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college and the introduction of physics seems to have been necessary to the best development of the boy or girl whose education is thus early completed.
And it is apparently just as inadvisable for the college to grant what some high schools demand, because no satisfactory ''standard of values'' has been proposed for measuring the value or thoroughness of scientific and other lines of work. We know less time is given to physics than to some other subjects and are also certain that from the nature of circumstances the work is less satisfactory. The teacher in Latin or mathematics being better prepared for his work, having more time and less need for daily growth, and all favorable conditions for this growth supplied, should be able to obtain more satisfactory results. The work done in physics in the high schools can not be counted as the fair equivalent even of one term of college work and any recognition of it as such equivalent must lower the standard of college work. The adjustment will come and is coming in the increasing demands and facilities for better work in the high schools.
Prin. H. A. Whipple, of Whitewater, represented the high school attitude in regard to Science Preparation in Secondary Schools-Difficulties and Limitations. In part Mr. Whipple said: The most important question before the teachers of this country to-day is that of the relation of the four elements of the educational system to each other, and the organization of a system consistent with the laws of psychology. The high schools now occupy an indefinable position; they are subjected to a strain from opposite directions, being unable to supply the deficiencies of the elementary schools or to satisfy the demands of the colleges.
The subject of preparatory science has, in recent discussions, been given undeserved prominence. Little if any more time is given to the sciences in the high schools to-day than was devoted to them fifteen years ago. The difficulties that concern us now were caused by an over-crowding of the high school course by the introduction of other than scientific subjects.
High schools have a triple function; they must prepare for life, for teaching, and for college. The last is of least importance. While it is unwise, as the colleges have frequently indicated, to require a school of forty or fifty students to follow a specified course in order that a few may enter college without examination, it is not unfair to say that this is a common practice to-day in Wisconsin high schools.
Many of the larger eastern colleges require no science for entrance. We have been told, in this state, that except as it contributes to that power that comes from pursuing a well-balanced course, so far as the college work in science is concerned, the preparatory science is of little value. This being true, the preparatory courses may be somewhat shortened or modified The college requirement should be merely the ability to do the work of the course selected.
The college influence has been very helpful to the high schools of this state, but it would seem that the time has arrived, when for the interest of all it may be safely left to the high schools as being nearer to the people to determine, within certain limitations broader than those that at present obtain, what science shall be offered. The colleges might enlarge the options in science so that either physics, botany, chemistry, or zoology may be offered. The colleges must accept what the high schools can do and do well. They must begin where the high schools leave off, and not require the high schools to leave off where they wish to begin.
The sciences are probably as well taught to-day as are the other branches of the course. High schools should not attempt to make scientists. If students are trained to perceive closely, to discriminate carefully, and to describe truthfully and concisely, they are prepared best for college and best for life. The text-book and classification-method of studying botany may not be the best, but it at least trains the powers of perception and discrimination, develops judgment, and enlarges the reasoning faculties. It is easier for the teacher and requires more work of student than the structural method. It is usually fairly well presented.
In botany, while the laboratory method is the best, great value comes from emphasizing the mathematical side of the subject.
The difficulties that the high schools meet are real, and their limitations are absolute. Most of their students are not prepared to do the work demanded by the college. Many teachers lack the necessary time. Others have not received the special kind of preparation demanded. Under the present requirement as to amount the colleges cannot justly insist on the method of the preparation But if they can unite in offering an option in the sciences they may properly insist that in the science selected, the work shall be carried on by approved methods.
The discussion of these papers developed interest in the question of the relative value of the old and the new method of teaching botany.
President Adams said: The high schools must inspire their pupils to go on to college; creating an inspiration to go on should constitute a large part of their work. Latest statistics show that twenty-two per cent. of high school graduates in Wisconsin go to college.
Prof. Rankin of Waukesha, said: Preliminary work must be thorough in order to make the higher courses profitable.
Pres. Adams read a paper on the Accredited High School System.
After giving a brief history of the development of the accredited system, and admitting it has minor defects and weaknesses he says: “It still has advantages which in a state where the school system has the cbaracter of an organized whole, are not likely to be secured in any other way." These are some of the advantages enumerated: It has strengthened, consolidated and elevated the school system. It keeps the eyes of the pupils upon the grade of schools next above them as a possibility of attainment without the necessity of an examination.
