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I do believe that broad Christian character is not incon
gruous with the public schools." Promptly at 9:00 o'clock President Burch called the AS
"Every branch of study," said the speaker, "like the sociation to order and proceeded to the transaction of busi current of a river, is broadening and deepening the chanDess. The following committees were announced:
nels of thought. Mathematics makes a deep, clean cut; Finance: Duncan McGreggor, David Throne, Allen B. literature broaders and flushes the plain, which, anon, West.
yields a thousand-fold in flower and fruitage. And so each Nomination of Officers: J. H. Nattrass, W. C. Hewitt,
branch records its mark in ethical lines, clear cut and lastA. C. Wiswall, P. H. Shaughnessey, Kate L. Sabin.
ing. Granting all that is claimed for the conquest of ideal Committee on Honorary Members: John T. Flavin, W.
work, we who teach in the grades know that school govH. Cheever, R. B. Dudgeon.
ernment presents problems that baffle both school and civil Upon motion of H. W. Rood, the president was instructed
authority... : How to 'squelch' a pupil, to lead him to appoint a committee of one hundred to co-operate with
captive in chains at his chariot wheels, is to many a teacher Stage Manager W. J. Brier in creating a sentiment in favor the chief end of discipline. Too often this is a policy of of the N. E. A.
mere conformity to bare authority of the power of a strong, Professor W. H. Cheever offered the following resolutions
unsympathetic will. This is the iron rule of the camp and wbich were adopted:
prison. 'Tis not education, for the mainsprings to right First: Resolved that the Wisconsin Teachers' Association
action are never touched. , . . be requested to place the subject of Child Study upon its general program next year.
TRUE TEACHING. Second: Resolved that a committee of five be appointed "Citizenship, good or bad, is taught objectively every day by the president to report at the Association next year the in the school. The teacher who is peevish, or who pags or desirability and feasibility of establishing a state society for scolds his pupils, becomes a target for their disrespect, and child study.
authority is disregarded... . . The habitual idler, the At the close of the business session, the association was 'impulsive babbler, the little girl who was caught whisperentertained by a chorus from the seventh and eighth grades ing and the gum-chewer are held alike after school-in of the Sixth District Primary School, directed by Principal durance vile-while the majesty of the law is-undermined. H. D. Hesse.
.. Oh! that teachers might understand that penal. President Burch then delivered his annual address. In ties should not be retributive, but remedial instead; that a part he said:
kind word, a helpful suggestion, a confidential talk, are, as President's Address.
a rule, a thousand times more potent than a threat or severity.
... My plea is for rationalism in school goveroment; President Burch alluded to the recent presidential elec
for an exercise of genuine human kindness; for naturalness. tion and declared that teachers have great concern in the
I would bapish from the school the chill-spirits of authorissues of state; for, in a special manner, they declare them
ity and severity as pestilential vapors. In their place I selves the promoters of public intelligence and good mor
would welcome the smile, I would encourage good humor, als. Mr. Burch alluded to the fact that in Wisconsin there
I would foster, as an essential factor in work, the happy are nearly 13,000 public school teachers moulding and di
play spirit. . . . In the processes of nature there is recting the lives of 400,000 pupils who, in a few brief years
perfect adaptation of energy to task. The work of the will become the sovereigos of state for weal or woe.
school should be no less happy and harmonious. As work CHARACTER BUILDING NEGLECTED.
transcends toil, so play surpasses work. Toil is servile
obedience, work is unfettered action; play is exuberance of Mr. Burch forcibly called attention to the lamentable fact life in unconscious activity. To change the tedium and that comparatively no attention is paid to the development of work of school into an activity having all the zest of play is character in our schools by means of any systematic process. a consummation which yields the maximum of effort and "Choose at random a course of study," said the speaker, achievement with the minimum of waste. "from the city or state, and you will seek in vain for more "Here is a practical field for child study in the realm of tban a passiog reference, if even that, to development of character building. What has heredity done or failed to do character as an essential of citizenship. The 'rules of the for the child? What is his home environment? Who are board' in cities are, in their application, legal rather than his associates? Does he read, and what? What are his ethical, and seek to secure correct conduct only through habits? Did the teacher's manner provoke the offense? fear of penalty. 'Be good. Do right,' they say to the pupil How can the teacher gain this pupil's confidence?" - why? that he may escape punishment. Not so, says the Mr. Burch referred in terms of praise to the leadership poet Kingsley.
of Dr. Hall in child study by which the teachers have "'Be good, dear child, and let who will be clever,
gained much profit. In closing this part of his address, Do noble things, not dream them all day long.
