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plant, in his phial, and hasten home. He will have obtained a creaure which, about a century ago, electrifiVd the scientific world, and opened up a new and most marvellous chapter in the history of Life. It is the Fresh-water Polype (Hydra viridii).
The invention of the microscope had given an immense impetus to natural science: and a galaxy of illustrious nu n had by its means been announcing wondrous facts, the records of which fill the pages of the Philosophical Transactions of our own Royal Society, as well as many works of great merit specially devoted to microscopy. •But yet, when, in 1774, Abraham Trembley of Geneva declared what he had seen of this little fresh-water animal, this living ball of green jelly, it was regarded as a thing incredible, and even impossible. The facts " were so contrary to all former experience, and so repugnant to every established notion of animal life, that the scientific world were amazed; and while the more cautious among naturalists set themselves to verify what it was difficult to believe, there were many who looked upon the alleged facts as impossible fancies. The discoveries of Trembley were, however, speedily confirmed ; and we are now so familiar with the outlines of the history of the fresh water polype, and its marvellous reproductive powers, that we can scarcely appreciate the vividness of the sensation felt when it was all novel and strange; when the reading men of our learned societies were daily experimenting on these poor worms, and transmitting them to one another from distant countries, by careful posts, and as most precious gifts; and when even ambassadors interested themselves in sending early intelligence of the engrossing theme to their respective courts."
Let us try to see what Trembley saw. Put the phial in a window, and allow it to remain untouched a while. The balls of jelly have all attached themselves, some to the glass sides, some to the plant, but they are balls no longer. Each is a thread of some half inch in length, and about as thick as small twine, adhering hy one extremity; while from the other radiate, like a star, six slender threads, which are waved irregularly through the water, thrown into spiral coils or various contortions, elongated again, slowly or suddenly, and in different degrees. Two or three minute water-insects are swimming giddily about; one of them, as he shoots unconsciously by, just touches one of these slender threads. In an instant the playful course is arrested ; the little thing strives to pursue his way, drags the flexible cord that holds him hither and thither; redoubles his efforts, pulls away and stretches it till we think it must break and free him. No! like a skilful angler, the Jelly is but wearying his victim: suddenly the thread is thrown into corkscrew coils, and the helpless insect is dragged in; another thread is brought
to bear upon it, and another. Poor thing! "actum dr. eo est," it is all up with him! He is dragged helplessly to the base of the radiating threads, and there, in the midst of their circle, an aperture is gaping, which stretches wider and wider, while the prey is slowly sucked in, until it is quite engulfed within the gelatinous body.
Rut, for some time before this, the prey bad become quite motionless; its struggles, though violent at first, had soon entirely ceased, and it was evident that a fatal effect h.id been produced by the mere contact of those slender threads.
'W hat is the nature of this subtle venom that resides in a creature apparently so low in the scale of being, so simple in structure, and almost homogeneous in substance? Worms, and the larvae of insects that may be wounded, and even chopped into pieces, and yet survive for hours, die suddenly from a touch of these gelatinous threads? "I have sometimes," says Raker, "forced a worm from a polype the instant it has been seized, at the expense of breaking off the polype's arms, and have always observed it to die very soon afterwards, without one single instance of recovery." On the other hand, the tiny water-fleas, and other minute Crustacea, frequently escape with impunity even from the very mouth of the polype; for they are enclosed in a homey shell, which evidently protects their vital parts fron the morbific touch.
The microscope throws light on the question, and reveals a most elaborate system of offensive weapons with which these soft and sluggish creatures are provided. According to Corda, each tentacle forms a slender membraneous tube, filled with an albuminous substance nearly fluid, mingled with some oily particles. This substance, at certain definite points, swells out into tubercles or dense warts, which run round the tentacle in a spiral line. Each wart is furnished with several spine-bearing vesicles, which arc organs of touch, ^nd with an organ of highly curious structure, which is the weapon of offence.
The organ of touch consists of a fine sac, enclosing another with thicker walls, within which there is a small cavity. From the upper extremity, where the inner and the outer sacs are in contact, there projects a long cilium, or fine pointed bristle, which is not retractile, and appears to be immovable.
