To smile as the mariner's toils are o’er,
piece of iron, very uncomfortable to grasp. The Then wash the dead to his cottage door;
nearest chalk quarry supplied the fint. The And gently ripple along the strand,
domestic manufacture of the tinder was a serious To watch the widow behind him land!
affair. At due seasons, and very often if the But stranger than all, that man should die,
premises were damp, a stilling smell rose from When his plans are formed and his hopes are high; the kitchen, which, to those who were not intiHe walks forth a lord of the earth to-day,
mate with the process, suggested doubts whether And the morrow beholds him a part of its clay; He is born in sorrow and cradled in pain,
the house were not on fire. The best linen rag And from youth to age—it is labor in vain ;
was periodically burnt, and its ashes deposited And all that seventy years can show,
in the tinman's box, pressed down with a close Is, that wealth is trouble, and wisdom woe;
fitting lid upon which the flint and steel reposed. That he travels a path of care and strife, Who drinks of the poisoned cup of life.
The match was chiefly an article of itinerant
traffic. The chandler's shop was almost ashamed Alas! if we murmur at things like these,
of it. The mendicant was the universal matchThat reflection tells us are wise degrees, That the wind is not ever a gentle breath
seller. The girl who led the blind beggar had That the sun is often the bearer of death
invariably a basket of matches. In the day they That the ocean wave is not always still,-
were vendors of matches—in the evening manuAnd life is chequered with good and ill;
facturers. On the floor of the hovel sit two or If we know 'tis well such change should be, What do we learn from the things we see ?
ihree squalid children, splitting deal with a comThat an erring and sinning child of dust
mon knife. The matron is watching a pipkin Should not wonder nor murmur--but hope and trust. Tupon a slow fire. The fumes which it gives forth
are blinding as the brimstone is liquifying. Lit- London to find such a trade. In the neighbortle bundles of split deal are ready to be dipped, hood of Bethnal Green there is a large open space three or four at a time. When the pennyworth called Wisker's Gardens. This is not a place of of brimstone is used up, when the capital is ex- courts and alleys, but a considerable area, literhausted, the night's labor is over. In the sum- ally divided into small gardens, where just now mer, the manufacture is suspended, or conducted the crocus and the snowdrop are telling hopefully upon fraudulent principles. Fire is then need of the spring time. Each garden has the smallless ; so delusive matches must be produced—wet est of cottages—for the most part wooden—which splints dipped in powdered sulphur. They will have been converted from summer-houses into never burn, but they will do to sell to the unwary dwellings. The whole place reminds one of maid-of-all-work.
numberless passages in the old dramatists, in About twenty years ago Chemistry discovered which the citizens' wives are described in their that the tinder-box might be abolished. But garden-houses of Finsbury, or Hogsden, sipping Chemistry set about its function with especial syllabub and talking fine on summer holidays. reference to the wants and the means of the rich In one of these garden-houses, not far from the few. In the same way the first printed books public road, is the little factory of Henry Leswere designed to bave a great resemblance to ter, Patentee of the Domestic Safety Match-box,' manuscripts, and those of the wealthy class were as his label proclaims. He is very ready to show alone looked to as the purchasers of the skilful his processes, which in many respects are curious imitations. The first chemical light-producer and interesting. was a complex and ornamental casket, sold at a Adam Smith has instructed us that the busiguinea. In a year or so, there were pretty port- ness of making a pin is divided into about eightable cases of a phial and matches, which enthu- een distinct operations; and further, that ten siastic young housekeepers regarded as the cheap- persons could make upwards of forty-eight thous. est of ail treasures at five shillings. By and bye and pins a day with the division of labor; while the light-box was sold as low as a shilling. The if they had all wrought independently and sepfire revolution was slowly approaching. The old arately, and without any of them having been dynasty of the tinder-box maintained its predom- educated to this peculiar business, they certainly inance for a short while in kitchen and garret, could not each of them have made twenty. The in farmhouse and cottage. At length some bold Lucifer Match is a similar example of division of adventurer saw that the new chemical discovery labor, and the skill of long practice. At a sep. migbt be employed for the production of a large erate factory, where there is a steam-engine, not article of trade-that matches, in themselves the the refuse of the carpenter's shop, but the best vehicles of fire without aid of spark and tinder, Norway deals are cut into splints by machinery, might be manufactured upon the factory system and are supplied to the match-maker. These
