« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
DARE AND DO.
Dare to think, though bigots frown;
Dare in words your thoughts express; Dare to rise, though oft cast down;
Dare the wronged and scorned to bless.
Dare from custom to depart;
Dare the priceless pearl possess; Dare to wear it next your heart;
Dare, when sinners curse, to bless.
Dare forsake what you deem wrong;
Dare to walk in wisdom's way; Dare to give where gifts belong;
Dare God's precepts to obey.
Do what conscience says is right;
Do what reason says is best, Do with willing mind and heart;
Do your duty and be blest.
WONDERS AND MURMURS.
BY S. C. HALL.
Strange, that the wind should be left so free,
Strange, that the sun should call into birth
Strange, that the ocean should come and go,
Bat stranger than all, that man should die,
When his plans are formed and his hopes are high;
He walks forth a lord of the earth to-day,
And the morrow beholds him a part of its clay;
He is born in sorrow and cradled in pain,
And from youth to age—it is labor in vain;
And all that seventy years can show,
Is, that wealth is trouble, and wisdom woe;
That he travels a path of care and strife,
Who drinks of the poisoned cup of life.
Alas! if we murmur at things like these,
That reflection tells us are4wise degrees,
That the wind is not ever a gentle breath—
That the sun is often the bearer of death—
That the ocean wave is not always still,—
And life is chequered with good and ill;
If we know 'tis well such change should be,
What do we learn from the things we see 1
That an erring and sinning child of dust
Should not wonder nor murmur—but hope and trust.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHEAPNESS.
THE LUCIFER MATCH.
Some twenty years ago the process of obtaining fire, in every house in England, with few exceptions, was as rude, as laborious, and as uncertain, as the effort of the Indian to produce a flame by the friction of two dry sticks.
The nightlamp and the rushlight were for the. comparatively luxurious. In the bed-rooms of the cottager, the artisan, and the small tradesman, the infant at its mother's side too often awoke, like Milton's nightingale, ' darkling,'— but that ' nocturnal note' was something different from ' harmonious numbers.' The mother was soon on her feet; the friendly tinder-box was duly sought. Click, click, click; not a spark tells upon the sullen blackness. More rapidly does the flint ply the sympathetic steel. The room is bright with the radiant shower. But the child, familiar enough with the operation, is impatient at its tediousness, and shouts till the mother is frantic. At length one lucky spark does its office—the tinder is alight. Now for the match. It will not burn. A gentle breath is wafted into the murky box; the face that leans over the tinder is in a glow. Another match, and another, and another. They are all damp. The baby is inexorable; and the misery is only ended when the goodman has gone to the street door, and after long shivering has obtained a light from the watchman. »
In this, the beginning of our series of Illustrations of Cheapness, let us trace this antique machinery through the various stages of its production.
The tinder box and the steel had nothing peculiar. The tinman made the one as he made the saucepan, with hammer and shears; the other was forged at the great metal factories of Sheffield and Birmingham; and happy was it for the purchaser if it were something better than a rude piece of iron, very uncomfortable to grasp. The nearest chalk quarry supplied the flint. The domestic manufacture of the tinder was a serious affair. At due seasons, and very often if the premises were damp, a stifling smell rose from the kitchen, which, to those who were not intimate with the process, suggested doubts whether the house were not on fire. The best linen rag was periodically burnt, and its ashes deposited in the tinman's box, pressed down with a close fitting lid upon which the flint and steel reposed. The match was chiefly an article of itinerant traffic. The chandler's shop was almost ashamed . of it. The mendicant was the universal matchseller. The girl who led tho blind beggar had invariably a basket of matches. In the day they were vendors of matches—in the evening manufacturers. On the floor of the hovel sit two or three squalid children, splitting deal with a common knife. The matron is watching a pipkin upon a slow fire. The fumes which it gives forth are blinding as the brimstone is liquifying. Little bundles of split deal are ready to be dipped, three or four at a time. When the pennyworth of brimstone is used up, when the capital is exhausted, the night's labor is over. In the summer, the manufacture is suspended, or conducted upon fraudulent principles. Fire is then needless; so delusive matches must be produced—wet splints dipped in powdered sulphur. They will never burn, but they will do to sell to the unwary maid-of-all-work.