The weapon of offence is placed in the midst of these spines, in the centre of each wart. It consists of an oval transparent sac, imbedded in the substance of the wart, with its perforated extremity exactly at the surface. At the bottom of the interior of the sac there is a body, in shape resembling a saucer, in the centre of which stands a small oval, solid body, bearing on its summit a calcareous dart, pointed at its extremity, and bifid, or sagittate, at its base. This dart can be projected at the will of the animal, and again withdrawn into the sac. When the prehensile instinct is exerted, the darts are thrust out with force, and, entering the tissues of the prey, retain it; while at the same time, in all probability, a subtle but potent puison is injegted, the effects of which we have already alluded to.
But this is a modern discovery. The circumstance in the economy of these animals which appeared so anomalous, was the mode in which they were both naturally and artificially multiplied. They were manifestly animals, yet it was found that they could be propagated by slips or cuttings, like plants! In the warm weather of Summer each polype is observed to shoot forth, from various parts of its body, little warts, or knobs, which increase rapidly, until in a few days they assume the form of the parent animal, each one being furnished with a circle of tentacles, though still attached at its lower end. The young one, which up to this period had received j its nutriment from the parent's stomach, from which a channel had communicated with its own, now catches prey with its own tentacles, the duct closes, the connection of the base with the mother becomes more slender, and at length the little animal falls off and commences independent life. Such is the ordinary mode of increase— generation by gemmation.
In Autumn, the Hydra propagates by means of eggs, which are deposited around the parent; the basal portion of her body being spread over them, and becoming a homey protecting skin. She immediately dies, and the eggs are hatched in the ensuing Spring.
But these strange animals may be artificially increased at pleasure, and that by means which, to higher animals, would inevitably destroy, instead of multiplying life. If the head of a polype, with all its tentacles, be cut off from the trunk with scissors, it will presently develope a new trunk and base, while the headless trunk begins to shoot out new tentacles; and thus, in a little time, two perfect animals are formed. If one of these be cut into three, four, or half-adozen pieces, each piece supplies the wanting parts, and so many animals are made, all as perfect and active, and endowed with the same functions, as the first. Nor does it signify in what direction the mutilation is made; a longitudinal, a diagonal, or a transverse division is equally successful; nay, even a small portion of the skin soon grows into a polype.
It was from this power of perpetual reproduction that this singular animal received the name at Hydra, by which it isknown among naturalists; as if it realized the ancient monster of fabulous story, whose heads sprouted anew as fast as they were cut off by Hercules.
Most curious monstrosities were produced by the experiments of philosophers on these animals, especially by partial separations. If the polpye be slit from the summit to the middle, one will be formed having two heads, each of which will
capture and swallow food. If these again be slit half-a-dozen times, as many heads will be formed surmounting the same body. If now all these be cut off) as many new ones will spring up in their place, while each of the severed heads becomes a new polype, capable of being, in its turn, varied and multiplied ad infinitum; so that in every respect our little reality exceeds its fabulous namesake.
The polypes maybe grafted together. If cutoff pieces be placed in contact, and pushed together with a gentle force, they will unite and form a single one. The head of one may be thus planted on the trunk of another.
Another method of uniting them, perhaps still more wonderful, is by introducing one within the other; the operator forced the body of the one into the mouth of the other, pushing it down so that the heads were brought together. AfUr forcibly keeping it for some time in this state, the two individuals at length united, and a polype was formed, distinguishable only by having twice the usual number of tentacles.
There is one species which can actually be turned inside out like a glove, and yet perform all the functions of life as before, though that which was the coat of the stomach is now the skin of the body, and vice versa. If it should chance that a polype so turned had young in the act of budding, these are, of course, now within the stomach. If they have arrived at a certain degree of maturity, they extend themselves towards the mouth of the parent, that they may thus escape when separated. But those which are less advanced turn themselves spontaneously inside out, and thus place themselves again on the exterior of the parent.
A multitude of other variations, combinations, and monstrosities, have been, as it were, created by the ingenuity of philosophers; but these are sufficient to give a notion of the extraordinary nature of these animals, and to account for the wonder with which they were regarded.
The Hydra was, until lately, considered as an animal of very simple structure, being composed of mere granules of jelly, set in a glairy, enveloping fluid. But the further we push our researches, the more are we disposed to hesitate in pronouncing on the comparative simplicity or complexity of any organism. We have already seen the elaborate array of weapons in the tentacles. Mr. Gervais has shown that the component granules of the body are of diverse forms, and, in all probability, sustain different relations to the general economy. The whole body consists of a sac, with thin dilatable walls, enclosing a capacious cavity, which forms the stomach: the granules which border this cavity are conioal papillae projecting into the stomach, and are supposed to have a digestive function; the exterior series are lengthened, and constitute an integument, while some of the immediate ones are arranged in bands, which are, with little doubt, presumed to be muscular. The muscular bands in the tentacles are still more distinct, running iii four series, which pass diagonally to and fro from side to side, forming lozenge-shaped spaces by mutual intersection.