President Burch said: "In spirit the teacher should be alAnd so make life, death and the vast forever
truistic, he should be professional in a profound sense, he One grand, sweet song.'”
should be loyal to the last degree to his chosen calling; in The speaker declared that only by contributing all its re
attitude he should be a student always—in the words of
Lowell: sources to the creation, in every pupil, of higher standards of living can the state be made secure; and to this end all
" New occasions teach new duties, else is subordinate.
Time makes ancient good uncouth;
They must upward still and onward,
Who would keep abreast the truth.'"
TO PRINT THE PROCEEDINGS. not believe, as some profess to, that the public school is a President Burch then referred to the growth of the WisGodless institution. 'Tis just as Godless as are the lives of consin Teachers' Association from a membership of seventhose who administer the affairs--no more, no less. I ex teen, forty-four years ago, to more than 1,000 to-day. He alt no creed or sect. Instead I refer to the sum of the teach- recommended that the proceedings of the association be ers' virtues expressed in terms of right conduct. The pub printed and that an appropriation be sought from the legislic school is not a mechanism; in its essence and purpose, lature to defray the expense. when administered by true men and women whose charac Attention was called to a medal and an award made to the ters permeate the school and quicken the best impulses of Wisconsin Teachers' Association by the World's Columbian life, it is to many children their only joy and becomes the commission under an act of congress. place wbere new purposes and new ambitions for higher In fini hing his address, President Burch presented to the tbings are born. Though I do not forget that the public association a gavel of Ko-ko Bo-lo wood from the wilds of school is the peculiar child of the Pilgrim Fathers.. Central America and a block of mahogany bearing an inyet I would not for one moment be understood to favor sec- laid circular zone of silver, with this inscription: tarian instruction, or even advocate the dosing of pupils "But the head and the hoof of the Law and the haunch with the moral treacle of formal instruction in ethics. But and the hump is-Obey."
The Mission of the Library.
factor in educational work. A pupil's reading can be most
widely guided, not by preaching at him por craftily entic. Hon. Melvil Dewey of Albany, N. Y., director of library
ing him into good reading, but by gaining his confidence work in the state of New York, addressed the Association on "The Mission of the Library." In part, he said:
and then judiciously bringing good books to his attention.
You cannot correct a taste for bad books by withdrawing My plea to-day is for recogoition of the library in its best sense as an essential part of any complete educational sys
and forbidding some injurious work; you must at the same
time furnish something to fill its place; basing your argu. tem. Education is really in two parts, which we might call the school education and the home education. The schools
ment for so doing on the expulsive power of a new affection.
All work of this kind which is to succeed must be based of the various grades provide for the education of those who
upon methods which require time in their fulfillment, and can give their time to the institution. The home education
which will weave themselves into the very life of the child. is for those who give the larger part of the time to some
In conclusion, the Wisconsin free library commission, other occupation and whose educational work must be done out of the hours of business or labor. The carrying on of
especially requests the active co operation of the teachers
of the state to the end that a close alliance may be formed tbe education of our great mass of boys and girls must be
by which the public libraries and public schools may work chiefly by means of free public libraries, the only practica
unitedly in the general cause of education. The commisble means of controlling and shaping their reading to the highest end. The speaker said that he believed that the
sion asks the aid of the teachers of the state in an effort to
secure better popular ideals of library work, with the hope library and the school should be distinctly separate.
that an educated public sentiment will demand a better ad. Miss Lutie E. Stearns of Milwaukee followed with a well
ministration of the libraries already founded, and the creaprepared paper on "How can the Public Library be Made
tion of a system of libraries so complete that every man, an Aid to the Schools?'' The salient points of which are
woman and child in Wisconsin may have an opportunity to here given: Library and School.
