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DIRECT LEGISLATION-continued

III. generalizatns established by experience with referendum, 51-4
discriminatn in voting on measures, 51

independence of party, 51, 116

unguarded representation doesn't represent, 52, 130, 134-5
referendum wisely conservative, 52

defeats ambiguous measures, 52

and those involving jobs or tricks, 52

automatic disfranchisemt of the unfit in many cases, 52, 99
referendum readily used by our people, 53

controls both ends of the ordinary scale of legislatn and is open

to engagemnts at intermediate points, 53-4

no trouble where it controls, but heaps of trouble elsewhere, 54
shown itself the best legislative method, 54

wisdom requires extension of its use, 54

national legislatn not included in this discussion, 53 n

(D) movement to perfect rep. system by fuller provisn for D. L., 55-74
I. accomplished facts, 55-59

San Francisco's charter, 55
Alameda, Seattle, etc., 55
freehold charter provisns, 56
Detroit charter law, 165

laws requiring referendum on franchises, pub. ownership, issue of
bonds, etc., 56. [See "City for the People" Equity Series No. 3,
pp. 442, 444, 448, 449, 456-7, 522, under title Home-Rule (15)]
laws providing for popular initiative on franchises, pub. o., etc., 56.
(City for the People, 456, and Home-Rule, 15)

Nebraska's municipal D. L. law, 56, 165

Arizona's municipal D. L. law, 58

So. Dakota's D. L. const. amendmt, 58-9, 163
Oregon's D. L. const. amendmt, 59, 163
Utah's D. L. const. amendmt, 59, 164

II. efforts, 60-62

bills introduced in many states, 60-1

some passing one house or both, 60-1

III. the rising tide of thought, 62-72

Dicey, Winchester, Moses, Freeman, McCrackan, Sullivan, Pom-
eroy, 62

popular movemt largely due to Sullivan and Pomeroy, 63

large part of the press favorable (over 3000 papers and magazines),

63

a non-partisan movemt, 63

men and platforms of all parties for it, 63

all who believe in govt by the people favor extension of the refer-
endum, 64, 70, 128, 136

only shortsighted plutocrats and politicians, and persons unwilling
to trust the people, oppose it, 64, 136

Wanamaker, Pingree, Bryan, St. John, Lloyd, Ely, Howells, Shel-
don, Abbott, Lorrimer, Mills, Conwell, Gladden, and 50 other
eminent men and women registered in favor of it, 65, 66
opinions, 67-72

Wm. Dean Howells, 67

Rev. Lyman Abbott, 67

Hon. John Wanamaker, 67

Pres. Frances E. Willard, 67

Henry D. Lloyd, 67

Hon. Wm. J. Bryan, 68

Pres. Samuel Gompers, 68

Lord Salisbury, 68

Mayor Jones, 144

Rev. B. Fay Mills, 68

Prof. Lecky, 69

Prof. Geo. D. Herron, 69

Pres. Geo. A. Gates, 69

J. S. Loe Strackey (Ed. London Spectator), 69

Andrew Jackson, 69

Gov. Pingree, 69

. Prof. Geo. Gunton, 69

Hon. John G. Woolley, 70

Thos. Jefferson, 71

Abraham Lincoln, 71-2

Farmer's Alliance, Labor Unions, etc., 65

American Federation of Labor, 65, 144

Christian Endeavor, Epworth League, etc., 65

Social Reform Union, 144

Buffalo Conference, 144

D. L. sentimt as indicated by Ohio vote (1899). (See City for the

People, 535)

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DIRECT LEGISLATION-continued

the referendum movemt is part of a world movemt toward liberty,
democracy and peace, 72-4

diffusion of power thru D. L., 74

few wars if the people voted them, 74, 145

(E) the practical details, 75-79

analysis of D. L. law or amendmt, 75, 166

obligatory ref. the better form ultimately, 77, see 33 n

more economical, 77

more secret, 77

less affected by human inertia, 78

optional form best at start except as to street franchises, const.
amendmts, etc., 78

