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the school in material things. The philosophy of teaching was well enough as a background, but it was usually out of place. Taking this position, Prof. Coulter severely criticised the inflexible rules laid down by the graduates of the Normal schools who go slavishly through the motions of teaching. He dwelt at considerable length on the manner in which botany is taught in both the high schools and the college, and made a ludicrous picture of the whole thing, declaring that in the high school the teachers were confused by the rules laid down for the study of this subject by the universities, and in the universities the subject was treated so elaborately and so intricately that everybody was confused and confounded.
One of the great evils that beset the public school system was the overproduction of pedagogues; thousands of perfectly raw young men and women passed into the profes. sion not possessing a single qualification that would justify their appointment as teachers, and in this connection the normal schools came in for another fling by being charac. terized as "the very hotbeds of pedagogical quackery.". The remedy he thought could be found in the elevation of the standard required as a qualification for the teacher's certificate. Education had taken a stride forward, and the state, the conservator of the educational interests of the people, should protect her schools by raising the standard of the teacher to suit the ttmes.
The next point considered was the relation of the schools and the universities. As a rule he said the state universities had determined the standards of the pupils who came to them from the high schools, and the other universities in self-defense had been obliged to follow their example. From the standpoint of the university the secondary school exists to prepare university students; from the standpoint of the secondary school its functions might be somewhat different. Prof. Coulter continued:
Election of Officers. At the close of the lecture, the Association proceeded to elect its officers for the ensuing year. The president appointed the following tellers: E. R. Smith, C. E. Patzer, E. W. Walker and S. A. Hooper. The result of the informal ballot was 225 votes cast, of which Miss Rose C. Swart received 92, G. G. Williams 48, and J. T. Flavin 41. On the first formal ballot, there were 223 votes cast, of which Rose C. Swart received 91, G. G. Williams 85, and J. T. Flavin 43. On the second formal ballot, there were 219 votes cast, of which Rose C. Swart received 78, G. G. Williams 118, and J. T. Flavin 23. G. G. Williams having received a majority of all the votes cast was declared elected president for the ensuing year.
Supt. J J. Nattrass, chairman of the Committee on Nominations, reporting the following nominees for the various offices: "First vice-president, Supt. Anna Schaffer, Chippewa Falls; second vice-president, A. K. Jolly, Mineral Point; secretary, W. H. Cheever, Milwaukee; treasurer, R. J. O'Hanlon, Milwaukee; executive committee, Supt. Arthur Burch, of Milwaukee; Prof. J. C. Freeman, of Madison, Miss Rose C. Swart, of Oshkosh; Supt. J. T. Shaw, of Ellsworth."
On motion, the secretary cast a ballot for the persons named for the various offices, and they were declared duly elected
Association adjourned to meet at pine o'clock Thursday morning
Resolved, That this Association appreciates the great benefits to come from the study of local history by the pupils of the schools of the state, and favors the adoption of a plan by which these pupils, in connection with the semicentennial celebration, ball be interested in obtaining facts concerning the settlement and development of the state, from persons who were familiar with these facts. The historical compositions to be obtained in this way from original sources, should be preserved by the State Historical Society
Resolved. That the Association authorizes its officers to co-operate with the officials of the Wisconsin Semi-Centennial Exposition in all practicable efforts to secure for the Exposition an adequate exhibit of the work of the schools of the state.
On motion that part of the president's address with reference to the proceedings of the Association was referred to the committee on legislation
On motion of C. P. Cary ten dollars was given to the janitor of the Milwaukee normal school.
After a beautiful solo by Mrs. Leo Springer, the committee on honorary members recommended that the following named gentlemen be and are hereby elected honorary members of this association: Dr. J. H. Kellogg of Michigan, Hon. C. R. Skinner of New York, Melvin Dewey of New York and Prof. John M. Coulter of Chicago. (Signed)
John T. FLAVIN,
Committee. On motion the report was adopted.
J. C. Elsom, M. D., professor of physical culture in the state university, read a masterly paper on “Modern Methods in Physical Culture-Defects-Remedies." The following is a synopsis of its salient points:
Modern Methods in Physical Culture --Defects-Remedies.