read the best books of the language without money and
without price. The free public library was publicly and formally recog.. Let every Wisconsin community celebrate the semi-cennized at the last session of the National Educational Asso
tennial by founding or improving a free Public Library; ciation as a legitimate part of the great educational system. for it is after all, not the few great libraries but the thousAs a librarian has said: The teacher and the librarian come
and small that may do most for the people. together in the new arrangement, working no longer, one C. E. Patzer, of Manitowoc, in discussing the paper said: in the steps of the other, one carryiog forward the educa School teaches children to read. The power to read may tion which the other has begun-but hand in hand and side be a two-edged sword that cuts both ways. A taste for by side, leading children from the earliest age into the won
profitable reading must be cultivated. Children capoot be derful and beautiful book world of poetry, legend, story, too early introduced to those books that teach the relation nature knowledge or science, time koowledge or history. of man to man. We must begin in the kindergarten to life knowledge or biography, making it dear and familiar to
cultivate a taste for the good and the beautiful. The lost them in the impressionable years within which their tastes
art of story telling has been found, and the children of to. are formed. Schools are not to make readers for libraries,
day are being saturated with the pure stories dear to childnor libraries to wait for readers to come to them out of the hood. schools. The school and the world of books which it makes Miss May E. Schreiber, of Milwaukee, spoke of the close known to him are to be identified in the child's mind. There
co-operation that should exist between the library and the is to be no distinction in his memory between reading as an
school. The teacher must co-operate with the librarian to art learned, and reading as a delight discovered. The art
secure the best results. It is the province of the teacher to and the use of the art are to be one to him. How best to
arouse and quicken interest. The teacher must be an ex. bring this union about is the problem of the librarian and
tensive reader of children's books. She must teach the of the teacher. Every one must admit that these children
children how to read and enjoy the best books. She must have not sufficient information and mental trainiog to de not preach, but strive to arouse interest and quicken symvelop their powers and fit them for the best work of which
pathy. they are capable. And this, as Mr. Dewey has somewhere H. B. Hubbell, principal of the Beaver Dam bigh school, said is the final end of education; to give to the individual
said that a public library in its relation to the school is such training as will enable him to make the most of him
simply a chest of tools whose use, like the use of all other self. Reason and experience have combined to convince all
tools, must be learned by experience. We learn to read by thoughtful educators that the highest office of the public reading. What to read, is a question upon which doctor's school is to teach a child to read and implant in him a de disagree. That skill and use must be acquired by practice sire for knowledge. The full usefulness of the library as a
is as true of books as of business. factor in education has not been felt and will not be until Dr. J. C. Freeman, of the University of Wisconsin, in teachers and parents realize that a liking for good books discussing the subject said, in part: Literature is books and a desire for knowledge are worth more than working
and the literature we wish to foster, good books. Even arithmetical puzzles and scoring per cents. The U. S.
Socrates could not, or did not, dispense with books. PeoCommissioner of Education has said: "The school is set at
ple must have them. He then discussed the desire for the task of teaching the pupil how to use the library in the books in connection with the University Extension courses, best manner. That is the general object toward which our showing that three hundred towns of the state have asked school methods have been unconsciously guided"
for them. In most of these there are now public libraries. The librarian must be made to open her doors to the The extension system leads to a better appreciation of youngest child.
books. The topics being such as to stimulate research and As the child progresses, there is scarcely a study that
thought. may not be broadened and eplivened through books ob L. E Gettle, of Madison, said: It is necessary to have tained at a public library. The results of the study of his pupils in the normal schools instructed in the use of the list tory for example, are generally unsatisfactory. The pupils of books recommended by the state department. neither receive very distinct impressions nor acquire a love
The county teacher's institute should teach the use of for the study that will lead them in after years to pursue the school library. Keep school and traveling libraries septhe subject further. The resources of the library must help arate. in this matter.