Many years ago, a case was tried in a Philadelphia court, in which a boy of about ten or twelve years old was brought forward to give in his evidence. His testimony was important, as he had been an eye witness of the transactions of the contending parties. When the oath was about to be administered to him, he said he could not swear. The person who brought him as a witness, was then asked whether he was a Quaker., or whether his parents were Quakers 1 The answer was, they were Presbyterians, and they had tuld liim never to swear. The boy scrupuluusly adhered to his parents' commands, and therefore refused to take an oath. At this simple relation, embracing the principles of strict obedience to parents, the court was at a stand what course to take. Uut it immediately occurred to the mind of the discerning judge, that where so much integrity and sincerity appeared, an oath was unnecessary; and, waiviug the forms of law, he ordered the bny's testimony to be taken, without oath or affirmation. The weight of bis evidence, in the minds of the jury, appeared such that they gave a verdict on his testimony.
What a noble instance of filial obedience! and what a powerful testimony to the force of Truth, superior to the supposed sanction of oaths and imprecations! What dignity in the presiding judge, to respect parental instructions, and filial integrity; and to dispense with tire ceremonies of custom, or law, for the sake of obtaining simple truth, unstudied, and unaffected by the terrors of perjury!
How greatly it would add to the mutual confidence and happiness of society, if such instances of the care of parents, and the obedience of youth, were multiplied, till they became general! "Yea," would then "be yea," and trutli would need no addition to make it more true—assertions and relations of witnesses might be received with confidence, as matters of fact, that needed not the confirmation of oaths, affirmations, or any other imprecations whatever. The doctrine of our Divine Law-giver would be better understood; and that when he enjoiued on his followers to speak the truth, it was the "whole truth, and nothing but the truth j" for "whatsoever is more than this," or added to it, in order to make it more true, "comcih of evil"— and ought to be avoided, as being among those "idle words," for which an account must be rendered in the day of judgment.
PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. Flour Aud .meal.—Flour is firmly Maintained. Sales of good brands at $6 25 per bbl., and ol better brands for home consumption at $6 75 a 6 87, and extra and fancy brands at $7 50 a 8 00. There is very little demand for export. Sales of Rye Flour at $4 29 per barrel. Corn Meal is firmly held at $3 25 per barrel
Grain.— Wheat i9 in demand, and prices higher. Sales of prime Pennsylvania rtd are making at S>1 05 a *1 68, and %\ 75 a ] 71 for good white. Kye is firm; sales of Penna. at 87c. Corn is in fair request, at 70c for new yellow, afloat, and 74c in store. Oats are scarce; sales of Pennsylvania and Delaware at 09 60c per bushel.
( '< HESTERFIELD BOARDING SCHOOL FOR \J YOUNG MEN AND BOYS.—The Summer Session of this Institution will commence the 18ih of 6th mo. 1857, and continue twenty weeks.
Terms.—$70 per session, one half payable in advance, the other in the middle of the term.
No extra charges. For further particulars address, HENRY VV. RIDGWAY, Crosswicks P. O., Burlington Co., N. J.
}1LDR1DGE'S HILL BOARDING SCHOOL.—'J be 'j next Term of this Institution will commence on the 1 8th ol Oth month next and continue 20 weeks.
Scholars of both sexes will be received during the coming Term.
All the branches of a liberal English education are thoroughly taught in this institution ; also the elements of the Latin and French languages.
Terms ^70 per session. To those studying Latin or French an additional charge will be made ot $3 for each language.
No other extra charges except for the use of Classical and Mathematical Books and Instruments.
A daily Stage passes the door to anil from Philadelphia.
For further particulars address the Principal for a Circular.
ALLEN FL1TCRAFT, Eldiidge's Hill, Salem County, N. J.
1 ONDON GROVE BOARDING SCHOOL FOR
I i YOUNG MEN AND BOYS It is intended to
commence the bummer session of this Institution on the 1st 2d day in the Oth mo. next. Lectures will be delivered on various subjects, by the teacher. Also, on Anatomy and Physiology, by a medical practitioner; the lb i mer illustrated by appropriate apparatus; the latter by plates adapted to the purpose.