The past thirty years have brought great changes and great improvements in all forms of educational work. Probably in no one department of education has there appeared such a revolution as has been noticed in the field of physical culture. Interest in this side of education has never been so active, so intelligent, or so general, as it is to-day; and from all standpoints,-from religious, medical and educational sides, physical culture is being investigated, discussed, and put into practice as never before in the history of this country
The multiplication of material appliances, the improvement of apparatus designed solely for physical culture, has gone on in a remarkable manner, and large sums of money have been spent in the erection and equipment of gymnasium buildings, gymnastic appliances, open air gymnasiums, play grounds, and other means for physical exercise and physical improvement.
It is only within recent years, comparatively speaking, that some of our preparatory schools, colleges, and universities have established departments in physical training and personal hygiene, and made them a part of the regular curriculum. It is a sign of the general progress of which we are speaking, that here and there school boards have shown their appreciation of the need and value of physical training, and much has been done in a great number of cities throughout the United States in the direction of establishing in public schools a system of physical education on a really sound basis. * * * Within the last five years seven of the western states have taken great steps forward, and in recognition of the important relation between the development of body and mind, have erected and equipped for their state universities magnificent gymnasiums,"temples of health' where the physical needs and deficiencies of their students are daily looked after by trained experts. Among these are Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Illinois, the University of Chicago, and perhaps others.
In the west. particularly, the North American Turnerbund has achieved much; in the east, with Boston as a center, much has been done for the extension and promotion of the Swedish system of gymnastics. In nearly every city of the union, and certainly in every city of any considerable size, there is a Young Men's Christian Association, with a
Thursday A. M. At 9:00 o'clock Thursday morning. President Burch called to order the last session of the Association and read the following resolutions which were unanimously adopted:
Resolved. That the Wisconsin State Teachers' Association gives hearty approval to the several plans proposed to celebrate, in the year 1898, the fiftieth anniversary of the admission of Wisconsin into the Union. We believe that the educational value of an industrial exposition in Milwaukee, of a historical celebration at the state capital, and of local historical and literary celebrations in the various counties, cannot be overestimated, and that all of these plans are worthy of the active support, of the teachers of the state.
good, and often magnificent gymnasium where good work is done, and where the "Physical Department" is open to the citizens the year round.
It seems clear, therefore, that we have begun to awaken to the importance of these things. We no longer doubt that there is a definite, almost tangible, relation between mind and body; and we know that the better the body, other things being equal, the better the mind. We have come to learn that the body can be developed and made subservi ept to the will, and this development augments and assures bodily health, courage, endurance, and self-confidence; and in addition to these things, a sturdy physical outfit leads to the independence, and the morality, and the amelioration of the human race. It is necessary for human beings to know something of themselves, to learn something about the capacity of mind and body to the end that they might ascertain the relation between conduct and happiness, between temperance and health. * * *
As to the differences in the so-called ''systems'' and their relative values and disadvantages, it is not the intent of this paper to discuss. It is sufficient to say that in the main, they all tend to the same end, and all possess much that is good. * * *
I want to present the three essential requirements of modern physical culture, which I believe to be the ends toward which all are striving.
First. It should be the aim of all physical training to develop symmetrically all parts of the body, bearing in mind always the attainment of good proportion and the develop ment of the whole body barmoniously.
Modern physical culture has wrested the gymnasium from the circus performer, the prize fighter, and from the professional sport; it has applied scientific study to ihe problems of correct physical development and harmonious proportion.
Second. In addition to symmetry and proportion, modern physical culture aims to produce bodily strength, and to promote physical activity, dexterity and efficiency. Now, it is unquestionable that modern methods in physical culture do produce these results. Could you but stand in my place at the University of Wisconsin, and see awkward, poorly developed young freshmen gradually emerging from their clumsiness and daily growing in physical judgment and activity, you would applaud the wisdom of our legislators, who have erected for the young men of the state and now for the young women as well) magnificent gymnasiums. At this institution, our object in the department of physical culture is to reach the large mass of students, seeking out the timid, the poorly developed, the awkward student, and so directiog his exercise that when he comes to his junior and senior years, he is physically quite another individual. * *
Third, Modern methods in physical culture should have as their object the production or increasing of bodily health. * * * Now, any method which does not have in view these results, is clearly defective and inefficient. Physical education is as broad as education itself, and a noble and inspiring department of the educational scheme. Its object is not the education of the physical nature alone, but to contribute its full share to the life of the individual in training and culture,
The aim of physical education must not be simply physi. cal betterment; but it must be higher and more comprehensive. We must seek for the attainment of the best that there is in the possibilities, powers and faculties of the in dividual.