President Albert Salisbury, of Whitewater normal school,
in behalf of the committee appointed to report on “Needed But beside this literature of information, there is the lit Library Legislation" reported as follows: erature of inspiration, of imagination, of high ideals. Books which children care to read but once are of but scant
Report of Committee on Needed Library Legislation. service to them; those that have really helped to warm their Half a century has elapsed since the constitutional conimaginations and to train their faculties are the few old vention of Wisconsin recognized the school library as a logfriends they know so well, they have become a part of their ical and legitimate accessory of the common school, by orthinking selves. A teacher who is familiar with the best daining that the school fund should be applied, "I. To the books and can give counsel as to their use is an invaluable support and maintenance of common schools in each school
district, and the purchase of suitable libraries and apparatus therefor."
How then does it happen here, on the eve of our state semi-centennial, that the Wisconsin Teachers' Association is agitating the question of ''needed library legislation?" Why have not our statutes been long since perfected in this direction? What new conditions have arisen to give library legislation a place among the educational questions of to-day? The answer to these questions is found in a very important fact, which we sball venture to call the re-discovery, or the new discovery, of the library as an educational factor and appliance. The framers of the constitution of 48 had somehow become possessed of the idea that libraries were a needful and logical adjunct of even elementary schools; but a whole generation had passed by before the people, or even the teachers of the state began to show any tangible evidence that this idea had effected a lodgment among their vital convictions. But the advance in educational theory and methods in the last few years has brought, among other fruits, a new appreciation of the utility-Day, the necessity-of good and suitable books as a part of the educational environment and atmosphere of children. At the same time, there seems to have been an awakening as to the woeful barrenness of most homes, as well as most schools, in this respect. To this double awakening, no doubt, is due the encouraging vitality of the library movement at the present time.
Returning to the historical aspect of the matter, let us note that the state legislature did not long ignore the constitutional intention respecting school libraries; for the Re. vised Statutes of 1858 contain seemingly ample provision for the establishment and maintenance of such libraries. We quote one provision only, viz., Chap. 23, sec. 76; "Each town superintendent (of schools) may in his discretion set apart a sum pot exceeding ten per cent. of the gross amount of the school money apportioned to any school district, which shall be applied by such school districts to the purchase of school district libraries," etc., etc. The annual school meeting was also empowered to vote a tax on the district, not exceeding $30 in any one year, for a school library; and ''such further sum as they may deem necessary for the purchase of a book-case." Other provisions are interesting but can not be recounted here.
It will be readily observed that the weak point of this law, as of the law of 1887, lay in the according of discretionary power to the administrative authority. This legislation was not wholly without fruit; for the writer of this report well remembers what inspiration he got in one boyhood winter from the reading of the first four volumes of Macaulay's History of England, then uncompleted, which found their way into the district library of the country school in Rock county, where he was then a pupil. But the first installment of books provided for that library was practically the last; and the books were soon scattered, worn out, or lost. The village of Middleton may be cited, however, as one of the districts which perseveringly built up a creditable school library under the old statutes.
The rennaissance of the school library in Wisconsin may be considered as dating from the session of 1887, when State Superintendent Thayer secured the enactment of a new school library law. This differed from the early law in the fact that the responsibility for setting apart library funds now rested with the town treasurer-not a school officer and the amount allowed was one-twentieth, only, of the school moneys. Again the word ''may" proved obstructive, if not destructive, to the purposes of the law; though some thing was accomplished through the urgent influence of the state department of public instruction.
In 1889 this law was amended by making "ten cents for each person of school age' the amount which might be set apart for library purposes; but the ambiguous "may" still retained its place in the statutes. The selection of books to be purchased, from lists approved by the state superintendent, was now devolved upon the town clerk instead of the board of supervisors.
In 1887, 108 towns, less than one-tenth of the whole number, made purchases of library books under the new law. The number of towns complying with the law slowly rose during the next seven years to 365 in 1894, about one-third of the whole number.
