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slightly convulsive, subdued, and whispering gasp, by which an instantaneous supply of breath is obtained, when the stricture caused by the suffocating effect of grief would otherwise obstruct or suspend too long the function of inspiration. The practice of the sob facilitates the habit of easy and rapid inspiration, and the expression of pathetic emotion.

“ 8. Gasping.-Gasping is an organic act, corresponding somewhat to sobbing, but much more violent, as belonging to the expression of fierce emotions. Its effects, as an exercise in disciplining the organs, are very powerful, and its use in vehement expression, in dramatic passages, highly effective, and, indeed, indispensable to natural effect.

“ 9. Panting.–Panting, as a natural act, in a highly excited state of the circulation, whether caused by extreme muscular exertion or by intense emotion, consists in sudden and violent inspiration and expiration, the latter process predominating in force and sound. It is the only form of respiration practicable in high organic excitement. The practice of panting, as an exercise, imparts energy to the function of respiration, and vigor to the organs. Its effect is inseparable from the expression of ardor and intense earnestness in emotion.”


ORTHOËPY. O RTHOËPY is the art of correct pronunciation. It embraces ARTICULATION, SYLLABICATION, and ACCENT. I. ARTICULATION.

DEFINITIONS. ARTICULATION is the distinct utterance of the Oral A Elements in syllables and words.

2. ORAL ELEMENTS are the sounds that, uttered separately or in combination, form syllables and words.

3. ORAL ELEMENTS ARE PRODUCED by different positions of the organs of speech, in connection with the voice and the breath.

4. THE PRINCIPAL ORGANS OF SPEECH are the lips, the teeth, the tongue, and the palate.

5. VOICE IS PRODUCED by the action of the breath upon the lărynx.

6. ORAL ELEMENTS ARE DIVIDED into three classes : eighteen TONICS, fifteen SUBTONICS, and ten ATONICS.

7. Tonics are pure tones produced by the voice, with but slight use of the organs of speech.

8. SUBTONICS are tones produced by the voice, modified by the organs of speech.

9. Aronics are mere breathings, modified by the organs of speech.

10. LETTERS are characters that are used to represent or modify the oral elements.

11. THE ALPHABET IS DIVIDED into vowels and consonants.

12. VOWELS are the letters that usually represent the tonic elements. They are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y.?

13. A DIPHTHONG is the union of two vowels in one syllable; as, ou in our.

14. A DIGRAPH, or Improper Diphthong, is the union of two vowels in a syllable, one of which is silent; as, oa in loaf, ou in court.

15. A TripHTHONG is the union of three vowels in one syllable; as, eau in beau, ieu in adicu.

16. CoNsONANTS are the letters that usually represent either subtonic or atonic elements. They are of two kinds, single letters and combined, including all the letters of the alphabet, except the vowels, and the combinations ch, sh, wh, ng; th subtonic, and th atonic.

Larynx.—The upper part of the nant, literally meaning, sounding trachea, or windpipe.

with, is applied to these letters and ? W not a vowel.–As w, stand- combinations because they are rarely ing alone, does not represent a pure used in words without having a vowel or unmodified tone in the English connected with them in the same language, it is not here classified syllable, although their oral elements with the vowels.

may be uttered separately, and with3 Consonant.—The term conso- out the aid of a vowel.

17. LABIALS are letters whose oral elements are chiefly formed by the lips. They are b, p, w, and wh. M may be regarded as a nasal labial, as its sound is affected by the nose. Fand v are labia-dentals.

18. DENTALS are letters whose oral elements are chiefly formed by the teeth. They are j, 8, z, ch, and sh.

19. LINGUALS are letters whose oral elements are chiefly formed by the tongue. They are d, l, r, and t. N is a nasallingual; y, a lingua-palatal, and th, a lingua-dental.

20. PALATALS are letters whose oral elements are chiefly formed by the palate. They are g and k. NG is a nasalpalatal.

21. Cognates are letters whose oral elements are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner; thus, f is a cognate of v; k of g, &c.

22. ALPHABETIC EQUIVALENTS are letters, or combinations of letters, that represent the same elements, or sounds; thus, i is an equivalent of e, in pique.


In sounding the tonics, the organs should be fully opened, and the stream of sound from the throat should be thrown, as much as possible, directly upward against the roof of the inouth. These elements should open with an abrupt and explosive force, and then diminish gradually and equably to the end.

In producing the subtonic and atonic elements, it is important to press the organs upon each other with great firmness and tension; to throw the breath upon them with force; and to prolong the sound sufficiently to give it a full impression on the ear.

In addition to the observance of the above directions, pupils should be required to assume an erect posture, either

standing or seated, and to keep a full supply of air in the lungs, while uttering the elemental sounds, as arranged in the following

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Directions.-First require the and a, as in arm, art. It is produced students to pronounce a catch-word by prolonging and slightly softenonce, and then produce the oral ele- ing å. ment represented by the figured vow- "E Third.—The third element repel, or italic consonant, four times- resented by e, is e as heard in end, thus: åge, å, å, å, å ; åt, å, å, å, å, &c. prolonged, and modified or softened Exercise the class upon the table till by r. each student can utter consecutirely o modified. The modified oral all the oral elements.

element of o, in this work, is repre? Long and Short Vowels.—The sented by (8 or o) the same marks as attention of the class should be called its regular second power. This modto the fact that the first element, or ified or medium element may be prosound, represented by each of the duced by uttering the sound of o in vowels, is usually indicated by a hor- not, slightly softened, with twice its izontal line placed over the letter, usual volume, or prolongation. It is and the second sound by a curved usually given when short o is immeline.

diately followed by it', ft, es, st, or th, A Fifth.-The fifth element, or as in off, söft, cross, cost, broth ; also sound, represented by a, is its first or in a number of words where short o Alphabetic sound, modified or soft- is directly followed by n, or final ened by r. In its production, the ng, as in gone, begine; lòng, along, lips, placed nearly together, are held pròng, sång, strong, thing, throng, immovable while the student tries to wròng. SMART says, To give the say, ā.

extreme short sound of o to such * A Sixth.—The sixth element rep- words is affectation ; to give them resented by a, is a sound interme- the full sound of broad a (a in all), diate between a, as heard in at, ash, is rulgar.

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II. SUBTONICS. babe, orb.

7:;? as in rake, bar. did, dim.

this, with. gag, gig.

vine, vice. join, joint.

wake, wise. lake, lane.

yard, yes. mild, mind.

zest, gaze. name, nine.

z, 66 azure, glazier. gang, sang.

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First require the student to pronounce distinctly the word containing the Atonic element, then the Subtonic Cognate, uttering the element after each word—thus: lip, p; orb, b, &c. The attention of the pupil should be called to the fact that Cognates are produced by the same organs, in a similar

U initial-preceded by R.U, lowed by a vowel in the same sylat the beginning of words, when long, lable. When thus situated in emhas the sound of yu, as in use. When phatic words, it should always be u long, or its alphabetic equivalent trilled. Frequently require the stueno, is preceded by r, or the sound of dent, after a full inhalation, to trill ro sh, in the same syllable, it has always continuously, as long as possible. the sound of o in do; as, rude, sure, Wh.-To produce the oral clebreu.

ment of wh, the student will blow 'R trilled.-In trilling r, the tip from the center of the mouth-first of the tongue is made to vibrate compressing the lips, and then sudagainst the roof of the mouth. R denly relaxing them while the air is may be trilled when immediately fol. escaping.

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