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deaf to their remonstrances, i
of Confucius, Li Hung Chang, visited Glad- determined to do without English goods, so as stone a month or two ago and asked him what to escape the hated imposition. All was in he thot of war, England's greatest statesman vain, for the King and people at home were deliberately replied: "War benefits nobody. deaf to their remonstrances; and in 1766, alIn all cases one country is in the wrong; and though the stamp act was repealed, the Eng. very often both countries are in the wrong." lish Parliament passed a bill declaring the legisA good marginal note indeed for the new text- lative supremacy of England over her colonies. book of history that shall tell of Earl Li's not Shortly afterwards a new scheme of taxation able tour.—Josiah W. Leeds.
was introduced, by which the revenue was to ENGLISH TEACHING OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
be raised by port duties, not by internal ex
cise. The feeling on both sides now became The last report of the Commissioner of Ed
more and more bitter; and when the other
duties were removed, that on tea was retained, ucation contains extracts from twenty-four
more to mark the superiority of the English English school manuals of history relating to
Parliament than as a matter of finance. A cirthe American Revolutionary War. Believing
cumstance in itself trifling brought matters to that our readers will be interested in the Eng
a crisis. The East India Company had a lish view of this conflict, and not having
great stock of tea in its warehouses, and it was space for a number of these, we have selected
allowed to export this to America free of Engthe following as fairly representative of the
lish duties, so that in the colonies it could be tone and teaching of these narratives:
sold at a very low rate, but the hated colonial [From Modern England, 1603 to the present. Historical Reader No. IV. London. George Philip & Son. 16°. pp.
duty had still to be paid. Three ships laden 271. Philips' School Series. ]
with tea arrived in Boston. A band of men The chief causes of this long and disastrous dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded them and conflict are to be sought in the high notions Aung the chests into the sea. of prerogative held by George III, his infatu- . When the news reached England the comated and stubborn self-will, and in the equally inercial classes were eager for reconciliation, absurd self-conceit of his English subjects. In and Chatham wished to withdraw all the reher colonies England then acted on what was cent measures and restore things to their old called the colonial system. According to it condition. But the King, the governing they existed for the benefit of the mother classes, and the great body of the people maincountry, could export their chief products tained that the time for conciliation was past only to the British Dominions, and could im- and that America must be subdued. Accordport nothing from Europe which had not ingly, measures for this purpose were carried passed through England. A great deal of without difficulty through Parliament. smuggling went on; but there had as yet been On the other side of the Atlantic there was no serious quarrel, because the Imperial Gov- as yet no regular outbreak, but the people ernment had for the most part hitherto left were arming everywhere. A congress assemthe colonies to themselves. Grenville, the bled at Philadelphia, and to this the colonists English prime minister, now determined not looked as the real governing power. They only to put down the smuggling of the Amer- still professed loyalty to the King and mother ican colonists, but to tax them for the benefit country, but refused to pay taxes imposed by of the Empire—the mode proposed for raising imperial authority, and entered into a rigid the revenue being to require that certain doc- agreement neither to consume British goods uments should be on stamped paper. The nor to export a single product of their own. colonists at once took alarm, and the colonial At home one last effort for conciliation was assemblies declared against the measure. The made; Lord North proposed that, as long as a descendants of the old soldiers of the Parlia- colonial legislature paid a reasonable sum toment began to repeat the grand lesson of the ward imperial expenses, it should be exempted long struggle of their English forefathers from all imperial legislation. Had this wise against the crown, and “Taxation without concession come earlier all would have been representation is tyranny" became the watch- well, but it now came too late. In America word of the brave patriots who were to fight the proposal was simply disregarded. Two in America for the selfsame rights that the months later General Gage sent a party to Englishmen of old had wrung from the tyrant destroy a quantity of stores collected at ConJohn, the haughty Edward, and the re- cord, but it was attacked and badly treated on luctant Charles I. So strong was the its return. The whole population at once