The legislature of 1895 relieved the law of its ambiguity.
making it clearly mandatory upon the town clerk; and good results were promptly visible. In the year 1895. 995 towns, nearly nine-tenths of all in the state, withheld the library money according to law. The amount expended for books rose from $15,000 to over $35,000; and the number of volumes purchased was about 46,000. Figures are not yet complete for the year 1896, but the number of towns delinquent will be considerably less than 100 out of a total of 1,135.
Coming now to the question whether any further legislation is needful or desirable in the interest of school libraries, this committee wish to say, first of all, that there is danger of relying too much on mere statutory provisions. No law will operate or enforce itself; while a right and vital public sentiment will get good results under imperfect laws. The great thing now is to so inform and inspire all teachers and officers concerned that the existing laws shall be carried out in their full spirit and intent. Meanwhile, it is also well to perfect the statutes so far as circumstances permit and experience shows the way.
To this committee, the most desirable change in the law would seem to be an increase in the funds set apart for library purposes. Ten cents a year per child seems a pitiful sum for such a use. Something less than five dollars a year is all that is thus available for the average country district. How long will it take, at this rate, to build up a respectable library? The figures for 1895, obtained through the courtesy of the state superintendent, show that 45,995 volumes were purchased. These were divided among about 5.500 schoolhouses, thus giving an average of about eight volumes to a schoolhouse, including villages as well as country schools. Surely the outlay for this purpose ought to be doubled. But "half a loaf is better than no bread," and it becomes simply a question of expediency whether the advance should be attempted now or later.
One feature of the present law, that providing for the calling in and redistribution, periodically, of all the school library books in each town, has not attained the degree of success or popularity that was expected by its authors. The reasons are not far to seek; and it is clearly desirable that each school should develop the feeling and pride of proprietorship in its own library. We would therefore recommend that an amendment to Sec. 4 of the present law, striking out all that relates to redistribution of the books, be sought at once. Better provision should be made against the loss of books. To this end the state superintendent should be authorized by law to furnish proper library record books for the use of each district at state expense.
3. The question has been raised whether the provisions of the school library law should not be extended also to cities and incorporated villages. While the larger cities are doing as well for the library interests, under existing methods, as could reasonably be expected, it seems to us that the villages and smaller cities would gain greatly by coming under the law in question. We would therefore recommend that its provisions be extended to all villages, and to each city having a population of less than ten thousand, unless the municipality in question shall have established a free public library under the provisions of the free library law. it is believed that such an extension of the application of the present law would tend to make library purchases more systematic and continuous, if not more liberal, than at present,
Thus far we have dealt only with the law relating to school libraries; but another line of educational effort, also of great interest to the teachers of the state, is found in the system of free public libraries maintained by municipalities and not in direct connection with the public schools. If all the larger cities of the state would follow the example set by the city of Milwaukee in the liberal support of a public library which is brought to the very doors, literally, of every public school room in the city, the library question might be considered as solved and settled. But such a consummation, however devoutly to be wished, is too remote from present fact to be debated here.
The first Wisconsin law authorizing cities and villages to establish free public libraries was enacted by the legislature of 1872. The power to establish such libraries was lodged in city councils and village boards, unbampered by the necessity for submitting the proposition to popular vote. In 1876, this law was so amended as to require the sub
The report of the committee on President Brier's address of last year asked for more time, which was granted.
The Association here adjourned to meet in sections at two o'clock.
mission to popular vote of the question of establishing a library and of raisiog the necessary tax.
An amendment in 1893 introduced a new feature by providing that, instead of a direct library tax, a sum not to exceed len per cent. of the money received for liquor-licenses may be set aside as a library fuod, if the council or board so eoact. In 1895 came other minor changes in the law, whicb may b; considered as still in the process of evolution. The institution, in 1895, of a state library commission was a measure from which useful results have already accrued; and still greater fruits may be expected in future.
A most interesting and promising feature of recent li. brary work in Wisconsin is the inauguration in certain counties of the state, by private munificence, of a system of "traveling libraries" for the benefit of rural communities. This is a movement as yet outside of statutory recognition; but one which may well prove fraught with great blessing to the spiritual interests of the commonwealth.