—that the humblest in the land might have a little pieces, beautifully accurate in their minute new and indispensable comfort at the very low squareness, and in their precise length of five est rate of cheapness. When Chemistry saw inches, are made up into bundles, each of which that phosphorus, having an affinity for oxygen contains eighteen hundred. They are daily at the lowest temperature, would ignite upon brought on a truck to the dipping-house, as it is slight friction,-and so ignited would ignite called—the average number of matches finished sulphur, which required a much higher tem-off daily requiring two hundred of these bundles. perature to become inflammable, thus making Up to this point we have had several hands emthe phosphorus do the work of the old tinder ployed in the preparation of the match, in conwith far greater certainty; or when Chemistry nection with the machinery that cuts the wood. found that chlorate of potash by slight friction Let us follow one of these bundles through the might be exploded so as to produce combustion, subsequent processes. Without being separated, and might be safely used in the same combina- each end of the bundle is first dipped into the tion-a blessing was bestowed upon society that sulphur. When dry, the splints, adhering to can scarcely be measured by those who have had each other by means of the sulphur, must be no former knowledge of the miseries and priva- parted by what is called dusting. A boy sitting tions of the tinder-box. The Penny Box of on the floor, with a bundle before him, strikes Lucifers, or Congreves, or by whatever name the matches with a sort of a mallet on the dipped called, is a real triumph of Science, and an ad- ends till they become thoroughly loosened. In vance in Civilization.
the best matches the process of sulphur-dipping Let us now look somewhat closely and practi- and dusting is repeated. They have now to be cally into the manufacture of a Lucifer-match. Tplunged into a preparation of phosphorus or
The combustible materials used in the manu-chlorate of potash, according to the quality of facture render the process an unsafe one. It the match. The phosphorus produces the pale, cannot be carried on in the heart of towns with noiseless fire; the chlorate of potash the sharp out being regarded as a common nuisance. We cracking illumination. After this application of must therefore go somewhere in the suburbs of the more inflammable substance, the matches
are separated, and dried in racks. Thoroughly dred working days in the year, this will give for dried, they are gathered up again into bundles one factory, two hundred and sixteen millions of of the same quantity; and are taken to the boys matches annually, or two millions one hundred who cut them ; for the reader will have observed and sixty thousand boxes, being a box of one that the bundles have been dipped at each end. hundred matches for every individual of the There are few things more remarkable in manu- London population. But there are ten other factures than the extraordinary rapidity of this Lucifer manufactories, which are estimated to cutting process, and that which is connected with produce about four or five times as many more. it. The boy stands before a bench, the bundle London certainly cannot absorb ten millions of on his right hand, a pile of half opened empty Lucifer boxes annually, which would be at the boxes on his 1 ft, which have been manufactured rate of thirty three boxes to each inhabited at another division of this establishment. These house. London, perhaps, demands a third of the boxes are formed of scale-board, that is, thin supply for its own consumption ; and at this rate slices of wood, planed or scaled off a plank. The the annual retail cost for each house is eightbox itself is a marvel of peatness and cheapness. pence, averaging those boxes sold at a halfpenny, It consists of an inner box, without a top, in and those at a penny. The manufacturer sells which the matches are placed, and of an outer this article, produced with such care as we have case, open at each end, into which the first box described, at one farthing and a fraction per box. slides. The matcbes, then, are to be cut, and And thus, for the retail expenditure of three the empty boxes filled, by one boy. A bundle farthings per month, every house in London, is opened; he seizes a portion, knowing by long from the highest to the lowest, may secure the habit the required number with sufficient exact- | inestimable blessing of constant fire at all seaness; puts them rapidly into a sort of frame, sons, and at all hours. London buys this for ten knocks the ends evenly together, confines them thousand pounds annually. with a