As to the defects in modern physical culture, allow me to mention at this time only two; and these are: First, a lack of scientific spirit in the work, and a lack of thoroughly educated and scientific teachers; and, second, a failure in most cases to reach each individual, and to correct his personal defects; and a failure on the part of teachers to prescribe, and see that there are carried out, suitable exercises for the needs of individual cases,
In regard to the first point Dr. Wood has recently said: "The great deed in the physical culture of to-day is the scientific spirit; the spirit which inspires the student to seek for truth and its useful application. There is to-day in an embryonic form a science of physical education, and the idea of the science should exist first in the minds of the profession, and then in the the minds of the laity."
As to the second point much could be said. Our work does not end in giving gymnastic drills to large classes en masse. There is special and individual work to be done. I regard the "prescription work" of the gymnasium of utmost importance. We must deal more with the individual and pay more attention to his peculiar needs. The remedy is suggested in the employment by high schools, normal schools and universities of a greater number of teachers, better teachers, and more broadly educated teachers. There is room for such teachers, and need for such teachers to solve the interesting problems in this new field of physical education.
A. Reinhard followed with a paper on "Methods and Principles of the German Art of Gymnastics." Among other things he discussed the work of the Turners in the United States for the last fifty years and their earnest ef. forts to secure in the general plan of education, a place for the training of the body. He said that the teachers of in. tellectual branches should be at the same time teachers of physical training. One of the most important advantages of physical training, he said, is the complete and instant control obtained by the mind over bodily movements. He quoted Col. Parker in warm praise of the German system, which is the oldest one koown and includes exercises with and without apparatus, tacto-gymnastics, figure exercises and gymnastic games. He emphasized the importance of the forms of exercises which call into action several parts of the body at the same time, correct and harmonious co-operation being worth much more than a great increase of muscular fiber. The importance of keeping a pupil constantly in full consciousness of the true extent of his powers was emphasized; also of avoidance of monotony and pedantry in application of the exercises, by the teacher, who should vary the three sorts of exercise-essential, secondary and nonessential. In the discussion that followed, Miss Isabel Walker deplored the lack of method in physical culture and said that to be effective it should be systematized and conducted in accordance with scientific principles. She urged the importance of securing legislation making it obligatory to give physical training in all public schools.
"The County Superintendent-His Field and His Limitations" was the subject of the next paper by Supt. Kate L. Sabin from Dane county. The following is a synopsis:
The County Superintendent—His Field and His Limitations. We need a substitute for the present extravagant district system.
Undefined limits of authority and responsibility. Division of work should be clear, the external matters belonging to school officers, the internal to the superintendent. Supervision Cannot be Effective.
i. Territories too large.
The Massachusetts plan somewhat modified is recommended. Certification of Teachers.
A high standard must be maintained.
The desirability of making the law compulsory.
The character and personality of the superintendent determine the work done.
Supt. David Throne, chairman of the county superintendents' section, reported that the following resolution was unanimously adopted at the county superintendents' section, and asked its endorsement by the Association, which was given without opposition:
Resolved. That we favor the enactment of law placing the minimum age at which a certificate may be granted by a county superintendent at eighteen years."
Hon. J. Q. Emery read an exhaustive paper on "Township System of School Government."
The Rural Schools.
Wisconsin has an optional system which enables the people of any town to adopt the township system if they so desire. Forty-six towns, nearly all of them in the northern part of the state, have adopted that system of school government. The state superintendent bas collected statistics concerning the expenditure of money and the cost per capita for education in those towns which lead him to conclude that the township system does not furnish a remedy for the defects of the district system. Mr. Emery is averse to rad ical changes in the school system until it can be clearly demonstrated that such changes would better minister to the educational needs of the state. The pith of his conclusions is contained in the closing sentence-"Evolution in our school system may be desirable; revolution is not."
Mr. Emery began his paper by quoting section 3, article 10 of the constitution: "The legislature shall provide by law for the establishment of district schools which shall be as nearly uniform as practicable; and such schools shall be free and without charge for tuition to all children between the ages of four and twenty years; and no sectarian instruction shall be allowed therein." Obedient to this constitutional mandate, the legislature has by law established a system of district schools. The power to form and alter school districts is given to the town board of supervisors of each town. There seems to be a notion prevalent, that the law as it exists somehow compels the cutting up of each township into more than one school district, but such is not the fact. If the town boards of all the towns in Wisconsin not exceeding thirty-six square miles of land, should decide. it to be for the educational interests of their respective towns to combine all the separate school districts of their respective towns into one, there is ample legal authority for such action. So far as the law itself is concerned, it is difficult to see why it is not as much entitled to be called a "township district system," as it is what some have chosen to call it an independent district system.".