About twenty years ago Chemistry discovered that the tinder-box might be abolished. But Chemistry set about its function with especial reference to the wants and the means of the rich few. In the same way the fir.-t printed books were designed to have a great resemblance to manuscripts, and those of the wealthy class were alone looked to as the purchasers of the skilful imitations. The first chemical light-producer was a complex and ornamental casket, sold at a guinea. In a year or so, there were pretty portable cases of a phial and matches, which enthusiasticyoung housekeepers regarded as the cheapest of ail treasures at five shillings. By and bye the light-box was sold as low as a shilling. The fire revolution was slowly approaching. The old dynasty of the tinder-box maintained its predominance for a short while in kitchen and garret, in farmhouse and cottage. At length some bold adventurer saw that the new chemical discovery might be employed for the production of a large article of trade—that matches, in themselves the vehicles of fire without aid of spark and tinder, might be manufactured upon the factory system —that the humblest in the land might have a new and indispensable comfort at the very lowest rate of cheapness. When Chemistry saw that phosphorus, having an affinity for oxygen at the lowest temperature, would ignite upon slight friction,—and so ignited would ignite sulphur, which required a much higher temperature to become inflammable, thus making the phosphorus do the work of the old tinder with far greater certainty; or when Chemistry found that chlorate of potash by slight friction might be exploded so as to produce combustion, and might be safely used in the same combination—a blessing was bestowed upon society that can scarcely be measured by those who have had no former knowledge of the miseries and privations of the tinder-box. The Penny Box of Lucifers, or Congreves, or by whatever name called, is a real triumph of Science, and an advance in Civilization.
Let us now look somewhat closely and practically into the manufacture of a Lucifer-match.
The combustible materials used in the manufacture render the process an unsafe one. It cannot be carried on in the heart of towns without being regarded as a common nuisance. We must therefore go somewhere in the suburbs of
London to find such a trade. In the neighborhood of Bethnal Green there is a large open space called Wisker's Gardens. This is not a place of courts and alleys, but a considerable area, literally divided into small gardens, where just now the crocus and the snowdrop are telling hopefully of the spring time. Each garden has the smallest of cottages—for the most part wooden—which haye been converted from summer-houses into dwellings. The whole place reminds one of numberless passages in the old dramatists, in which the citizens' wives arc described in their garden-houses of Finsbury, or Hogsden, sipping syllabub and talking fine on summer holidays. In one of these garden-houses, not far from the public road, is the little, factory of' Henry Lester, Patentee of the Bomestic Safety Match-box,' as his label proclaims. He is very ready to show his processes, which in many respects are curious and interesting.
Adam Smith has instructed us that the business of making a pin is divided into about eighteen distinct operations; and further, that ten persons could make upwards of forty-eight thousand pins a day with the division of labor; while if they had all wrought independently and separately, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty. The Lucifer Match is a similar example of division of labor, and the skill of long practice. At a seperate factory, where there is a steam-engine, not the refuse of the carpenter's shop, but the best Norway deals are cut into splints by machinery, and are supplied to the match-maker. These little pieces, beautifully accurate in their minute squareness, and in their precise length of five inches, are made up into bundles, each of which contains eighteen hundred. They are daily brought on a truck to the dipping-house, as it is called—the average number of matches finished off daily requiring two hundred of these bundles. Up to this point we have had several hands employed in the preparation of the match, in connection with the machinery that cuts the wood. Let us follow one of these bundles through the subsequent processes. Without being separated, each end of the bundle is first dipped into the sulphur. When dry, the splints, adhering to each other by means of the sulphur, must be parted by what is called dusting. A boy sitting on the floor, with a bundle before him, strikes the matches with a sort of a mallet on the dipped ends till they become thoroughly loosened. In the best matches the process of sulphur-dipping and dusting is repeated. Tbey have now to be plunged into a preparation of phosphorus or chlorate of potash, according to the quality of the match. The phosphorus produces the pale, noiseless fire; the chlorate of potash the sharp cracking illumination. After this application of the more inflammable substance, the.matches
«re separated, and dried in racks. Thoroughly dried, they are gathered up again into bundles of the same quantity; and are taken to the boys who cut them; for the reader will have observed that the bundles have been dipped at each end. There are few things more remarkable in manufactures than the extraordinary rapidity of this cutting process, and that which is connected with it. The boy stands before a bench, the bundle on his right hand, a pile of half opened empty boxes on his 1 ft, which have been manufactured at another division of this establishment. These boxes are formed of scale-board, that is, thiu slices of wood, planed or scaled off a plank. The box itself is a marvel of neatness and cheapness, it consists of an inner box, without a top, in which the matches are placed, and of an outer case, open at each end, into which the first box slides. The matches, then, are to be cut, and the empty boxes filled, by one boy. A bundle is opened; he seizes a portion, knowing by long habit tue required number with sufficient exactness; puts them rapidly into a sort of frame, knocks the ends evenly together, confines them with a strap which he tightens with his foot, and cuts them in two parts with a knife on a hinge, which he brings down with a strong leverage: the halves lie projecting over each end of the frame; he grasps the left portion and thrusts it into a half open box, which he instantly closes, and repeats the process with the matches on his right hand. This series of movements is performed with a rapidity almost unexampled; for in this way, two hundred thousand matches are cut, and two thousand boxes filled in a day, by one boy, at the wages of three halfpence per gross of boxes. Each dozen boxes is then papered up, and they are ready for the retailer. The number of boxes daily filled at this factory is from fifty to sixty gross.