It has stimulated the schools to a higher grade of work. The method of certificate increases the sense of responsibility on the part of the schools. The system improves scholarship since high school inspectors are uniformly reluctant to give certificates to those who are imperfectly prepared. The system tends to adapt the requirements of the universities and colleges more perfectly to the possibilities of the high schools; and, finally, the system is in accord with the best educational experience of other countries.
High School Section.
L. A. Williams, Chairman, The meeting was called to order at 2:15 P. m. in the Normal Assembly room. There were about two hundred present.
The first paper was by Supt. B. T. Davis, of Oshkosh, subject: "What is the Relation of the High School to the University: Criticism of Existing Methods.'
Mr. Davis based his introduction on the following quotation from Mr. Huxley: "No system of education is worthy the name of national, unless it creates a great educational ladder with one end in the gutter and the other in the university."
He spoke of the tendency to complete the articulations of the system in the United States, and prophesied that ere long our higher institutions would be more than mere garrets of the educational system and that the metaphorical ladder would be replaced by an ample stairway. He suggested that the ideal system of education might provide a suitable and well graded road connecting the homes of the nation by way of the kindergarten, rural and elementary schools with the high school, and in turn the high school would connect with the professional school, the college and the university. The high school was placed as the natural center of the school system it being nearest to the people and the institution of the people, for the people and by the people. The high school is not a college, but purely a secondary institution, yet the center of local education. The high school must fit for higher education, but at the same time must fit for life. The showing was made that this was true of every grade throughout the entire system from the lowest primary. "In any properly organized scheme of education, higher courses must adjust themselves to lower, to the end that interruption at any point will occasion the least possible waste."
Various plans of university and high school articulation were discussed, especially those of Michigan, New York, the University of Chicago, Minnesota and Nebraska. The various distinctive and commendable features of these plans
were dwelt upon and important opinions were quoted. needs of our highest third that are considered. Our public The Minnesota and Nebraska plans were shown to be the schools should exist for the majority. Two-thirds of our most comprehensive affecting the complete articulation of pupils would be benefitted by a letting up of the work somethe entire public school system from the lowest grade to the where. Too much work is detrimental to character. The university. Under that portion of the subject. "Criticism university is largely responsible for crowding work upon of Existing Relations," classified answers to a circular let high schools. Conferences with university authorities ter embracing ten questions were presented, giving in a would probably clear up the matter. Don't send specialists comprehensive way and somewhat in detail the criticisms as inspectors. which school men have te offer on the Wisconsin plan. Mr. Supt. Davis, of Oshkosh, spoke of the plan adopted in Davis concluded his remarks by making use of the follow Michigan of the schoolmasters' club and suggested that we ing language:
have some such organization here. He emphasized the value The subject which I have endeavored to discuss is a live of more frequent conferences. Noted the absence of uniquestion throughout the entire country but particularly so versity professors from the meeting of superintendents rein this state. My investigations have developed, what cently held in Oshkosh; alluded to a recent informal conmight have been reasonably expected, that our system of ference in Janesville at which both university men and high articulation is in some ways imperfect, but in more ways school men chanced to be present, and spoke of the meeting unsatisfactory, perhaps, because of misunderstanding rather as a very satisfactory one. tban from material cause. There should be no clashing Mr. Rood, of Washburn, thought that the high school among the representatives of the different parts of our edu and university were better articulated than the grade school cational system. I think more frequent conference and and the high school. There is a manual sent out for the high frank discussion of the points in contest would be exceed schools, but nothing of the kind for the grades. ingly helpful. I think there should be greater unity in our Supt. Mayne, of Janesville, thought much of the trouble educational system, especially upon the matter of high was purely imaginary. If we follow the outline of the manschool inspection. This among other things would suggest ual we will have harmony. Things might be adjusted by a the propriety of a State Board of Education. This might little correspondence. The idea of an ex-officio board of be an ex officio body representing the leading educational education appointed by the state night be considered. Mr. interests of the state, and should be clothed with such ex Mayne made the motion that it be the sense of the meeting ecutive power as would harmonize, unify and strengthen that the recommendations in Mr. Davis's paper be referred our system of education.