rose feeling that riots took place at Bos- in arms, and Gage was shut up in Boston. ton and elsewhere; and the colonists He then fought and gained the battle of Bunker Hill; but his troops reached the height in the study of children's drawings it has only after being twice repulsed. Congress met been found that a process of development, of on May roth, agreed on various measures for evolution is involved in the drawings. This resistance, and made a last effort for peace in development undoubtedly characterizes the a petition to the King which was never even gradual unfolding of the child's mental imconsidered. They then ordered an attack on agery. At first the drawing is but a vague Canada, which failed, and their next import mass, a scribble, then begins to appear localiant step was the appointment of George Wash- zation of parts. It is possible to trace in chilington as commander-in-chief. The war was dren's drawings evolutionary stages. These now fairly begun, though it was not till 4th of stages are named by Sully as follows: July, 1776, that the States declared their in Ist. Vague formless scribble. dependence; and even then their action was 2nd. Primitive design characterized by the hurried by England's employment of German moon face. mercenaries and their desire to obtain French 3rd. Sophisticated stages. assistance. To Washington was mainly due The child seizes a pencil and makes upon the success of the colonists, and he has ever paper a series of aimless scratches. Accidentsince been hailed by his grateful fellow-citi- ally he has made something which suggests to zens as “The Father of his Country.” This him an object with which he is familiar, as cat. noble patriot might be described as the type His mental image of cat has been brought into of an English gentleman; a man without elo- prominence by this vague mass. This scribble quence and of great modesty; but having great fails to call up the image cat in our minds. A administrative powers, moderation, and self- representation is meaningless to us unless its control. Further, a certain nobleness of similarity to our mental image is sufficiently thought and lofty elevation of character dis-, great to call up that image. It might suggest tinguished him from his fellows. His charac- animal to us, this animal ranging anywhere beter, great in itself, seems greater when placed tween a crocodile and a horse. Thus it apin contrast with the men that surrounded and pears that there is a correspondence between the opponents that confronted him. Many of the child's mental image cat and the scribble them were barely honest; nearly all were self- which he has made. From the fact that toish and greedy; even the better class of them morrow he calls the representation dog or were commonplace. Thus George Washing- horse, it is evident that the child makes no diston stands preeminent as the one great figure crimination between these various animals. of the American war of independence. The He sees the common characteristics but does chief events of that war may be briefly told. not see differences. His knowledge is as yet
France now joined in the war, and was soon an unorganized whole characterized by the followed by Spain and Holland; Lord North scribble. As previously stated, the activity of wished to resign, but the King was as firm as the child in producing this mass of lines is not ever, and he was supported by popular feeling controlled by the consciousness of any image. in England. There were still many variations The movement of the hand is purely a motor in the fortunes of war before the end came. element having no connection with a mental The closing event of the conflict was a move image. ment by Lord Cornwallis into Virginia. He As soon as the child connects his mental expected to be supported from the sea, but in image with the hand movement the result is this he was disappointed and was forced to no longer an accidental representation but besurrender at Yorktown with an effective force comes intentional. There is then a co-ordinof 4,000 men. This really terminated the war ation of mind and muscle. The motor eleas far as America was concerned, although it ment is subjected to the mental element and was not till January, 1783, that the independ. by degrees the motor element is eliminated. ence of the United States was acknowledged. The chance, the accidental movement, how
ever, still clings to many who have long since
emerged from the years of childhood. They CHILD-STUDY.
are a sort of vestigial remain. CHILDREN'S DRAWINGS.
It is a question whether the mental image
is perfectly clear until there is an entire subThe discussion in the following article is ordination of the motor element. “I am inbased on Sully's Studies of Childhood, Barnes' clined to attach a good deal of importance to studies of children's drawings appearing in his the complete clarification of the mental image Studies in Education, and Herman T. Lukens' by the entire elimination of all motor elements article as appearing in the Ped. Sem. for Nov. from the visual image."—Herman T. Lukens. 1896.