It may not seem clear to every one that the State Teachers' Association should concern itself about changes in the law relating to other than school libraries; but your committ feel warranted, after conference with the chairman of the state library commission, in urging the teachers of the state to lend their influence towards securing the following changes:
1. The educational forces of every city should have direct representation in the management of the public library. This cannot be too strongly insisted on. This result would best be secured, doubtless, by making the city superintendent, or supervising principal, of public schools, a member ex officio of the board of library directors. No one else is likely to know so well as the head of the local school system how to make the city library serve the interests of that most important cla ss of readers, the school children. No one else is likely to know so well what books ought to be excluded from the library and what ones should be included. And no mistakes are so vital as those made in the selection of books for purchase.
2. In municipalities of less than 10,000 inhabitants, the membership of the library board should be reduced in numbers. Large boards are inert. A board of six, or less, appointed members, with the city superintendent as an ex offi. cio member, would be in every way preferable to the pres. ent board of pine members.
3. There ought to be some additional provisions in the law for the encouragement and conservation of gifts and endowments desigoed to extend library privileges and benefits beyond the corporate limits of the cities in which the libraries are established. Traveling libraries, for instance, can best be operated in connection with city libraries as centers of distribution and supervision. And this would be to the mutual advantage of city and country.
It is therefore recommended that statutory provision be sought which shall authorize City Library Boards to accept gifts conditioned upon the extension of library privileges to the people of surrouoding towns, and to contract with town, village, or county boards to loan books to residents of their respective jurisdictions. Some such provision as this would remove legal obstacles to the extension of private beneficence in the directions already inaugurated by Senator Stout and Mr. Witter in their respective counries.
To all the above propositions, at least, we believe that the Wisconsin Teachers' Association should stand ready to give its active support during the coming session of the legislature. There are reasons in sight why diligent effort should be made to perfect our library laws in all their details, at this particular time. And we therefore recommend the appointment of a special committee on library legislation whose duty it shall be to act in conjunction with the state superintendent and the state library committee in the draft ing of amendments to the existing library laws, and to use all available means for insuring their passage through the legislature. It is suggested that these amendments be embodied in two separate bills, one relating to public school libraries and the other to the free public libraries. Respectfully submitted,
Committee. On motion of H. W. Rood, the report of the committee was adopted.
D. Appleton & Co.
-The BeginnERS OF A NATION; A history of the source and rise of the earliest English settlements in America with special reference to the life and character of th: people, by Edward Eggleston (377 pp.; $1.50). views the early history of this country as the result of certain persistent forces, whose nature and effects are carefully set forth. It is the truly philosophic aspect of our earliest growth. As one reads in Mr. Eggleston's clear and effective exposition, the story of the economic motives leading not only to the first planting of the English colonies in Virginia, but to all the great mutations in its early history; of the rise and development of Puritanism in England, and the religious motives impelling so, many of its followers to emigrate to the new world, and sees how these religious motives persist to the shaping of institutions and the development of a com. monwealth, until the same spirit leads to disruptions and dispersions as opposing forms of belief arise; and of the Catholic migration under Lord Baltimore, held in and shaped to toleration by the pressure of religious and political events bo'h in the old world and the new; he feels both bow continuous the new life is with the old, and how the room for expansion in America gives opportunity for the rapid broadening and ripening of each preparatory to a fusion which shall produce a really new pation. The proces. sion of motives in this early history is here for the first time clearly and convincingly exhibited, and this will give to the book an abiding value. Its' tone is scholarly and judicial. The text of each chapter is supported by a valu. able appendix of critical and explanatory notes which leave little to be desired in the field chosen. Thus in a field of history already often and ably worked the author has succeeded in making a distinct and important contribution. This is understood to be the first of a series of studies in American history for which Mr. Eggleston has long been making preparation, and we can but hope that he may be able to carry forward an enterprise so full of promise. American Book Co.