Educational literature and official reports of school officers abound in caustic criticism of the so-called district system, and urge the so-called township system as a remedy for these defects. It is, however, to be noted that while some have advocated the abolition of the district system and the substitution of the township system, the great mass of the people directly involved, and legislatures, have been slow to adopt the radical changes proposed. The district system is the one maintained by a majority of the states. The township system of school government does not stand for some one well defined, specific system, but represents very different things in different states.
After showing the great difference in the systems of town ship school government as they exist in Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, Mr. Emery takes up the arguments usually set forth for the abolition of the district system.
The first great defect urged against the district system is that of inequitable taxation. Statistics have been collected and published in educational documents to exhibit this inequality, as between districts of the same town. No one can peruse the tables presented in the last Wisconsin biennial report without realizing that there is inequality in taxation for the support of schools in different school districts in the same town. But it is just as true that if one will collect the statistics of the forty-six towns in Wisconsin which have adopted the township system, he can find quite as great an inequality between towns in the same county. Subject the township system as operated ir Wisconsin to the same test, and the statistics do not warrant the conclusion that the township system would remedy this defect of inequality of taxation. The greatest extreme between two districts in the same town in the rate of taxation as shown by the biennial report of '93 and '94 was 4.5 mills in one district, and 31.2 in the other, or nearly seven times as great. Statistics collected for 1895 for the forty-six towns of Wisconsin where the township system is in operation, show an extreme in the rate of taxation from 6.3 mills in one town, to 54.8 mills in a neighboring town in the same county, or nearly nine times as great a rate of taxation in one as in the other, and the statistics throughout are marked by as great an inequality between the towns of the same county as is shown between districts of the same town.
Another statement urged why the township system should supersede the district system, is that under the district system some schools are too small to be efficiently and economically taught; that other schools are too large, and that by the township system the size of the schools would be properly regulated and that more efficient and economical instruction would result. In this the statistics gathered from the towns operated under the township system in Wiscon. sin do not sustain the assumption. The statistics show as great a proportionate inequality as to enrollment and average attendance in the schools in Wisconsin under the township as under the district system.
Another argument urged for the compulsory adoption of the township system is that under it the expenditures are more economical. Again, the statistics from the towns in Wisconsin under the township system do not sustain this proposition. The cost per capita for maintaining schools in different districts, as shown by the tables in the report for 1894, varied from $3.80, the lowest, to $46.46, the highest. The cost per capita for maintaing schools in the different towns under the towaship system in 1895 varied from $4.35, the lowest, to $53.05, the highest
One of the arguments used for the immediate compulsory adoption of the township district system, is that the school houses are at present unsuitably located. If this is true and the township system should be adopted, the vast multitude of school sites would have to be changed and a mul. titude of school houses moved or new ones erected. Before taking such a radical step, should we not sit down and carefully count the cost? If it be said that only a few changes in these respects would be needed, such a reply would simply contradict the statement that the school houses are now improperly located.
Before adopting the township system for the entire state, we need to be certain that the harm that might result to many of the graded and high schools would not exceed any possible increase of good that would accrue to the district schools. Many of these graded schools are in districts that are constituent parts of towns. Would such graded schools suffer po injury? Is it not to be feared under these circumstances, that the practical operation of the township system would be to reduce as many schools to a lower level as to raise others to a bigher?
It is conceded that some of our district schools are too small to be the most efficiently and economically administered. It has been shown by reference to statistics that the township system as operated in Wisconsin does not remedy that defect. When we recall that Massachusetts, that inaugurated a township system so many years ago, is now admitting the same defect in the schools of many of her towns, there seems to be little force left to the argument that the township system would remedy this defect. The plan of authorizing any of these smaller districts that find it to their advantage to do so to provide for the instruction of their pupils in some adjoining or other district, with authority to provide transportation thereto, would in my judgment, more effectively remedy this defect and relieve the smaller districts of undue burdens. The district thus providing instruction and transportation should be entitled to share in the distribution of the school fund income, the same as though it maintained a school in its own district, This is a plan that is being tried in Massachusetts and some other states, and with very successful results according to reliable reports. It would require but slight amendment to our present laws to make a trial of this plan in Wisconsin, a plan that gives greatest promise of curing the defect complained of. Complaints are too frequent at the office of the state superintendent from localities under the township system, that school funds, if not absolutely squandered, are too often used for purposes of doubtful utility. In this respect the township system needs to be improved by amend. ment. When supervision by a secretary of the town board of school directors is made to cost a thousand dollars in one year, it must be admitted that the supervision is pretty expensive. If, under present laws, towns desire a township district system the law gives them the privilege. If they prefer the neighborhood district system, they are privileged by law to make that choice.