Terms; 60 dollars for 20 weeks. No extra charge except lor the Latin language, w hich will he 0 dollars. For Circulars, including references, and lurther particulars, address
BENJAMIN SWAYNE, Principal,
3d mo. 14, 1807.
BYBERRY BOARDING SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. The fourth session of this school, taught by Jam* Hillbors and Sisters, will commence on the 1st Second day in the Filth month, and continue twenty weeks. The usual branches of a liberal English Education will be taught.
Terms: $60 per session, one half payable in advance, the other half at the end of the term. For Circulars, containing particulars, address,
JANK HILLBORN, Byberry P. O., Pa.
3d mo. 14, 1807—8t.
Uerrihow & Thompson, I'rs., Lodge St, North side Penua. Bank. VOL. XIV.
PHILADELPHIA, FIFTH MONTH 16, 1857.
EDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS.
PUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE,
Cornmonieations must be addressed to the Publisher, frt» of npj ife, to whom all payments are to be made.
An acemmt of the life, (ravels, and Christian Cjcprriirvces in the work of the m in istry of Sam nel Bomm.
^Continued from page 116.) Then I visited Leicestershire pretty generally, and there was a woman of some account (her name was Jemimah Mountney^ who was convinced, and she was with me at sundry meetings, and was exceeding tender and loving, being thoroughly reached and satisfied. When we parted, she was so open-hearted that I was called aside by her, and after having said gomething to me about her inward condition, she offered me some pieces of gold, which I told -W, I durst not touch ; she very courteously, and with a becoming genteel mein, told me, "she was both able and willing, and as she had no other way that she could show her gratitude for that ipiritual good she had received by my ministry, she could do no less than that, beseeching that I would receive it, as the true token of her love and respect." In answer, I said, "it was what I had never done, nor could I now do it; bat all the reward I desired and expected w«.«, that she might carefully, with a sincere heart, endeavor that her obedience did krep pace with her knowledge, the bearing of which would much rejoice my soul." We parted in great love and tenderness. I heard that sundry others were convinced in that neighborhood. A very honest Friend, whose name was Brooks, took •frreat pains to get the seeking people to meeting, and 1 was very much enlarged in pertinent matter, suitable to the states of such seeking naJt.
Out of Leicestershire, being very well rewarded for the bitterness I suffered before I came into it (which, as before, was as much as I could bear) 1 passed into Warwickshire, and had some good opportunities in that country, as at Warwick and sundry other places. I found I often hurt myself by speaking too fast, and too loud, against
which I endeavored to guard as much as I could; but oft, when I felt my heart filled with the power of divine love, I was apt to forget myself and break out; I found it proper therefore to stop, and after a short pause, with some secret short prayer for preservation, nd that I might be supplied with matter and ^ jwer, that might do the hearers pood. Thus I .vent on, and grew sensibly in experience and judgment, and became in some small degree skilful in dividing of the word. I had been straitened in my mind respecting searching the Scriptures, lest I should thereby be tempted to lean upon them, and by gathering either- manna or sticks on the Sabbathday, death would ensue; but at last I had freedom to examine the text, and to consider where the strength of the argument lay, both before and after the words I had repeated : by which conduct I saw I was often very defective, in not laying hold of the most suitable part to confirm the subject or matter I was upon, and this conduct did me great service. But then another difficulty stood in my way, which was this; some former openings would come up, which I durst not meddle with, lest that by so doing I should become formal and lose that divine spring which I had always depended upon ; but the Lord was pleased to *how me that old matter opened in new life, was always new, and that it was the rcnewings of the spirit alone which made it new, and that the principle thing I was to guard against was, not in my own will to endeavor to bring in old openings, without the aid of the spirit^; andthatif I stood singleand resigned to the divine will, I should be preserved from all errors of this nature.