to the committee on legislation of the State Association for Prof. F. G. Hubbard, University of Wisconsin, opened consideration. Motion seconded by Mr. Riordan of Shethe discussion on this paper. He corroborated by statis boygan. Discussion. Prof. Van Hise, of the university tics Supt. Davis's statement that about twenty per cent of thought the schoolmas ters' club a good thing. The relathe high school graduates of Wisconsin enter the university tions between the university and high schools are right in stating that in 1894, twenty-two and two-tenths per cent of the main; there are many points of accord. He thought all graduates of accredited schools entered the university. double inspection good for the schools, there should be a The whole subject of the relations of high school courses to variety of inspection. It would be better if three or four university requirements groups itself about two questions; men were sent out. That of entrance requirements; and that of inspection. State Supt. Emery said he was more impressed by the Speaking of the courses of study, he said that there were in harmony than by the little differences. About thirty per the four years course, English and General Science, six cent. of our high school graduates attend normal schools. terms of work not covered by any specific requirements of Referring to the suggestion that had been made that one the university. These six terms (called adaptive work).mayman do all the inspecting, Mr. Emery said that one man be filled by work chosen from a wide range of subjects. A cannot do inspection for both state and university. There comparison of the four years' course with the three years' are 192 free high schools. Reports, diplomas, certificates course shows that of the additional year's work, only four --such work demand a great deal of time from the state determs are covered by university requirements; namely; partment. three terms of English literature, and one term of solid Mr. Rood of Washburn: Teachers are sent out by the geometry. But English literature cannot be called a strictly university highly recommended, and yet their work must university preparatory study; so we have left only one term be inspected. I do not approve of specialists as inspectors. of solid geometry. That is, the three years' course, which Mr. Mayne's motion was put and carried presumably has no reference to university requirements Mr. Riordan then read his paper, "How Can the Supercovers nearly all the specific requirements for the English vision of High Schools be made more Effective?" course.
L. E. Amidon of West Bend, opened the discussion. He With regard to inspection; some of the criticisms arise thinks the success of our schools depends very largely on from misunderstanding; where the teacher's work has been qualifications of teachers. State inspector should examine recently inspected no re-inspection is required if she goes for admission to high school; possibly send all examination to a new position. The main objections brought against questions for high schools. This would have a stimulating inspection are its imperfection and its expense, there is effect. He would have the number of pupils to a teacher really but one objection, as much better inspection could limited to twenty-five. be made but for the expense. It is a doubtful question as Sup't Hardy of Ishpeming, said when a high school in to which shall pay, the university, the state, or the commu Michigan wished to be inspected, application was made and nity whose school is inspected.But the payment by the a course of study sent to the president of the university. school, as at present, is a great embarrassment to the in Two inspectors are sent out: one for mathematics and the spection,
sciences, the other for languages, literature and history. If There should be more frequent meetings, more confer- any dissatisfaction is felt in the high school they go to Ann ences between university and high school men, and as a re Arbor and complain. sult there would be less misunderstanding.
Sup't Emery asked, "Do many professors inspect?" Prof. Hubbard thought that the Minnesota plan, de Ans.: "No; same few every years." scribed by Supt. Davis, was ideal from the university stand Any special pecuniary aid other than state tax? "No." point, but we are at present far from that ideal. In con "Inspected often?" "Once in three years." clusion, three suggestions were made as tending to improve "Do you have a uniform course of study?" "No." existing relations. 1. That the expense of inspection be Mr. Chandler spoke of changes made in the course of borne by the university. 2. That the university send out study by principals of high schools to suit individual cases, circulars to the high schools containing suggestions as to the Principals should consult university authorities if in doubt teaching of different branches. 3. More frequent confer as to such substitution conflicting with university requireences should be held between university and high school ments. The main point is to keep up the standard of work. men.
Mr. Chandler emphasized keeping up the English departProf. Terry, of Waukesha: Just complaints are brought ment. Thought the weakness of our high schools lies in the against our high school work. Trouble lies in the work lower grades. done in the grades. Teachers in the schools themselves are Question: "Should pupils be admitted to the high school the severest critics of the work. One-third of our pupils are on country diplomas?" getting what they should from high school work. It is the Mr. Chandler: "No law on the subject."
Miss Anderson, of Merrill: Inspectors should meet local school boards and discuss with them the work inspected, making criticisms definitely to the board.
Sup't Mayne spoke of the organization formed at Oshkosh which is to meet next May in Madison, and urged that all city superintendents, principals and teachers of high schools attend the meeting.
Prof. Freeman, of the state university: Mr. Chandler gives the impression that the university pushes Latin and Greek in secondary schools; but that is an error. The university does not want to multiply courses. No real change is effected in the course of study by the new requirements for admission to the university. Are ideal inspectors to be had? Who is not more or less of a specialist?