Two-thirds of the county superintendents of the state who have declared themselves unconditionally on this subject have expressed in writing to me the opinion that the present
the letters 'B. S. and T.'-Badger State Teachers. The badge may be made in the form of a button or a pin.
H. W. Rood." On motion the resolution was unanimously adopted.
The Finance Committee reported recommending the payment of the following bills:
Report of Expenses. The following bills were audited by the Finance committee: S. Y. Gillan, expenses.....
.......$ 79 25 Chas. R. Skipner, lecture.............. Arthur Burch, postage and incidentals....... Miss Alice H. Shultes, postage and printing......, Swain & Tate, printing. Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, Tp. W. supplies... G. G. Williams, salary........ G G. Williams, postage, stationery and printing... H. A. Northrop, rent of Recreation hall.......... Schwaab Stamp and Seal Co., rubber stamps...... Houtkamp & Cannon, printing.. John M. Stoltz, janitor U. S........ Dr. J. H. Kellogg, address. ............ J. C. Iverson & Co., framing picture...... W. E. Story, rent of G. Ave. church.... A. H. Kiehle, rent of Cavalry church.. Anne K. Holt, typewriter service......... Hugo Bach, orchestra.................... Chas. Bronson, Apollo Male Chorus .... Richard Thomas, quartette and two solos.. Walter Allen, miscellaneous... Wm. F. Sell, postage, etc,......... Mrs. M. D. Bradford, salary....... R. J. Haplon, postage, etc. ........ Arthur Burch, postage, etc.... Western Union Telegraph Co., services......... Prof. Joo. M. Coulter, lecture ...
optional system better meets Wisconsin conditions and needs than would a township system if made immediately compulsory by legislation. In the light of the statistics and arguments presented and others that the limits of this paper preclude, I am of the opinion that the best interests of the public school system of Wisconsin do not at present require the extreme or radical changes of the character discussed. Not until further trial under inevitable conditions demonstrate that either the township or the district system alone would better minister to our educational needs, should such radical legislation be enacted. We have been accustomed to take great pride in our common school system. The present system is deeply intrenched in the confidence of the people. It should be made very clear that another system would be an improvement before we undertake to break down confidence in the present. I am not prepared to advocate the taking away from the voters of a town the right to decide which system they may deem best suited to their local needs. Care and discretion must be used lest in efforts to root up the tares in the educational field, the wheat, also, be rooted up. Evolution in our school system is doubtless desirable: revolution is not
High School Inspector, W. H. Chandler, discussed the paper at length. His remarks were in full accord with the sentiments expressed by Mr. Emery. He declared that he was unable to understand wherein there would be an improvement by changing to the township system of school government. He declared that the agitation of this ques. tion arose out of the great rural school problem; that they need improvement is unquestioned. He expressed a doubt as to the constitutionality of the township system and gave a resume of the efforts of California, Massachusetts and other states to solve this problem, and advised against making such a radical change as is contemplated by the compulsory introduction of the township system.
On motion of S. Y. Gillan, two hundred and fifty dollars was appropriated to maintain Wisconsin headquarters in Milwaukee during the session of the National Educational Association next July.
Hon. W. H. Chandler was appointed delegate to the National Educational Association to represent the Wisconsin State Teachers' Association,
The president appointed Pres. G. S. Albee member of the Advisory Committee for three years, and W. H. Chandler of the Committee on Legislation to succeed O. E. Wells.
The Committee on Resolutions reported as follows:
Resolved, That the thanks of this Association are due and are hereby tendered to the railway companies and hotels which have extended the courtesies of reduced rates to our memberships; to the several churches and other organizations which have hospitably opened their doors for our accommodation and comfort; to the children and all others who have contributed to our pleasure and given variety to our exercises by delightful musical entertainments, and to the several gentlemen from abroad who have quickened and inspired us and stirred our zeal and purpose to higher and more intelligent effort by admirable addresses.