-The MASTERY OF Books, hinta on reading and the use of libraries, by Harry L. Koopman (214 pp. ; 90c.), comes from the librarian of Brown university, and has distinctly practical aims. It seeks to guide the young in the difficult art of self-formation by wise reading. Every well educated teacher has been puzzled time and again with the question from earnest young learners: "But what shall I read?'' Here is a guide which will answer that question intelligently, not by naming a short or long list of works which must be read, but by leading the inquirer to give definiteness to his own aims and then guiding him as to the way to find what will best serve him. It discusses why and how much to read, what to read and how to read in an emi. nently sensible and helpful manner. The chapters on reference books and catalogs, and on periodicals are especially practical to the great body of young persons who have not yet learned to think on such matters, and are either overwhelmed by inability to select or wholly repelled and driven to what will merely divert. · As to the use of books that is set forth in the chapters on memory and note taking, language study, the place of the library in education, and reading courses. A brief classified list of books follows, which it would be easy to find fault with, but perhaps hard to replace by one more generally acceptable. The use of such a volume as this to all sorts of people, but especially to teachers and pupils, must be abundantly evident.
-ELEMENTARY METEOROLOGY for high schools and colleges, by Frank Waldo (373 pp.; $1.50), deals with a science which is so rapidly growing ihat it may be said to be almost a creation of the last quarter of a century. The author's fitness for his task is indicated by his titles, "late Junior Professor in the United States Sigaal Service, member of the Austrian and German Meteorological Societies, author of 'Modern Meteorology,' etc." The general course of treatment follows in the main that outlined by the
Committee of Ten for the study, and includes among its special subjects the movement of the winds, the visible phenomena of the clouds, the study of weather maps and reports, storms, tornadoes and cyclones. A sep. arate chapter is devoted to the climate of the United States, in which the work of the Weather Bureau and its reports and maps are clearly explained and illustrated. It constantly keeps before the student the fact that meteorology is largely an observational study, and teaches him to observe the succession of weather conditions and to intelligently account for the changes which occur, as well as to make intelligent weather predictions himself. In addition to its use as a text-book, the book is written in such a way as to make it very interesting to the general reader who de sires to be informed concerniog the latest results and applications of this new and progressive science. Its mechani cal execution is all that could be desired. A short course and one more extended, or for reading only, are indicated by differentiated type. The illustrations are numerous and significant and add greatly to the value and usefulness of the book.
-A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NATIons and of Their Pro. gress in Civilization, by George Park Fisher, (613 pp.; $1.50) attracts us first by its general appearance. It is me. chapically a model modern text-book, beautifully printed, richly and appropriately illustrated with pictures and maps, and substantially and attractively bound. Its organization also is excellent. The complex material is intelligently sub. divided into periods, chapters and paragraphs with suitable headings. The idea of a general history," we are told in the preface,"has been carried out by connecting. as far as practicable, in a single cbain of narrative, contemporary events in different countries where the several countries stand in so close a mutual relation that the events are in. terlinked." The effort throughout is to exhibit tendencies, the development of civilization, the expansion of national and social life rather than dynastic and military history. Modern history receives more attention than is usual in such compendiums, as lying closer to our own lives and in. terests. The book is eminently judicial in tone, is lucid in exposition, and wise in its choice of topics. Its author is already well known by his "Outlines of General History," and it is therefore necessary to add that the present book is pot a mere abridgement of tbat work, but a fresh and compact treatment of history in the light of the most recent discoveries.
SHORT STORIES OF OUR Shy NeIGHBORS, by Mrs. M. A. B. Kelly, (214 pp.; 50c) tells about the birds, beasts, and insects right about us, in a style which is easy and familiar and free from technical names while telling of things not commonly known even by well educated readers. The book belongs to the Eclectic School Readings" series, and is abundantly and attractively illustrated. It can hardly fail to interest old and young.
-FIRST Year in German, by J. Keller, (290 pp.; $1.00), is eminently simple, systematic, teachable. Everything essential for first year study is presented in a logical' order -Ibat is, the grammatical facts first needed for reading and most easily comprehended are those first presented. A pas. sage of connected reading is first given.--necessarily, of course, a very simple one in the earlier lessons, --so arrapged as to introduce the grammar in an orderly manner. The new words are then given separately with their mean ings, followed by notes which explain and enlarge upon the infectional and syntactical points occurring in the text. The book contains a large number of meritorious details, such as the ''Additional Exercises" occurring in every fifth lesson, printed in Roman type and using only words akin in both German and English. The inflections are given in full in the Appendix, and in the case of verbs exhibit the forms of the principal auxiliaries side by side, as well as a parallel view of the Indicative and Subjunctive.
