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thoughts, and when at the command of the Pasha he was sent back to Algiers, the brother of Mohamed sought to raise himself only that he might hasten the hour of retaliation. Omar was soon appointed Cadi of the Arabs, * and his wife Jemna, who had been prevented from leaving Oran with him, succeeded through a thousand perils in joining him, under the safeguard of her father Si Hassan and a faithful follower Baba Djelloull.

The people of Tunis having advanced upon Algiers, battle was given; and the Turks, beset by the enemy, were already beginning to give way, when Omar at the head of thirty horsemen rushed boldly to the charge, and exciting all to follow him, decided the victory. On their return, the whole army demanded him for their Agha. In the mean time Mehemet Ali had likewise achieved the elevation of his fortunes. The massacre of the Mameluķes consolidated his power, and a magnificent tent presented to his old friend bore witness to the remembrance in which he faithfully held him.

The new Agha governed the country in peace and welfare, caused stone bridges to be built

* A tribe in the vicinity of Algiers. The Cadi is appointed by the state, and is in the position of a mayor.

over the Isser and the Cheliff, was affable to the rich and compassionate towards the poor. As the Arab Chronicle expressed it, victory everywhere accompanied Omar. His name made his enemies tremble and he had soon the blessings of all, when the bey of Oran, inveterate still against the brother of Mohamed and fearing his newly acquired power, persuaded the Pasha of Algiers, that Omar was bent on seizing the reins of government. An intercepted letter gave Omar timely warning, and hastening to the barracks he assembled the army. “It is you,” he said, “who have raised me, in you alone do I recognise the right to pull me down. To your hands I now resign myself, from you I will accept my doom or by you be delivered from my enemies.” Excited to fury the army rushed into the palace of the Pasha, stabbed him, and would have appointed Omar in his place. He refused and the Khrasnadji* was elected. Omar was now all powerful and he could work the accomplishment of his vengeance. The Bey of Oran having risen in rebellion, he marched upon him, and having gained possession of his enemy, ordered him to be flayed alive. In the province of Oran the execrated bey, bey-elmesseloug, is still spoken of.

* The treasurer.

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In 1816, the Pasha, apprehensive of the Coulouglis, wished to have them all massacred, and confided his project to Omar, who far from participating in it, caused the Pasha to be stifled in his bath. This time he was constrained to accept the pashalik. When sending his gift to the Porte, he entrusted Si Hassan and his soon Mohamed with rich presents for Mehemet Ali, who was appointed Pasha almost at the same time. During two years Omar made head against every calamity, the plague, the locusts, and Lord Exmouth's bombardment; but poor Jemna’s peace was gone, for she heard that all deys died a violent death. While in the pains of labour (1818, she heard a discharge of artillery ; seized with fear, she wished to see Omar, and contrary to usage, sent for him through her faithful follower, old Baba Djelloull; but the old man returned in a short time and returned alone. Jemna at once knew all and fell back senseless. At the same instant the door was besieged with loud and repeated howling-it was the chaous of the new dey, who came to seize the riches of Omar.

On returning to her senses, Jemna sent to seek hospitality of an old friend of her husband. Stripping off her rich garments, she clad herself in


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humbler garb, wrapped her two children in the haiks of her negroes, bade adieu to the hundred slaves who waited on her in the palace, and went out, followed by her two children, her father, Baba Djelloull, and the two negresses who had brought her up; then locking the gates of the courtyard, she handed the key to Baba Djelloull, charging him to take it to the Pasha, and say: “ The wife of Omar quits the palace of her husband poorer than she entered it; she takes with her none of the riches which have tempted the cupidity of his assassin. Those riches will be the reward of his crime; but let him make haste to enjoy the power and fortune he has gained, for God will not allow his hour to be long.” She then took leave for ever of the magnificent palace in which for ten years she had lived secluded, never once quitting it during the whole period. Although it is difficult to estimate all the wealth which Omar had amassed during these ten years, one or two particulars will suffice to give an idea of the magnificence with which Turks are surrounded as soon as they have reached power. The palace of Omar contained three hundred negresses, one hundred negroes, ten Georgian women, twenty Abyssinian, forty thorough-bred horses, and ten mares of the desert. One apart


ment in the palace was ornamented throughout with gold and silver, set with precious stones ; another was filled with coffers containing gold and silver coins, brocaded stuffs of silk and gold. Every week Jemna wore a new suit of apparel; and in each chest containing the new dress was a complete parure of diamonds, consisting of a diadem, an aigrette, a pair of ear-rings, a necklace of fifteen rows of pearl, two clasps, two bracelets, twelve rings, two circlets for the ankles, and a sarma of gold tissues studded with jewels.

All this splendour had now vanished, and poor Jemna had scarcely reached the hospitable abode of her friend, when she was again seized with the pains of childbirth, and brought into the world a son, whom she named Omar, in memory of his father. Forty-eight hours after this fatal day, the new dey, Ali Pasha, sent his Prime Minister to the widow of his predecessor. It was through the bars of a window in the apartment occupied by Jemna, that the minister informed her of the purport of his mission. “Ali Pasha (God send him victory) sends his greeting and benediction to the widow of the ex-pasha Omar. Calm thy grief, saith the illustrious sovereign, thy husband has died the death of a pasha, his hour was appointed : may God be mer

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