Resolved, That we recognize with gratitude the intelligent and successful efforts of the committee of this Association and of all others co-operating in securing for our stay in this city the meeting of the National Educational Association in 1897, and we hereby pledge our heartiest individual and associated efforts to more than make good all the promises and assurances made by that committee.
· W. H. CHANDler, Chairman,
J. C. FREEMAN, Committee. Resolution on motion was unanimously adopted.
The report of the Committee on Badge: "To the Wisconsin Teachers' Association: Having been appointed at our last annual session to present a design for a state teachers' badge, I beg leave respectfully to submit the following. with the recommendation that it be adopted and recognized as the official badge for Wisconsin teachers.
The badger in the foreground is the central idea and may represent oar state or any one of us, its citizens. The school house on the bill beyond him is the stronghold of liberty; the open school house door is the guarantee of our fotore growth and safety; keep it open and our state is secure; hence the legend around the margin "With the School Door Ajar, the Badger is Safe." The monogram includes
......... $120 00 Respectfully submitted,
J. E. NECOLLINS,
D. D. Mayne. July, 1896.
On motion of Professor Shutts, the president of the Association was authorized to employ a stenographer to report the proceedings of the next annual association, at a cost not to exceed thirty dollars.
Though the hour was late, many remained to hear the papers by Frank E. Kendall, director of mechanic arts department of the Stout Manual Training School, and Miss Laura G. Day, director of the domestic art department, same school. These papers were to have been read before the high school, city superintendents and manual training section, but were omitted for want of time. Association adjourned.
G. G. WILLIAMS, Secretary,
tle earlier than the volume preceding did, and on the whole has more papers of decided interest. One is impressed in
looking it over with the variety of interests considerable D. C. Heath & Co.
enough to claim an independent department. Sixteen of -The Princess, by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, edited with
these figure in the proceedings. Two new ones are added introduction and notes by Andrew J. George, (2 17 pp.; 90c.)
this year—the library department and the school adminisis a very satisfactory little book. Its form and appearance
tration department, the latter a school board organization. are attractive. The poem which it contains is one of the
We miss the Herbart Club, though many of the discussions richest products of the Victorian literature. How has it
were along lines opened up by the Herbartians. The Assobeen edited? There ought not to be occasion for notes to
ciation is well-to-do, and its chief dangers arise from this explain the language and allusions of a contemporary au
fact. There are always persons and plans ready to relieve thor; to promote a clear understanding of its art by develop
a surplus in the treasury. Its invested funds amount to ing cross references and comparisons, and by bringing to
$54.437.00. The total receipts for the year were $28.683.81. bear side lights from literature, biography and criticism
Copies may be obtained of the secretary, Pres. Irwin Shepmay be stimulating and profitable to the student, and this
ard, Winona, Minn. is what Mr. George has done. The introduction gathers a few critical appreciations. There are two pages of bio -ANALYTIC Keys TO THE GENERA AND Species OF NORTH graphical dates; a page devoted to editions of the Princess, AMERICAN Mosses, by Charles R. Barnes (221 pp.), is the latand a collection of biographical and critical references to est issue of the Bulletins of the University of Wisconsin, and guide the further reading of the student.
number 5 in the science series. It is a new edition of a -Moliere's Les Femmes Savantes, with introduction
work published first in 1886 for free distribution, to which and notes by A. Fertier. (125 pp.; boards, 300.) has the
have been added descriptions of all the various new species familiar form of the Modern Language Series, a biographi
not to be found in Lesquereux and James' Manual. The cal and critical introduction, and judicious notes. The
book is intended to serve a temporary purpose, and espeplay is one of the brightest in French dramatic literature.
cially to aid students and amateurs in their studies of these
plants. -A MANUAL OF Review and Test Problems in Algebra, by Sarah J. Peterson and Lida F. Baldwin, (85 pp.; 30c. -The Children's Third Reader, by Ellen M. Cyr (260 boards) contains a variety of original problems to illustrate pp.; 60c.; Gion & Co., Boston), aims to introduce young points of special importance and difficulty in elementary people to good literature. The selections are made with algebra, put up in convenient form. Teachers will appre great care, from such authors as have written standard litciate at once its practical value.
erature, and the book seeks thus to blaze a way for the young
to the fountains of literary excellence. Three poets, Holmes, Silver, Burdett & Co.