strap which he tightens with his foot, and The excessive cheapness is produced by the cuts them in two parts with a knife on a hinge, extension of the demand, enforcing the factory which he brings down with a strong leverage : division of labor, and the most exact saving of the halves lie projecting over each end of the material. The scientific discovery was the founframe; he grasps the left portion and thrusts it dation of the cheapness. But connected with into a half open box, which he instantly closes, this general principle of cheapness, there are one and repeats the process with the matches on his or two remarkable points, which deserve attenright hand. This series of movements is per- tion. formed with a rapidity almost unexampled ; for It is a law of this manufacture that the de. in this way, two hundred thousand matches are mand is greater in the summer than in the win. cut, and two thousand boxes filled in a day, by ter. The old inatch maker, as we have menone boy, at the wages of three halfpence per tioned, was idle in the summer-without fire for gross of boxes. Each dozen boxes is then pa- heating the brimstone-or engaged in more pered up, and they are ready for the retailer. profitable field-work. A worthy woman who once The number of boxes daily filled at this factory kept a chandler's shop in a village, informs us, is from fifty to sixty gross.
that in summer she could buy no matches for The wholesale price per dozen boxes of the retail, but was obliged to make them for her best matches, is fourpence; of the second quality, customers. The increased summer demand for threepepce.
the Lucifer Matches shows that the great conThere are about ten Lucifer Match manufac-sumption is amongst the masses—the laboring tories in London. There are others in large pro- population—those who make up the vast majorvincial towns. The wholesale business is chiefly ity of the contributors to duties of customs and confined to the supply of the metropolis and im- excise. In the houses of the wealthy there is mediate neighborhood by the London makers ; always fire; in the houses of the poor, fire in for the railroad carriers refuse to receive the ar. summer is a needless hourly expense. Then ticle, which is considered dangerous in transit. comes the Lucifer Match to supply the want; to But we must not therefore assume that the met- light the candle to look in the dark cupboard ropolitan population consume the metropolitan to light the afternoon fire to boil the kettle. It matches. Taking the population at upwards of is now unnecessary to run to the neighbor for a two millions, and the inhabited houses at about light, or, as a desperate resource, to work at the three hundred thousand, let us endeavor to esti- tinder-box. The Lucifer Matches sometimes mate the distribution of these little articles of fail, but they cost little, and so they are freely domestic comfort.
| used, even by the poorest. At the manufactory at Wisker's Gardens there And this involves another great principle. The are fifty gross, or seven thousand two hundred demand for the Lucifer Match is always continboxes, turned out daily, made from two hundred uous, for it is a perishable article. The demand bundles, which will produce seven hundred and never ceases. Every match barnt demands a twenty thousand matches. Taking three hun. new match to supply its place. This continuity
of demand renders the supply always equal to CUMMER RETREAT AT HIGH LAND DALE. the demand. The peculiar nature of the com- The season of the year is at hand, when many
to citizens leave their homes for the benefit of pure air ; modity prevents any acoumulation of stock ; its
R.; " the attention of the readers of the Intelligencer combustible character-requiring the simple is called to the pleasant Retreat of CHARLES and agency of friction to ignite it, renders it dan- CATHARINE P. Foulke, who have again enlarged their gerous for large quantities of the article to be premises, and are prepared as heretofore to receive
summer boarders, kept in one place. Therefore no one makes for store, but all for immediate sale.
Their farm and residence is near the crown of one
The average of the mountain ridges in Monroe County, Pennsylvania, price, therefore, must always yield a profit, or about two miles from Stroudsburg, the county town, the production would altogether cease. Butand three miles from the Delaware Water Gap, in one these essential qualities limit the profit. The
of the healthiest situations to be found in Pennsylvania. manufacturers cannot be rich without secret pro- la
On this high elevation and near the domicile is a
repro- large spring of excellent water, which supplies a Bath cesses or monopoly. The contest is to obtain the House attached to the premises,—while within doors largest profit by economical inanagement. The there is much to give comfort and create a home feelamount of skill required in the laborers, and the ing, and make this a very desirable mountain Retreat.