The drawings from Dr. Lukens' collection
as represented in the Ped. Sem. and various The Old Oaken Bucket had been read to the other collections, seem to justify this state- children and then explained to them very carement. As the motor element or scribble de- fully, and as busy work they were asked to creases, there is a gradual increase in definite- copy the first stanza from the black board and ness. The parts are gradually analyzed. The illustrate it with a drawing. One little girl child's later representations no doubt bear the handed in her verse with several little dots besame relation to his first representations as the tween two of the lines, a circle, half a dozen corresponding mental images bear to each dots and three buckets. Lizzie, I don't unother.
derstand this,' said the teacher. What is The child having emerged from the scribble that circle? O that's the well.' “And why stage enters upon the stage of primitive de- have you three buckets?" "One is the old sign. This is of short duration, being a mere oaken bucket, one is the iron bound bucket, . station at which to take another train. The and the other is the bucket that hung in the child is just entering into a world of reality. well!' Then what are all those little dots?' Everything about him is increasing in distinct- Why those are the loved spots which my inness, and he is seized with a desire to reproduce fancy knew.'” the reality upon which he has so recently en- Thus the child's drawing may become a tered. Humanity ever gives prominence to source from which the teacher may learn to fit the new. The child being no different from his instruction, not only in drawing but also in his kindred, the reality which has just dawned other subjects, to meet the demands of the upon him and the fact that he can represent child. A child if left to himself usually draws that reality take complete possession of him. those things which have life. It has been He has entered upon the sophisticated stage found that three-fourths of such children draw of representation. He is now a magician, one human figures associated with action. Intouch of whose hand makes the invisible be- struction in any subject should lead to a "volcome visible.' At this stage it inakes very untary out-of-door practice.” This cannot be little difference to the child whether or no his attained unless the child's spontaneous activrepresentations express relations of time or ity is reached-unless the instruction is based place, or whether the proportion expressed is upon the activity of the child. Hence it is conceivable. His interest is centered on facts evident that in drawing instruction must be and in order to represent these facts all char- "suggestive helps" to the child's spontaneous acteristics of art must suffer. The attitude of representation. the child towards the drawing is that it shall “The object of art education in the comtell a story, and is not this what art aims to mon schools is to train up a public that will do? The child's ideal of telling the story is appreciate and enjoy art; not to make artists different from that of the adult, however. The nor artisans, but to make dilletants, lovers of child doesn't want any of the story left untold. art and appreciators of culture. Technique, He wants it all there. With children draw therefore, should not be a prominent feature, ing is not “broken light upon the depth" of and nothing should be allowed for a moment, the undrawn.
that tends to destroy a natural interest in art, Since the child projects his mental pictures to develop which is the end and not merely in drawings by means of these drawings we the means of all art instruction in the commay get a glimpse of his mental imagery. By mon elementary schools."—Herman T. Luthe scribble we ascertain that vague wholes is kens.
IDA LEEGSON, characteristic of the child's mental pictures.
: Student in the Milwaukee By his intentional representations we ascertain
State Normal School. in part, at least, his interests and misconcep Milwaukee, Wis. tions. The following incident given by Dr. Lukens plainly shows that a child's misconceptions may be disclosed by means of drawing.
OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT. 'In the view of preparing this paper I secured from the OFFICIAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE WISCONSIN TEACHERS' first and second grades of the model department of the Mil. ASSOCIATION-FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING. waukee normal school drawings illustrating the two stories "The Three Bears'' and "Tommy-Hop-o'-my-Thumb."
The Woman's School Alliance Section. Although these children have had a considerable instruction in drawing 1556 per cent of the drawings received were
Mrs. C. P. Cary, Chairman. thus diaphranous.
The session of the Woman's School Alliance was called ? Among the illustrations of "Tommy-Hop-o'-my-Thumb"' to order at 2:10 PM. by the chairman, Mrs. C. P. Cary. one little girl represented gas jets in the house of the giant. Reports of delegates from various cities. This child evidently pictures the house of the giant with Mrs. C. A. Miner, Fond du Lac. opened with a report all the modern appliances although we begin the story with from the Fond du Lac Woman's Alliance. She spoke ou once upon a time'' which suggests remoteness of time. the poorly ventilated rooms and the slowness on the part om
hich is a natured for a
the school board to appropriate money for new buildings. The condition became apparent to mothers, and a few ladies decided to call a meeting. In answer to the call, twenty ladies met early in February, and a permanent or ganization was favored. Canvassing was then begun, and the twenty ladies who engaged in the work, obtained in three and one-half days the signatures of 1,281 women.
The first regular meeting of the Fond du Lac Alliance was held March 1oth. Four departments were agreed upon: educational, supplı, household economics, and child. study. The study of parliamentary law occupies a few minutes of each regular meeting. For some time past, a Saturday afternoon industrial school has been conducted by a f-w ladies, and 190 children presented themselves for instruction, but there is not room for all. Mrs. Miner said she wished to emphasize the need of manual training in schools.