-A Text-BOOK OF PLANE SURVEYING, by William G. Raymond. (485 pp.; $3.00), has been prepared as a manual for the study and practice of surveying. The long experience of the author as a teacher and practicing engineer is evident in the contents and method of the book. Points likely to present difficulty to the student or to the young surveyor are rendered plain. The methods are modern, the
statements clear and concise, the directions definite. Par. ticular attention is paid to topographical, hydrographical, and mine surveying. to land survey and earth-work computations, to field work and map-making, and to the slide rule, a little knowo but most useful tool of the engineer. A large number of original problems and illustrative examples is given, furnishing valuable material for practice. The tables are printed on tinted paper, to distinguish them from the remainder of the book, thus facilitating their ready reference, and in large, clear, differentiated type. Fiveplace tables are adopted, and the arrangement is for tenths of a mipute instead of seconds, thus rendering the book more serviceable both for practical and theoretical use. The illustrations are numerous, and include cuts of the principal instruments used id surveying. The examples of map-drawing are especially well executed, and the colored maps, finished as in actual practice, are a feature not found in any similar work. Ginn & Co.
-The Forms Of Discourse, with an introductory chapter on style, by William B. Cairns (356 pp.; $1.25), comes from the pen of one of the younger men connected with the faculty of the University of Wisconsin, and has for us a special interest on that account. Its aim and plan are povel, and the novelty is fairly indicated by the title. Instead of the usual text in composition or rhetoric we have bere chapters on narration, description, exposition, argumentation and persuasion. Each of these topics, after a general exposition, is treated by a careful study of its chief forms, and the study is made concrete and practical by a series of illustrative selections of sufficient length to exbibit well the main points of the discussion. Under narration, for example, we have a tr-atment of Dar. ration without plot. and narration with plot, and under the latter such forms as the short story, history, biography and the drama. Of course, a great many other illustrations of the topics under discussion are referred to in the text, which will be helpful to such as read extensively. The selections here given at length are of various grades of merit, so that the author says, "Some of them are models of style and may be studied as such: others have serious faults, which the student should point out;' in other words they are to be looked upon as materials for exercises rather than as models. The book is a sugges:ive one, a little matter of fact in its treatment, but clear and helpful as a guide to young learners. Its best service to them will be that it puts them to the thoughtful and appreciative reading of great works of literary art, from acquaintance with which, and pot from rhetorical precepts, they will derive such skill in expression as they may be able to attain.
-Spenser's Bricomart, edited with introduction and notes by Mary E. Litchfield (265 pp. ; 70c.). gathers from the Fairy Queen all that relates to a single character, Britomart, and putting the pieces together makes the romantic tale of Spenser's most charming heroine, ''the lady knight." No changes beyond omissions have been necessary in this process. The editor has modernized the spelling except where modern spelling would change the sound of the word, has added foot potes explaining all unusual words, and provided an introduction containing a life of the poet.
-The First Greek Book, by John Williams White, (292 +62 pages: $1.35), seeks to supply the need of a brief introductory course in Greek than that afforded by the author's well-known "Beginner's Greek Book." This volume leads as directly as possible to the reading of Xenophon's Anabasis, and gives a clear outline of Greek grammar freed from exceptional forms and usages. The paradigms and declensions are massed in the appendix, each lesson adds about ten new words to the learner's vocabulary, numerous illustrations related to Greek life and art are scattered through the text and a general vocabulary is furnished at the close of the volume. C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y.
- The History of Modern EDUCATION, by Samuel G. Williams, second edition, revised aod enlarged, (481 pp.; $1.50), shows important additions to the original work. A brief introductory chapter treating of valuable contributions to pedagogy from ancient times has been added, while the pedagogy of the nineteenth century, formerly summed up