The wholesale price per dozen boxes of the best matches, is fourpence; of the second quality, threepence.
There are about ten Lucifer Match manufactories in London. There are others in large provincial towns. The wholesale business is chiefly confined to the supply of the metropolis and immediati neighborhood by the London makers; for the railroad carriers refuse to receive the article, which is considered dangerous in transit. Bat we must not therefore assume that the metropolitan population consume the metropolitan matches. Taking the population at upwards of two millions, and the inhabited houses at about three hundred thousand, let us endeavor to estimate the distribution of these little articles of domestic comfort.
At the manufactory at Wisker's Gardens there are fifty gross, or seven thousand two hundred boxes, turned out daily, made from two hundred bundles, which will produce seven hundred and twenty thousand matches. Taking three hun
dred working days in the year, this will give for one factory, two hundred and sixteen millions of matches annually, or two millions one hundred and sixty thousand boxes, being a box of one hundred matches for every individual of the London population. But there are ten other Lucifer manufactories, which arc estimated to produce about four or five times as many more. London certainly cannot absorb ten millions of Lucifer boxes annually, which would be at the rate of thirty three boxes to each inhabited house. London, perhaps, demands a third of the supply for its own consumption; and at this rate the annual retail cost for each house is eightpence, averaging those boxes sold at a halfpenny, and those at a penny. The manufacturer sells this article, produced with such care as we have described, at one farthing and a fraction per box.
And thus, for the retail expenditure of three farthings per month, every house in London, from the highest to the lowest, may secure the inestimable blessing of constant fire at all seasons, and at all hours. London buys this for ten thousand pounds annually.
The excessive cheapness is produced by the extension of the demand, enforcing the factory division of labor, and the most exact saving of material. The scientific discovery was the foundation of the cheapness. But connected with this general principle of cheapness, there are one or two reniaikable points, which deserve attention.
It is a law of this manufacture that the demand is greater in the summer than in the winter. The old match maker, as we have mentioned, was idle in the summer—without fire for heating the brimstone—or engaged in more profitable field-work. A worthy woman who once kept a chandler's shop in a village, informs us, that in summer she could buy no matches for retail, but was obliged to make them for her customers. The increased summer demand for the Lucifer Matches shows that the great consumption is amongst the masses—the laboring population—those who make up the vast majority of the contributors to duties of customs and excise. In the houses of the wealthy there is always fire; in the houses of the poor, fire in summer is a needless hourly expense. Then comes the Lucifer Match to supply the want; to light the candle to look in the dark cupboard— to light the afternoon fire to boil the kettle. It is now unnecessary to run to the neighbor for a light, or, as a desperate resource, to work at the tinder-box. The Lucifer Matches sometimes fail, but they cost little, and so they are freely used, even by the poorest.
And this involves another great principle. The demand for the Lucifer Match is always continuous, for it is a perishable article. The demand never ceases. Every match burnt demands a new match to supply its place. This continuity of demand renders the supply always equal to the demand. The peculiar nature of the commodity prevents any accumulation of stock; its combustible character—requiring the simple agency of friction to ignite it, renders it dangerous for larce quantities of the article to be kept in one place. Therefore no one makes for store, but all for immediate sale. The average price, therefore, must always yield a profit, or the production would altogether cease. But these essential qualities limit the profit. The manufacturers cannot be rich without secret processes or monopoly. The contest is to obtain the largest profit by economical management. The amount of skill required in the laborers, and the facility of habit, which makes fingers act with the precision of machines, limit the number of laborers, and prevent their impoverishment. Every condition of this cheapness is a natural and beneficial result of the laws that govern production.—Hmisclwld Words.