Mrs. S. R. Graves gave reports from Portage, Eau Claire, Racine, and West Superior. The Portage Alliance was established as a direct result of the work of the Milwaukee School Alliance. One of the teachers of the city schools was obliged to take a year's rest, and while at her home at Portage, she heard the ladies deploring certain conditions in their schools. She said to them, "I will write to Milwaukee and fiod out what I can about the alliance." As a result of her writing, the Portage Alliance was organized and is doing good work.
In Racine the ladies do not call themselves an Alliance and bave not yet decided to do so, but they are doing work similar to our own. They took up first the work of the kindergarten and maintained them until the school board saw their benefit and took them under their care. This year they are working to put music and drawing into the public schools.
At West Superior and Green Bay the ladies are doing similar work.
At Madison the work is done by the Civic Federation.
Music was then furnished by Mrs. Williams and Mrs. Sheridan
This was followed by an address by Charles H. Thurber. Associate Professor of Pedagogy, University of Chicago, on the Social Aspects of Child-Study as Related to the Work of the School Room."
Professor Thurber said that he found that the interest in the subject he was talking about was as strong among mothers as among teachers. "What is child-study?" Is yet a legitimate question. A solid basis must be provided upon which to build child-study. He said we cannot have a revolutionary change; what we need is true workers. Sociol. ogy has been thus far associated with child-study because they must be intimate relations. One great field for childstudy investigation is to emphasize the truth that the child is a member of society. Human influences reach the child. la New York state a study of children's hopes has been carried on, and a large body of material has been collected. More recently a study of the effect of environment upon the child has been made.
Mr. Thurber then read answers which had been received to the question, "What I want to do when I am a man or woman." He pointed out the difference between the answers received from children living in the Adirondack region and children living dear a New York summer resort.
Some of the answers received from the children in the Adirondack region were as follows:
A little boy says: "I want to be a guide and take city people bunting and fisbing, and I want to take a gun so I can shoot bears, but if I have none, I shall climb up a tree."
A little girl says: “I would like to wash in a hotel and wait on the table in the dining room."
The children also write with delight upon farm labor. A boy says, “I want to live on a farm because country air is better than city air. I shall buy a farm of about 200 acres, and I shall buy horses, cows, sheep and pigs. I want a house with twenty rooms. Then I will make lots of money and get rich."
Some of the answers received from children living near the New York summer resort were as follows:
A boy, age nine, says, “I want to be a carpenter because then I can make more money. I will he rich and bave a horse. I will marry a rich lady. I shall have thirty slaves working for me, and be as rich as any other man in the world."
Another boy says, "I want to be an artist so that I can earn lots of money, and I want to get m rried to a duchess."
Some of the chi dren want to be school teachers so that they can write on the blackboard and give out lessons, and punish daughty children with a ruler.
Professor Thurber said that he introduced these papers to show the effect of environment. He said that the reason, perhaps, that so many of the children near the summer re. sort expressed the desire to marry a rich lady, is because Miss Vanderbilt was married at about this time. Childstudy ought to be under the state department of public instruction. Child-study would lead to a better understand. ing between parents and teacher, and this to a better understanding between teacher and child.
In speaking of correlation, he said that no one study can be taken as a center, but that Colonel Parker came very near the truth when he said, "Make the child the center of study."
A few words were said about the rural schools. They are declining, and so serious is the problem that the National Educational Association has appointed a special committee to investigate the condition of rural schools and recommend remedies. Professor Thurber said the rural schools will be better the moment they are more interesting, and they can be made more intereresting by taking advantage of the interests which lie near at hand. In a country school should be taught botany, biology, physical geography, etc. But the teachers must be found that can do this.
The discussion was opened by Mrs. C. A. Miner. She wished to know the best plan for carrying on this childstudy. Professor Thurber answered that he thought the best way was for the state to provide for this work. Where this can not be done, then a special institute instructor should be appointed in each state, and institutes organized in which a whole week shall be given to the subject of child-study. If no institutes can be held, then the round table plan is the next best thing.