(F) reasons for direct legislation, 79-138

1. progress, it will open the door to all other reforms as fast as the
people want them, 79-82

words of Buckle and Wendell Phillips, 81

it will give the sovereign people the power of voluntary movemt,
81

prevent the corporatn ganglia from paralyzing the progressive
muscles and the conscience of the body politic, 81

separatn of measures aids reform, 81-2

experience of Switzerland, 120, see below (F), 20

2. purify govt, 82-90, 126, 128

destroy the concentratn of temptatn resulting from the power of a
few to take final action, 82

Broadway Surface Franchise, 82

Phila. gas lease, 82-3

it won't do to leave the referendal option with the legislators, 83
they submit questns on which they are acting honestly, 83
but never submit a franchise steal, 83

Reading Terminal bribery, 84

corporatn voting $100,000 to buy Chicago council, 84

prices of legislators, 84

citizens too numerous to buy, 84

referendum greatly dilutes the power of bribery, 85, 86 n

lobbying, log-rolling, and blackmailing undermined, 86

class legislatn checked, 87, 120

separatn of legislatn from the people (a great cause of fraud)
abolished, see City for the People, 492

private monopoly in law-making destroyed, 87, 129

3. demagoguery, and polit. influence of employers over employees di-
minished, 88

4. power of rings, bosses and monopolists crippled, 89

5. partisanship weakened, 89-90, 87

6. elections simplified, 90-92

easier to vote on a measure than on a man and a platform, 90-1
disentangling of issues very important, 91

mixture of issues fatal to self-govt, 91-3

or real representatn, 91-3

Mr. Moffett's illustratn, 92

7. simplify and dignify the law, 93-97

multitudinous unnec'y laws, 84-96

N. J.'s law factory compared with Swiss records, 84

Gov. Grigg's views, 84, 85 n

Senator Bradley's opinion, 101

Massachusetts, see City for the People, 466, 539
overproduction a sign of low development, 97
legislatn is in the fish epoch, 97

dignity of law greater under D. L., 97

examples of undignified legislatn, 97

8. increase respect for law and aid its enforcement, 97-8
9. elevate professn of politics and bring men into it, 98

10. develop civic patriotism, 99-100

increase the vote and interest of better citizens, 99

and eliminate in large degree the votes of the less intelligent,
99-100

11. elevate the press, 101, 121

12. educate the people, 101-3

D. L. the people's university, 101
Switzerland, 102

ancient Athens, 102

13. develop morals and manhood, 103

14. favor stability-the social fly-wheel, 103-110

give discontent a peaceful vent, 104-5

tend to prevent strikes, 105

people not so apt to find fault with what they do themselves, 106
contrast between disgust manifested toward legislative bodies, and
quiet acquiescence in popular verdict at the polls, 106-110

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DIRECT LEGISLATION-continued

peace favored, 145, 74

wars few if people voted them, 74, 145

no standing army allowed in Switzerland, 145 n

no longer nec'y to mob or threaten councils to make them do
justice, 12

15. large economí s resulting, 110

stopping jobs, franchise steals, etc., 110

save much expense in printing laws, 110-1
lower taxatn, 122

16. identify power with public interest, 111-2

17. give labor its true weight in govt, 112-5

labor's interest in the referendum, measureless, 112

it is par excellence the workingman's issue, 112

labor unions recognize its value, 112

Amer. Fed. of Labor, 113

no real representatn of labor in many legis. bodies, 113-5

60 and 70 per cent of legislatures and congresses are lawyers,
corporatn attorneys, 113-5, 132

18. benefit all classes-the people's issue, 116

not a class measure, nor a party measure, 116

19. merely an application of established principles of law of agency, 116-8
we call our legislators "agts," but they are not, 117

and never will be till the people claim the principal's rights of in-
struction and veto, revocatn and discharge, 118