Lowell and Bryant, receive special attention, and biograph-The English LANGUAGE AND ITS GRAMMAR, by Irene M.
ical stories accompany the selections from their works. The Mead (265 pp.; 65c.) strikes into the right path for dealing
book is a very attractive one, and equipped with the usual with this subject. The introductory chapter, far too brief
devices to promote the growth of pupils in the art of readwe cannot but think, sketches the history of the English language. The basis of the general treatment is logic, or the science of correct thinking. This leads to treatment of -William Penn's PLAN FOR The Peace of EUROPE, is language problems as closely related to thot processes, the the last addition to the Old South Leaflets. With it we right treatment, and not too difficult for intelligent pupils have received a complete list of the Leaflets, of which this of twelve or thirteen years of age. The work is clear, sim
is number 75. ple and well arranged and ought to commend itself at once
-For the Tenth BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENto an intelligent teacher. It does not, as the title might
DENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION OF COLORADO, we are indebted lead one to expect, attempt historical grammar, and might
to the superintendent, Mrs. A. J. Peavey of Denver. In adwell be expanded in its treatment of derivation, a subject,
dition to the various official statements and papers this volby the way, singularly ignored in existing text-books of
ume contains a large number of pictures of the educational grammar. This should be restored in our texts and the
buildings of the state. These are of all kinds, from the much abused “word analysis" merged again in the gram
dug out and log school, to the modern finely equipped metmar, as was once the custom. We are thankful to Miss
ropolitan school building. They reveal effectively and at a Mead for a really sensible and teachable and well equipped
glance the varied conditions of school work in a western text-book of English grammar, and we trust it may find its
state. way into general use.
-EASY PROBLEMS IN THE PRINCIPLES OF Arithmetic, by Elizabeth T. Mills, (168 pp.) furnishes a series of practical
LITERARY NOTES. well-graded problems in all the principal subjects of arithmetic. It is designed for use as supplementary to any text, - "Grant's Life in the West," in the Midland Monthly, and affords material for fresh and independent work in the Des Moines, grows in interest. The startling announceclass. It will be found a valuable book for teachers.
ment is editorially made that the puzzling historical quesAmerican Book Co.
tion, "Who gave the information that frustrated the John AN ESSAY ON Robert Burns, by Thomas Carlyle, (90 pp.; Brown raid?" will be definitely and forever answered in 200.) adds to the Eclectic English Classics series one of the February Midland by ex-Lieut. Gov. B. F. Gue, who Carlyle's earlier, simpler and most sympathetic produc was personally familiar with the Springdale chapter in Joho tions.
Brown's life. The February Midland will also be a strong -STORM's IMMEnsee, edited by F. A. Dauer, (85 pp.; fiction number, including a prize story. boards 25c) is an attractive tale well edited, with a vocabu. -A series of papers embodying a sociological study on lary for use as easy reading in German. It belongs to the "The Racial Geography of Europe" will be begun by Prof. Modern German Texts series.
William Z. Ripley in Appleton's Popular Science Monthly for --Racine's Iphigenie, edited by B. D. Woodward, February. Prof. Ripley shows in his opening article that (198 pp.; cloth, 60c.) deserves its reputation as one of its while national and linguistic bouodaries often coincide, author's noblest productions. It is edited with a biography racial limits, being governed by different causes, are selof the poet, a discussion of the classic myth on which the dom the same as the other two. tragedy is based, a selection from the comments of great
- In the February Atlantic, President Eliot-'A Study critics, a full bibliography, and an appendix devoted to a
of American Liquor Laws''--sums up the conclusions drawn critical examination of Racine's use of words and forms of
by himself, President Seth Low of Columbia College, and expressions. The grammatical and exegetical notes are
James C. Carter, Esq., of New York, who constitue the very full and give all necessary assistance for a clear com
committee that have investigated the actual working of prehension of the text. The book is well printed and very
liquor laws in eight states. There has been no previous tasteful in appearance.
study of this subject so thorough. The results of prohibiMiscellaneous.
tion, of various forms of high license, and of other efforts -ADDRESSES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL EDUCA at restriction are duly set forth, together with President TIONAL ASSOCIATION, 1896, (1,088 pp.) comes to hand a lit- Eliot's far-reaching conclusions concerning them.