1 The cars leave Camden in the morning and arrive facility of habit, which makes fingers act with
at the Stroudsburg station within two and a half miles the precision of machines, limit the number of of High Land Dale, early in the afternoon. laborers, and prevent their impoverishment.
5th mo. 16– 6t.
T. B. L. Every condition of this cheapness is a natural and beneficial result of the laws that govern pro
TLDRIDGE'S HILL BOARDING SCHOOL.--The duction.- Household Words.
My next Term of this Institution will conimence on the 18th of 5th month next and continue 20 weeks.
Scholars of both sexes will be received during the THE MAHOGANY TRADE.
Allibe branches of a liberal English education are The extent of the mahogany trade is not gen- thoroughly taught in this institution ; also the elements erally appreciated. The exports form the port of the Lati: and French languages. of Coatzacoalcos, in Mexico,' had in the last year Terms $70 per session. To those studying Latin increased to 6,80+ tops, and thirty-two vessels
or French an additional charge will be made of $3 for
each language. were employed. In 1850 only one vessel was No other extra charges except for the use of Clasemployed, and only 230 tons exported. At the sical and Mathematical Books and Instruments. average price of $12 per ton, the value of the A daily Stage passes the door to and from Philadelexports from that single port, which are esti- phia.
For further particulars address the Principal for a mated at 15,000 tons for the present year, will
Circular. amount to $180,000. Three-fourths of the
ALLEN FLITCRAFT, wood exported is consumed in the United States,
Eldridge's Hill, Salem County, N. J. and Americans almost monopolize the business. The Mexican Government receives one dollar
I ONDON GROVE BOARDING SCHOOL FOR for every ton exported, and the same for every L YOUNG MEN AND BOYS. It is intended to tree felled. The duty on mahogany, rose, eatin | commence the Summer session of this Institution on and cedar woods, under the old Tariff, was 20 the 1st 2d day in the 5th mo. next. Lectures will be ber cent. By the new Tariff bill they are placed
delivered on various subjects, by the teacher. Also,
on Anatomy and Physiology, by a medical practitionon the free list.
er; the former illustrated by appropriate apparatus ;
the latter by plates adapted to the purpose. PHILADELPHIA MARKETS.
TERMS; 65 dollars for 20 weeks. No extra charge FLOUR AND Meal.-Flour is still on the rise. Sales except for the Latin language, which will be 5 dollars. of good brands at $7 37 per bbl., and of better brands For Circulars, including references, and further 'parfor home consumption at $7 37 a 7 50, and extra and ticulars, address fancy brands at $7 50 a 8 50. There is very little
BENJAMIN SWAYNE, Principal, demand for export, and little stock to operate in. Sales of Rye Flour at $4 75 barrel Corn Meal at $3 56.
London Grove P. O., Chester co., Pa. Grain.- Wheat is in demand, and prices firm. Sales 3d mo. 14, 1857. of prime Pennsylvania red are making at $1 78 a 1 80, and $1 88 a 1 90 for good white. Rye is firm; sales of
DYBERRY BOARDING SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. Penna. at 95c. Corn is in demaud at 82 a 83c for
D The fourth session of this school, taught by JANE new yellow, afloat. Oats are dull; sales of Penna. | HILLBORN and Sisters, will commence on the 1st Second and Delaware at 58c per bushel.
day in the Fifth month, and continue twenty weeks.
The usual branches of a liberal English Education will CHESTERFIELD BOARDING SCHOOL FOR be taught.
U YOUNG MEN AND BOYS.-The Summer Ses TERMS: $60 pez session, one half payable in adsion of this Institution will commence the 18th of 5th
vance, the other half at the end of the term. For mo. 1857, and continue twenty weeks.
| Circulars, containing particulars, address, Terms.-$70 per session, one half payable in advance, the other in tbe middle of the term.