THE MAHOGANY TRADE.
The extent of the mahogany trade is not generally appreciated. The exports form (he port of Oatzacoalcos, in Mexico,) had in the last year increased to 0,804 tons, and thirty-two vessels were employed. In 1850 only one vessel was employed, and only 230 tons exported. At the average price of 612 per ton, the -value of the exports from that single port, which are estimated at 15,000 tons for the present year, will amount to $180,000. Three-fourths of the wood exported is consumed in the United States, and Americans almost monopolize the business. The Mexican Government receives one dollar for every ton exported, and the same for every tree felled. The duty on mahogany, rose, satin and cedar woods, under the old Tariff, was 20 ;,er cent. By the new Tariff bill they are placed on the free list.
Flour Awd Meal.—Flour is still on the rise. Sales of good brands at $7 37 per bbl., and of better brands for home consumption at $7 37 a 7 50, and extra and fancy brands at §7 50 a 8 50. There is very little demand for export, and little stock to operate in. Sales of Rye Flour at $4 75 barrel Corn Meal at $3 56.
Grain.— Wheat is in demand,and prices firm. Sales of prime Pennsylvania red are making at $1 78 a 1 80, and $1 8S a 1 00 for good white. Rye is firm; sales of Penna. at 95c. Corn is in demaud at 82 a 83c for new yellow, afloat. Oats are dull; sales of Penna. and Delaware at 58c per bushel.
Ct HF.STF.RFIF.LD BOARDING SCHOOL FOR / YOUNG MF.N AND BOYS.—The Summer Session of this Institution will commence the 18th of 5th mo. 1857, and continue twenty weeks.
Terms.—$70 per session, one half payable in advance, ihe other in the middle of the term. No extra charges. For further particulars address, HENRY W. RIDGWAY, CrosswicksP. O., Burlington Co., N. J.
SUMMER RETREAT AT HIGH LAND DALE. The season of the year is at hand, when many citizens leave their homes for the benefit of pure air; the attention of the readers of the Intelligencer is called to the pleasant Retreat of Chaki.es and Catharine P. Foclke, who have again enlarged their premises, and are prepared as heretofore to receive summer boarders.
Their farm and residence is near the crown of one of the mountain ridges in MonroeCounty, Pennsylvania about two miles from Stioudsburg, the county town, and three miles from the Delaware Water Gap, inontof the healthiest situations tobe found in Pennsylvania.
On this high elevation and near the domicile is a large spring of excellent water, which supplies a Bath House attached to the premises,—while within diors there is much to give comfort and create a home feeling, and make this a very desirable mountain Retreat.
The cars leave Camden in the morning and arrive at the Stioudsburg station within two and a hall miles of High Land Dale, early in the afternoon.
5th mo. 16- 6t. T. B. L.
J? LDRIDGE'S HILL BOARDING SCHOOL.-Tiie 'j next Term of this Institution will commence on the 18th of 5th month next and continue 20 weeks.
Scholars of both sexes will be received during the coming Term.
All the branches of a liberal English education are thoioushly taught in this institution ; also the elements of the Latin and French languages.
Terms $70 per session. To those studying Latin or French an additional charge will be made ol $3 for each language.
No other extra charges except for the use of Classical and Mathematical Books and Instruments.
A daily Stage passes the door to and from Philadelphia.
For further particulars address the Pi incipal /or >■ Circular.
ALLEN FLITCRAFT, Eldridge's Hill, Salem County, N. J.
T ONDON GROVE BOARDING SCHOOL FOR
YOUNG MEN AND BOYS It is intended to
commence the Summer session of this Institution on the 1st 2d day in the 5th mo. next. Lectures will be delivered on various subjects, Ky the teacher. Also, on Anatomy and Physiology, by a medical practitioner; the former illustrated by appropriate apparatus: the latter by plates adapted to the purpose.
Terms; 65 dollars for 20 weeks. No extra charge except (or the Latin language, w hich will be Sdollers. For Circulars, including references, and further particulars, address
BENJAMIN SWAYNE, Principal,
3d mo. 14, 1857.