Mrs. L. D. Harvey, in referring to the hopes of children, said that a child's hopes change within two weeks, and how can material then be found to work upon. Mr. Thurber said that it was pretty safe to say that at ten years of age a certain type of thought prevailed, at twelve another type, and so on, which of course are varied by local influences. When we strike a general trend at a certain age, that is prety reliable
Mrs. James Wilkes of Fond du Lac, said that no matter what the environment, the tendency was to wish for wealth, and she thought this ought to be discouraged.
Mrs. G V. Mears of Fond du Lac, wished to know how to begin child-study. Mr. Thurber said that some one line in which you are interested must be taken. If you have children of your own you can record what you see.
Professor Cary spoke in reference to the question by Mrs. Harvey. He said we must know what the child's interests are by working in a general way, but then comes the question what is this particular child interested in at this particular time. Each parent and each teacher must become a student of the child. Sometimes the teacher or parent can not get at what interests the child, but that is what we are looking forward to so that we can unlock those interests.
Miss Hall.thought there was danger that the child might become conscious of this investigation; and also that a child will not respond as freely to one person as to another.
Miss Mary Tanner of Stevens Point, thought if each teacher is to study each individual pupil, the first thing to do is to make the classes smaller, instead of having fifty to sixty pupils reduce the number to twenty or twenty-five.
Mr. Cary said that one way to get at child-study was to get hold of some good literature on the subject, find out what people have done, and get suggestions for carrying on investigation.
F. A. Hutchins, Chairman, Upon calling the section to order, Chairman Hutchins gave a brief history of the organization and growth of the State Library Association and invited all to attend its meeting to be held at Milwaukee, Feb. 22-23, 1897. He spoke about the interest manifested in all parts of the state in public libraries and said: This afternoon we want to take just this subject, -"How can a community in Wisconsin which has not a public library, get one?'' We shall have the pleasure of hearing on the general subject of securing a public library, Dr. Dewey, of New York, who has done more to inspire the people of the United States with the library spirit, than any other man.
Dr. Dewey-Our plan in creating a desire for a public li. brary is to get before the people of the community, by means of the press, the pulpit, the schools and special meetings, the advantages of a public library. Once in a while you come across a man of liberality who still holds that it is not a proper thing to use public money for a free library. Such men say the same thing about free schools, high schools, and so on. But they have to admit that if the state can use its money for high schools it is right for them to use it for libraries.
Everybody wants the library. Some want it because it is a pleasant thing; some because it will be useful to their em ployees; and some get a broad idea of it.
When I send out the travelling libraries, it is simply ground bait for the formation of a permanent library We call attention of the public to what has been done by the state; to the fact that the state cannot afford to get on with out a public library. We show them that as a matter of fact, it is coming rapidly that a community will be just as much mortified to have to say they have no library as to say they have no schools, and that it is better not to wait to be crowded. Free books are just as essential as free schools.
Some object to a library because they are afraid of the taxes. In such cases I have reached excellent results by taking the assessment roll and the tax levy before a public meeting and showing how little it would cost on each thousand dollars.
We find the local study clubs the best means through which to stimulate interest in the formation of public libraries. They are the most active friends of the library.
Dr. Peckham-The important elements of success in se curing a public library are a real earnest desire for the library, a little common sense and tact, and the ability to work. He then gave a resume of the state library law and the method of proceeding under it to secure its benefits.
Continuing he said: There are two or three ways of beginning work. There is a gentle art of making enemies. You must not think a man is not interested in the public good because you don't like his occupation. Don't go to a man and begin to find fault with his business or the manner in which he carries it on. You can't afford to arouse opposition from any one in the community. You must assume that every one wants a library. If you are in a city go and see every member of the council about five times if you really want them to help you secure the library. When you get the matter before the council, follow it up. Keep it before the committee to which it is referred. Don't let them forget it. Attend to all the details. I insist that where two or three people are really in earnest they must succeed.
Mr. Billie- I want to ask, Could the library association do something to improve the patent insides of our country newspapers.
Mr. Hutchins—The country newspapers reach a great many people, and it would change the current of thought of a great many if the patent insides could be improved. It seems to me that is a matter for the press association, rather than for the library association. The editors of newspapers in Wisconsin, I have found, are particularly open minded when you approach them on the subject of good literature. In trying to build a library you need the continuous help of the newspapers. Don't make a strike for a library and forget it the next day. Keep right after it all the time. Furnish the editor with plenty of copy. Have a system about it.