JANE HILLBORN, Byberry P. O., Pa. No extra charges. For further particulars address, | 3d mo. 14, 1857.-8t.
HENRY W. RIDGWAY,
PHILADELPHIA, FIFTH MONTH 23, 1857.
EDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS. | But I visited most o he meetings over again,
and so I returned intu Huntingtonshire, NorthPUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE,
hamptonshire, and so towards Dorsetshire, and No. 324 South Fifth Street,
Somersetshire, visiting meetings as I went PHILADELPHIA,
through part of Oxfordshire. I had many Every Seventh day at Two Dollars per annum, pay
meetings, sometimes fourteen in a week, and able in advance. Three copies sent to one address for Five Dollars.
generally to satisfaction. In almost every parish Communications must be addressed to the Publisher, where a Friend lived, we had a meeting, besides free of expense, to whom all payments are to be made. which sundry offered their houses, who were not
Friends, which we embraced. I came through An account of the life, travels, and Christian ex- part of Hampshire and Warwickshire, and so periences in the work of the ministry of Sam uel back again to Hampshire, visiting Friends, and Bouonas.
had many meetings in places where none had (Continued from page 131.)
been, and the people were much inclined, who I was now in a strait, what course to take to were not Friends, to have meetings at their get a little money, my linen and woolen both houses in many places, and would desire Friends wanting to be repaired. I met with a young man to conduct me to their houses : so that although newly set up in his trade, with whom I proposed I was entirely unknown to most, yet there was to work, and he was ready to comply with my very great willingness to receive the doctrine of offer, supposing it would be a means to improve Christ; and sundry, I found afterwards, were him : so we agreed, and I began with him, and convinced, by accounts I received from Friends. found it answered much better than harvest-work, The teachers of the national way, and Dissenso that I stored myself with a little cash soon, ters also, were much disturbed, and threatened and worked hard all that summer, and in the fall what they would do, and that they would come of the year prepared myself for a journey with and dispute; and some of them came several my good old friend Joseph Baines.
times, and got out of sight, where they could We set out the latter end of the Sixth Month, hear and not be seen ; but never any gave me and visited some parts of Yorkshire, and so into the least disturbance all that journey; but some Lincolnshire, Suffolk and Norfolk, and we did would say I was a cheat (viz.) à Jesuit in very well together : only I was afraid that disguise; others, that I was brought up for the Friends took so much notice of me, he would be pulpit, and for some misdemeanor suspended; uneasy; but he was so entirely innocent, and and so they varied, according to their imagina. had so much of the lamb in him, that he never tions : but I was very easy in my service, and did, that I could find, shew any uneasiness, more found my heart very much enlarged; some of than to give me a caution with a smile ;“ Sammy, the people took me to have a good share of said he, (for I was mostly called so) thou hadst | learning, which, although it was false, served need take care, Friends admire thee so much, for a defence against some busy fellows, who thou dost not grow proud ;” and indeed the thought they could dispute about religion and caution was very seasonable, as well as service- doctrine, which I always endeavored to avoid as able to me; which I saw and did acknowledge. much as possible, seldom finding any advantage This Joseph was (it might be said) an Israelite by such work, but that it mostly ended in cavilindeed, as meek as a lamb, not great in the mining, and a strife of words. istry, but very acceptable, especially amongst I went through part of Dorsetshire, and at other people, having a meek, quiet, easy delivery, Sherborne an old Friend was sick, and not exmostly in scripture phrases, with which he was pected to get over that illness, and it came into well furnished, repeating them with very little my mind he would die of that sickness, and that or no comment upon them, which some admired I must be at his funeral, and preach with my very much; and he had great service at funerals, Bible in my hand. This made me shrink, as being in a peculiar manner qualified for such fearing it was the fruit of imagination, but I services. But he receiving an account of some kept it to myself, and had many meetings about troubles in his family, it brought a very great those parts, as at Yeoville, Puddimore, Masson, uneasiness upon him, and he returned home. I Weston, &c. Besides this, a young woman,