Complaint has been made that teachers are recommended by the university, and still inspection is insisted upon. Those teachers were not recommended by the whole university faculty; but, perhaps, by only one professor, as doing good work in his department. If a teacher were recommended for scholarship by the entire faculty of the university, would that insure his being a good teacher? Cases on record prove to the contrary and justify inspection." Owing to the lateness of the hour, the section adjourned.
ELIZABETH WATERS, Sec'y. Grammar and Intermediate Section.
D. 0. Hibbard, Chairman. The section was called to order at two o'clock P. M. Prof. F. H. Miller of Milwaukee read a paper entitled, "Are Civics and History Sufficiently Emphasized in the Schools?"
1. Civics is usually taught in the grades by learning the constitution of the United States. This has little value and is beyond the comprehension of grade pupils. The work should be in elementary and especially local government.
2. History work in the grades should cover Old World as well as United States history, and should be taught by means of mythology and biography.
3. The present crowded condition of the courses of study does not warrant the introduction of history and civics except incidentally into the grades below the high school.
This discussion was opened by Prof. W. H. Cheever of the State Normal School of Milwaukee, who thought that a very important matter in the study of history and civics is the attitude in which the pupil leaves the study, not his ability to remember the text. What is his attitude towards matters of public principle? Civil government must be made more concrete in its application.
Prin. Spoor, of Oshkosh, regretted that the study of civics was so often left until the pupil reached the seventh grade even when studied at all below the high school. The sentiment of the pupil should be appealed to along these lines in all the lower grades.
Prin. O'Hanlon, of Milwaukee, asserted that civics and history are not sufficiently emphasized in the schools at present as their formal teaching does not reach a large por tion of our future citizens. A man who fails to keep his sidewalk free from snow is not patriotic even though he may wear a flag in his button hole. It is the action and spirit shown in small things which indicate true patriotism. Prin. A. B. West, of Lake Mills, thought that the teaching of history might begin at an early age in the form of biographical stories, and that the study could be profitably continued through the grades by the reading of attractive historical works adapted to the growing capacity of the pupil.
The subject, "In Schools of a Single Grade Should the Entire Grade be Taught as One Class or in Sections," was opened by a paper read by Miss Stella S. Carroll of Racine.
1. Duty of the teacher to study the mind of the child the raw material-as zealously as the subject matter taught.
2. The necessity of a relation and harmony between the various parts of the course of study.
3. This course of study will result in a classification of the children.
4. The theory upon which the subjects in a course of study are grouped and the theory upon which the children are classified presupposes the same conditions.
5. The theory and the conditions often radically different.
6. Wrong ideal of good teaching developed by steady march of grades, year by year.
7. New education cries out against uniformity and overgradation.
8. School system should be sufficiently flexible to meet the needs of the indlvidual.
9. In schools of a single grade, three distinct classes recognized bright, active pupils; dull, slow pupils and those of average ability.
10. Advantage of two sections.
A spirited discussion in which Prin. A. B. West, of Lake Mills; Prin. G. F. Bell, of Racine; Prin. Desmond, of Milwaukee and others favored the single section plan urging in its support the greater facility for aiding pupils in their study, the less liability of distracting attention from the preparation of lessons, and the concentration of effort upon the work in hand whether in study or recitation. Opposed to this some thought that the culture of studying in the room during the period of recitation developed self-control and ability to concentrate thought and encouraged the pupil's independence.
The subject; "What Methods of Promotion Secures the Highest Good to the Individual Pupil?"
"Must the Individual Sometimes Suffer for the Welfare of the Many?" was introduced by Prin. J. W. Congdon, of La Crosse.
Old ideals and aims are changing. New ideals are forming. The working of new ideals causes revision of courses of study throughout the land.
The aim of elementary education is to promote the growth of the child's mind through a course that presents the whole field of knowledge in its elements; to promote normal physical development; to provide the opportunity for the exercise of all the powers of his mind.
The class to be used as a means while use is profitable.
The decision of the question of the fitness of promotion to be the concurrent judgment of the teacher and the principal.
The teacher's judgment based upon her knowledge of the daily work of her pupil. The judgment of the principal would be formed upon the consideration of the age of the pupil, the circumstances under which he has worked and his ability to apply his mind to new conditions as shown by oral examinations or written tests.
Regular promotion twice a year, with frequent irregular promotion of bright pupils.