Out of Warwickshire I travelled into Worcestershire, visiting sundry meetings in that county, and found a fresh supply every day. I was at Worcester on First-day, and after the meeting in the forenoon, an ancient Friend examined me very closely, after meeting was over, from whence I came, and for a certificate ; to all which I gave him answers. Mycertificate being at my quarters in my saddle-bag, he could not then see it; but I had a very good meeting as I thought, and my landlord William Pardoe, a brave, sensible elder, advised me not to be uneasy at the old Friend's examining me so, for, said he, he does so to every Stranger. We went to meeting in the afternoon, which was very large, and I was largely opened, and had, as I thought, very good service; but the old Friend, after the meeting, was upon me in the same strain to see my certificate, but I had it not then about me neither, at which he seemed much displeased. I made no reply, but told him, I was very willing he should seo it; but my landlord took him up, and told him he thought the young man had already shewn us his best certificate in both the meetings; but nevertheless (said he) come to my house in the evening, and thou shalt see it. So we parted. My landlord thought he had shewed him himself disagreeable in his conduct, and fearing it would be an uneasiness to me, spoke very tenderly, and like a nursing father encouraged me, by saying "I could not shew him a better confirmation that I was anointed for the Ministry, than I had already done." So in the evening, after it was dark, he and many other Friends came.; but my landlord, the old Friend and I, went aside, and I let him see what he desired so much to see; he read it, being much pleased with it, and knowing sundry friends that had signed it, enquired after them. We went to our friends again, who were much increased in number, and we had a heavenly season, being thoroughly baptized together: we parted in great love and sweetness, and the old Friend was exceeding kind.
From thence I went into Gloucestershire, and visited part of that county, by Tewkesbury to Cheltenham, Gloucester, Payneswick, Nailsworth, and Tedbury. I had sundry good opportunities: one young woman was convinced at Tedbury, that became a very good Friend.
From thence into Wiltshire and Hampshire, as far as Ringwood, and to Pool and Weymouth; called at Wareham and Corfe, had a meeting at each place, but nothing worthy noting at either of them: so I travelled to Bridport, Lyme, Membury, Chard and Crewkern, and back to Somerton, Puddimore, Masson to a funeral, and to Yeovil on First-day; thus having visited Somersetshire, I went away into Devonshire as far as Exeter ; then turned up towards-Taunton, taking meetings in my way towards Bristol, but nothing happened of weight.
I staid in Bristol, and visited meetings about the city near five weeks, and from thence I found my mind was much drawn to visit Wales, and I took the Quarterly-meeting of Hereford in my way, which was held annually at.Amelly, and there I met with my dear friend Isaac Alexander : we were glad to see each other, as well as to hear eaeh other, which when ws did, it appeared to me that Isaac was improved considerably, and he said the same of me, observing, that I preached the practical doctrine of the Gospel, he thought, more than he did ; for his preaching was very much in comparisons and allegories, which he apprehended was not so plain and easy to the understandings of the vulgar, as what I had to say. We had now an opportunity
of opening our minds to each other, which was of great service to us both, having sundry meetings together, and we had drawings for the Yearly-Meeting at Glanneedless in Wales: this opportunity seemed very agreeable to us; there were sundry Friends of note, Benjamin Bangs, and others out of Cheshire ; the people came in abundance, and at times were very rude, but in the main it was a serviceable meeting. After that I visited Wales, appointing from the Yearlymeeting sundry meetings, as far as was thought proper at once, and a good old Friend, Philip Leonard, offered to be my companion, which was of great service to me. I was very poor and low at most meetings in that journey, by reason but few of the people could well understand what I said in sundry places : but Philip stood up after I had done, and in part interpreted what I had said, but I did not seem to be quite easy in my mind.
Isaac went to Bristol Yearly-meeting, and was very zealous against unnecessary fashions and superfluities in both sexes, insomuch that some thought he did, in his words against them, exceed the bounds of modesty : but he might plead the example of the Prophet Isaiah in that respect, (lsa. iii, 16, to the end.) But the chief objection was, concerning his prophesying of a great mortality, which the Lord was about to bring as a judgment upon the people, fortheirpride and wickedness; which he thought it his duty to deliver in their Yearly-Meeting, as a warning for all to mind their ways, lest being taken unprepared, their loss should be irreparable : which he did in such strong and positive terms, that Friends were afraid he was too much exalted in himself: upon which, some of the elders thought proper to converse with and examine him concerning this extraordinary message which he had delivered: but what he said to them, not being satisfactory, they advised him to proceed no farther on his journey, but to return home; which he did under great trouble, and was there received in much love and tenderness, and appeared in his gift very excellent, and grew in divine wisdom and power, being of great service in the ministry wherever he came. And he having a concern to visit the churches abroad, and aquainting some of our elders therewith, they thought it not proper for him to go, till something was done to satisfy the Friends of Bristol; and upon their enquiry of Isaac, he* gave them a single and honest account how it was with him at that time, respectinghis concern: so Friends took it in hand, and wrote to Bristol, neither justifying nor condemning him, but recommended charity and tenderness towards him. And from Bristol Friends answered, that "With open arms they could receive him, believing him to be a sincere young man, who intended very well; and they were glad he took their admonition right, and had owned it had