Dr. Dewey-It is all wrong to encourage newspapers to encroach upon the function of books. We may argue upon the unsatisfactory quality of the matter furnished, the poor paper and the small type, but that doesn't do any good. As long as there is any money to be made out of it, they will do it. The cure is to furnish better newspapers for the money. We are going to see the time when we shall see newspapers endowed just as we endow colleges and universities.
Mr. Hutchins—The value of the library must be gauged by those books that are read; pot by those which its shelves contain. How are we going to get the children of the coming generation to read the best books of the library? It is the great business of the teacher to see that the children to whom she gives the power to read, are given also the desire to read the best books.
Miss Mary E. Edgar, of Madison, read a paper on "How I Read the Lady of The Lake with a Seventh Grade Class"
Supt. Dudgeon told of the work done in the grades in the schools of Madison to indicate a taste for good literature. In closing he said: The great value comes from the spirit of the work, and the spirit of the work comes very largely from the interest and enthusiasm of the teacher in the work. I believe there is nothing in the schools of Madison that results in so much good as the work in literature,
Martha V. Collins, Chairman. The kindergarten section met in the Grand Avenue Congregational church parlors with an attendance of two hun. dred. Mrs. Mary Barker, Supervisor of Kindergartens in Superior, read a paper on Child-Study in the Kindergarten:
SYNOPSIS. Child-study a modern ethical science. Much neglected in the past. -Cause of neglect.-Co-operation in its present pursuits. Experiments of the day upon children from birth upward and value of these experiments.—Child-study not a fad.—What must a student of child-nature study? Race history-Babyhood of the race-babyhood of the child. Primitive man's pursuits and tendencies found mirrored in the child.—Locating of the germ of civilization. -Development of the nation from the family unit. Cause of universal warfare among primitive men. Agriculture a civilizer. -Commerce as a means of mental activity.-The effect of terrestrial conditions upon a people's mental and moral de. velopment.--A nation's mental advancement shown by the monuments of Art. Science. Architecture. Literature. Philosophy and forms of goveroment they build.-Control of the individual leads to control of the aggregate, hence forms of government.-Child-study in the kindergarten dependent upon well informed teachers. Concentration and consecration demanded of the true student of child nature. - Individual work absolutely necessary. A knowledge of children's diseases, psychological phases, general and particular, required.-Individual environment and inheritance of the child most important as a factor in the study.
A spirited discussion followed, led by Miss Bloss, of Oshkosh. She said: The solution of the problem of education seems to be the study of the child. Parents should be invited to co-operate in this work. In every child we are presented with a new problem. Hundreds of children suffer from the ignorance of parents. In conference classes we should consult in regard to clothing and environment. A close relationship should exist between the kindergarten and the family. No permanent help can result if the kindergarten does not understand the conditions ofl ife.
Supt. W. H. Elson, of Superior, said that the kindergartners should be familiar with race history and with the home life of the child. To the kindergartners belongs the credit of having interested parents more deeply in the cause of education.
"Freedom in the Kindergarten" was the subject of a paper by Laura Alice Denman, supervisor of kindergartens, Fond du Lac. She advocated greater freedom in all the work of the kindergarten, but deprecated giving dictation to very young children. The kindergartner must look beyond the day's work and consider the effect it will have upon the character of the child. It is wrong to try to show a child how to play instead of allowing him to express thought himself. Create in the child a desire for expression; fill him with the thought and there will be no trouble in getting him to express it. All the work of the kindergartner should be unified and directed to the accomplishment of a definite purpose. The paper was freely discussed. Several did not agree with Miss Denman in the notion that dictation should not be given to the smaller children. Many thought that freedom should follow a short dictation.
In the absence of Miss Allen, who was to have presented a paper on "Mothers', Meetings" Miss Doyle spoke briefly on the subject. Some of the difficulties in the way of Mothers' Meetings in many of our cities grow out of the fact that in so many instances the mothers are unfamiliar with the English language. If the effect of the kindergarten upon the child could be determined, it would be of the greatest help to the kindergartner.
Miss Doyle's remarks were followed by the relation of experiences of many of those present.