This subject was discussed by ex-Sup't W. E. Anderson and others. Mr. Andersan's theory that promotions should be considered as simple reclassifications, and made whenever a need for such reclassification was found to exist, rather than at fixed intervals, gained general favor as a sensible view of the subject. .
Prof. C. P. Sinnott, of Milwaukee normal school, spoke on the 'Value and Place of Nature Study in the Schools."
He considered the great book of "Nature'' among the most valuable of all books. Teachers who have not studied scientific subjects exhaustively may investigate and lead their pupils in the line of their own research.
He pointed out the intimate relation between nature study and literature, and suggested the natural introduction of literature after securing the pupils interest in nature study. He did not consider the destruction of plants or animals necessary or desirable in nature study.
Nature study may be made to serve a most helpful purpose by bringing pupils into sympathy with all objects possessing life
Prof. F. M. Jack, of the South Side high school of Milwaukee, pointed out the opportunity which nature study furnishes for stimulating observation and a love for investigation.
The pupil comes to appreciate his own relation to natural objects and acquires the power of accurate observation.
His remarks were enforced by numerous quotations, appropriate and impressive, and at their close the section was declared adjourned.
D. S. GIBBON, Sec'y of Gram. and Intermediate Section.
Journal of Education
MADISON, WIS., MAY, 1897.
ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO
of a number of prominent medical men and JOURNAL OF EDUCATION,
experts as to the correctness and accuracy of 208 East Main Street, Madison, Wis.
the teachings regarding alcohol and narcotics J. W. STEARNS, ......... EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS.
contained in the several temperance physioloA. O. WRIGHT, s.
gies endorsed by the association. The stateSUBSCRIPTION PRICE 81.00 A YEAR. ments in these documents seem to be explicit (Entered at the Madison postoffice at second-class mailing rates.] and satisfactory as to the accuracy of the
books, which were submitted to the doctors TABLE OF CONTENTS.
for examination. The circular refers to “the EDITORIALS....
irresponsible and indefinite charge of inaccuBrief Comments-An Ungraded Department--Con 'racy” as having led to the selection of the excerning School Festivals—The Intellectual Influ
aminers. We do not quite understand why ence of the School.
the paper published in the Popular Science THE MONTH................................. 101-105 Wisconsin News and Notes-Selling Charts by a
Monthly by President David Starr Jordan, of Forgery—The Cedilla--A Second Helen Kellar-A. Leland Stanford University, should be conSchool Excursion in Germany - Parents' Day at Rice Lake-A Dickens Evening at Beaver Dam
sidered "irresponsible.” War in School Histories Again.
PROGRAMS for the National Educational AsTHE SCHOOL Room...... :::......: 105-113 sociation, which meets at Milwaukee July 6-9, Walt Whitman-Manual Training in Foreign Schools—Bad Articulation-An Exhibit of Drawing
are issued in preliminary form and give promin the Chicago Schools—Children in Public Exer ise of a strong meeting. Among those ancises- Education in China-Special Memories in
nounced to address the general meetings we Idiots--Selections for Recitations.
note Rev. Lyman Abbott, of Plymouth church, CHILD STUDY.................................. 113-114 Temperaments.
Brooklyn, Bishop Vincent, Miss Jane Addams, CONTRIBUTIONS ........
......... 114-119 President Harper, Clinton Scollard, etc. The University Degrees-A Half Year's Work in His
railroads have fixed one fare for the round tory-An Examination in American History.
trip plus two dollars membership in the assoOFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.....
.......... 119-120 Report of Wisconsin Teachers' Association (con ciation. Preparations are making by the cluded.)
local committee in Milwaukee for the enterBOOK TABLE.........
....... 120-vii tainment of twenty thousand guests. Un
doubtedly the meeting will be one of great in
terest, very large attendance and much enthuEDITORIAL.
siasm. It is twelve years since the associa
tion met in this state, and our people will do The next issue of THE JOURNAL will be a all in their power, we feel sure, to make this “Library Number.” So much interest is man- meeting as marked an event in the history of ifested at present in free public and school li- the body as was the one at Madison. braries that we feel sure our readers will ap- THE WISCONSIN SUMMER SCHOOL will open preciate a number giving special attention to at the university on Monday, July 12th and this subject. We have on hand for that issue continue in session four weeks. to Friday Aua paper by Prof. Cheever giving the results of
gust 6th, included. The date of beginning is an investigation which he has been pursuing
pursuing made one week later on account of the Naby correspondence as to the “Use and Abuse
tional Educational Association which meets in of Township Libraries." The interesting pa- Milwaukee the week preceding: this has also per from Leipsic by Mr. F. E. Bolton, on led to shortening the session and making the Schools in Germany, which was crowded out feetend
out fee ten dollars for the present year. The school this month, will also appear. Mrs. Harriett
will offer the usual courses, that in Pedagogy Beecher Stowe will be the subject in the Amer
being (a) the history of education and (b) ican Literature Series.