20. experience proves value of D. L., 118-128

Canada and England, 119

Switzerland, 119-128

formerly cursed with evils of unguarded rep. system, 119
class-rule, monopoly, corruptn, etc., 120

adopted direct legislatn, 120

and it has dethroned the politicians and monopolists, 121

abolished bribery, class-law, and machine politics, 121

rid the body politic of its vermin, 121

destroyed the power of legislators to legislate for personal ends, 121
elevated the press, 121

given great impetus to wise reform, 122

reduced taxatn, 122

and changed its incidence from poverty to wealth, 122-3

direct progressive taxes, in place of indirect taxes, 122

indirect taxatn is "plucking the goose without making it
cackle," 123

Swiss pluck the goose where the feathers are thickest, 123

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great success of referendum fully attested, 124

deeply rooted now in hearts of whole people, 125

favored now even by those who opposed its adoption, 125

objectns proved baseless by experience, 125

D. L. economical, pure, non-partisan, 125

proved a drag on hasty legislatn, 125

fatal to corruptn and extravagance, 126

favors merit and good business principles, 126

excellent officials, 126

legislators practically a life tenure thru repeated re-electn, 126
people can reject a law and retain the law-maker, 126-7

decorous debates, 127

proportional rep. being widely adopted, 127

21. high authority in favor of D. L., 128, 65-67, see above (D III)

Jefferson, Lincoln, 71

22. drift of public sentimt strong toward D. L., 128, see above (D III)
23. trend of events, progress of civilization, evolutn of democracy, 128,
146, 72, above

24. brotherhood, law of love, religion and ethics, 128

25. D. L. essential to self-govt-the key to the whole situatn, 64, 70, 35-39,
128, 136

private monopoly of law-making, 129, 87

unguarded representative system does well in early times with
homogeneous society, 129

but in our complex society delegate law cannot be relied on, 130
"representation does not represent," 130, 35

present system not entitled to the name "representative," 35
large masses of voters have no representative in the halls of
legislatn, 130

parties not fairly represented, gerrymandering, etc., 130-1 table

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DIRECT LEGISLATION-continued

classes not fairly represented, 132, 113-5, see (17) above
ideas not fairly represented, 132-3

many questns arise after electn, 133

the people may change their views on campaign issues after
election, 133

delegate's self-interest may deflect his vote, 133

even honest delegates many times fail to represent the people
because they cannot tell what the people want, 134-5

Rittinghausen's indictment of the representative (or misrepre-
sentative) system, 135 n, 52

proportional rep. will remedy some of these defects but by no
means all, 135 n

the breakdown of legislatures (Harper's Weekly), 136

the basic questn, 136

references, D. L. Record, etc., 136, 154, 161

the dumb people and the parties, 137-8

the dumb man and the cooks with their complex bills of fare-the
whole menu or none of it, 138

(G) summary statement, 138-146

(H) objectns, q. v., 146-162

(I) D. L. an essential element in true plan of pub. ownership, see City for
the People, pp. 18, 190

(J) nec'y also to true municipal home-rule, City for the People, 411, 428
(K) correlative with proportional rep'n, City for the People, 474

and preferential voting, City for the People, 484

(L) suggested forms for D. L., laws and const. amendmts, 166, compare 56-9

GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE, 7

NATIONAL PARTY PLATFORMS ON DIRECT LEGISLATION, 7

Indications as to attitude of parties and their leaders, toward popular
government and free institutions, 18

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Transfer or enlargement of the option, so that the people may decide for
themselves what measures they will vote upon directly, 15, 47

OUR ELECTIVE ARISTOCRACY, 15

POLITICIANS AND THE PEOPLE, 10, 11

The Politicians as Masters, 10

The People as Masters, 11

POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY IMPOSSIBLE WITHOUT D. L., 9
PRACTICABILITY OF DIRECT LEGISLATION, 15, 23, 39, 75

REASONS FOR THE REFERENDUM, 9, 22, 79-138

TRANSFER OF OPTION (see Option)

TWENTY REASONS FOR THE REFERENDUM, 22

VETO POWER IN THE HANDS OF THE PEOPLE, 10, 11, 16, 34, 79, and
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