BYBERRY BOARDING SCHOOL FOR GIRL?. The fourth session of this school, taugl't by Jake Hillborn and Sisters, will commence on the 1st Second day in the Filth month, and continue twenty weeks. The usual branches of a liberal English Education will be taught.
Terms: $60 pei session, one half payable in advance, the other Half at the end of the term. !'«"' Circulars, containing particulars, address,
JANE HILLBORN, Byberry P. O., P«.
3d mo. 14, 1857—8t.
Merrihew & Thompson, Prs., Lodg» St, North side Penna-BankEDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS.
VOL. XIV. PHILADELPHIA, FIFTH MONTH 23, 1857. No. 10.
PUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE, No. 324 South Fifth Street, PHILADELPHIA, Every Seventh day at Two Dollars per annum, payable in advance. Three copies sent to one address for Five Dollars.
Communications must be addressed to the Publisher, free of expense, to whom all payments are to be made.
An account of the life, travels, and Christian experiences in the work of the ministry of Samuel Bownas.
(Continued from paste 131.)
I was now in a strait, what course to take to get a little money, my linen and woolen both wanting to be repaired. I met with a young man newly set up in his trade, with whom I proposed to work, and he was ready to comply with my offer, supposing it would be a means to improve him : so we agreed, and I began with him, and found it answered much better than harvest-work, so that L stored myself with a little cash soon, and worked hard all that summer, and in thefall of the year prepared mj'self for a journey with my good old friend Joseph Baines.
We set out the latter end of the Sixth Month, and visited some parts of Yorkshire, and so into Lincolnshire, Suffolk and Norfolk, and we did very well together: only I was afraid that Friends took so much notice of me, he would be uneasy; but he wns so entirely innocent, and had so much of the lamb in him, that he never did, that I could find, shew any uneasiness, more than to give me a caution with a smile ; " Sammy, said he, (for I was mostly called so) thou hadst need take care, Friends admire thee so much, thou dost not grow proud;" and indeed the caution was very seasonable, as well as serviceable to me ; which I saw and did acknowledge. This Joseph was (it might be said) an Israelite indeed, as meek as a lamb, not great in the ministry, but very acceptable, especially amongst other people, having a meek, quiet, easy delivery, mostly in scripture phrases, with which he was well furnished^ repeating them with very little or no comment upon them, which some admired very much; and he had great service at funerals, being in a peculiar manner qualified for such services. But he receiving an account of some troubles in his family, it brought a very great uneasiness upon him, and he returned home.
But I visited most c ie meetings over again, and so I returned into lluntingtonshire, Northhamptonshire, and so towards Dorsetshire, and Somersetshire, visiting meetings as I went through part of Oxfordshire. I had many meetings, sometimes fourteen in a week, and generally to satisfaction. In almost every parish where a Friend lived, we had a meeting, besides which sundry offered their houses, who were not Friends, which we embraced. I came through part of Hampshire and Warwickshire, and so back again to Hampshire, visiting Friends, and had many meetings in places where none had been, and the people were much inclined, who were not Friends, to have meetings at their houses in many places, and would desire Friends to conduct me to their houses : so that although I was entirely unknown to most, yet there was very great willingness to receive the doctrine of Christ; and sundry, I found afterwards, were convinced, by accounts I received from Friends. The teachers of the national way, and Dissenters also, were much disturbed, and threatened what they would do, and that they would come and dispute; and some of them came several times, and got out of sight, where they could hear and not be seen; but never any gave me the least disturbance all that journey; but some would say 1 was a cheat (viz.) a Jesuit in disguise; others, that I was brought up for the pulpit, and for some misdemeanor suspended; and so they varied, according to their imaginations: but I was very easy in my service, and found my heart very much enlarged; some of the people took me to have a good share of learning, which, although it was false, served for a defence against some busy fellows, who thought they could dispute about religion and doctrine, which I always endeavored to avoid as much as possible, seldom finding any advantage by such work, but that it mostly ended in caviling, and a strife of words.
t went through part of Dorsetshire, and at Sherborne an old Friend was sick, and not expected to get over that illness, and it came into my mind he would die of that sickness, and that I must be at his funeral, and preach with my Bible in my hand. This made me shrink, as fearing it was the fruit of imagination, but I kept it to myself, and had many meetings about those parts, as at Yeoville, Puddimore, Masson, Weston, &c. Besides this, a young woman,