foundations of pedagogy in psychology, logic A CIRCULAR from the Scientific Temperance and ethics, with close relation to the practical Instruction Association contains the opinions work of the schools. It is hoped that the state
examinations may be deferred one week so as Latin course to present as against the nineto come at the close of the school. Next year year or ten-year course found in Germany and the six weeks course will be resumed and the England.", Hence colleges and schools are curriculum will be considerably expanded, as called upon to protest against the diminution the last legislature made provision for strength and demand extension. We do not presume ening the school. After the association come to decide in such a case, but only to plead for to the school for four weeks to strengthen the public school. Do these gentlemen wish yourselves in study and enjoy the attractions to sever the connection which has been rapidly of Madison.
forming between the public schools and the
colleges? We fear the consequences of atAN ORGANIZATION known as the “North
tempting to impose a heavier burden of “clasCentral Association of Colleges and Schools"
sics” than that now required, on the schools of discussed a resolution That in every second
the people. In our judgment the result will ary school and in college as far as to the end
be a return of the schools to the old position of the sophomore year, the study of language
of independence and indifference. If secondand the study of mathematics should be pre
ary training for college and secondary training dominantly and continuously pursued; that the
for life are to part company again, which will study of English, including grammar, rhetoric,
be the greater sufferer, the school or the coland composition, should continue throughout
lege? Why can not we settle American eduevery course; that two languages besides Eng
cational problems by American conditions and lish should be studied; and that no other
let European usages alone? studies should be allowed to interfere with the preeminence of the studies here designated." This looks very much like an attempt once
AN UNGRADED DEPARTMENT. more to get round our necks the old cord of tradition with which to strangle new western
Among the improvements needed in many life. As a people we are conservative, but in
city schools is one of very great importance, the west not yet ready to give over the concep
if we look at the usefulness of the schools to tion of progress. We are willing to believe
the pupils and not merely to the perfection of
the machine. An ungraded department, or that there is a valuable culture in science properly studied; we even incline to the opinion
in a very large city several such, could be
made useful in these ways: that manual training affords excellent educational discipline; we have a respect for lan
1. Those children who are out of grade for guages and mathematics as effective for the
any reason and who therefore are thrown back training of thinkers. To shut ourselves up to
into the next lower grade, or who are carried the last as the only proper material for sec
along with difficulty in the grade for which ondary schools, or the only "back bone" of
they are only partly prepared, could have a their work, would seem to us narrow and re
much better opportunity for study in an untrogressive. Such “unity” in educational
graded department. It is true that efforts are work as would result from the adoption of this
frequently made to accommodate these chil
dren at the sacrifice of time and patience by policy would, as it seems to us, negate progress and strangle our schools. Far better
the teachers. But the graded system is unare differences, experiment, discussion and
favorable to all who cannot keep step with its differentiation in our educational and social
regular march. Among those who are now life.
out of grade and who need such an opportu
nity are those who have staid out of school “TOO MUCH committeeing” is an inept but for sickness, those who have staid out to work convenient phrase used to describe the latest at home or elsewhere, those who have moved educational ailment. The reports of the Ten into the city from other places with a differand the Fifteen were useful, but a thirteen, a ent course of study, and those idle or dull twelve and a seven weary us. Here is the pupils who do not keep up with their grades. Philological association agonized over the re- The mere enumeration of these classes shows ductions made by the ten in the time allotted that there must be many pupils who are out to Latin and Greek, from five periods for four of grade for good reasons and whose needs years to five for two and four for two in the ought to be carefully considered. Especially first, and from three to two years in the sec- as pupils get into the upper grades of the ward ond. This will never do, and hence a com- schools are they apt to be needed by parents mittee of twelve to "report.” We ought to for work for irregular lengths of time. With have more time instead of less, they say: an ungraded department such pupils could “American education has at best a six year come back when not at work and at least fin