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trying to render a beautiful piece of music minded; while the contending of different rewhen he mistook a Ay-speck for a very high ligious factions is a universal state of affairs. note and tried to sing it. Several years ago As revealed in that book, it was the national I heard a teacher give a lesson on The Vil- life. The Tale of Two Cities, Ivanhoe, and lage Blacksmith, taking the word "chestnut" indeed any of Scott's works, the drama of as the key-note of the poem. The lesson was Julius Cæsar, Picciola, Les Misérables and really a "science-lesson” on chestnuts. I once Ninety-Three by Victor Hugo, Cooper's novels, heard Tennyson's Lady Claire spoiled in like Uncle Tom's Cabin, The Courtship of Miles manner. The lily-white doe which Lord Standish, all stand the test of this law. Ronald brought to his cousin was made the turning-point of the poem. The doe, the

SPEAK THE TRUTH. number of its legs, the length of its tail, the

Speak thou the truth. Let others fence, shape of its ears, the color of its eyes, its food,

And trim their words for pay: the species to which it might have or might

In pleasant sunshine of pretense

Let others bask their day. not have belonged, these were the points brought forward for consideration, while the

Guard thou the fact; though clouds of night

Down on thy watch-tower stoop, ethical lesson underlying it, the one thing that Though thou shouldst see thine heart's delight tended to make the poem sweet and poetic,

Borne from thee by their swoop. never came up at all. One teacher will take Face thou the wind, though safer seem an essay of John Burroughs and turning its

In shelter to abide;

We were not made to sit and dream; poetic side out make a poem of it, while an

The safe must first be tried. other, turning its scientific side out, will make the most abominable prose of it. Collateral

Show thou thy light. If conscience gleam,

Set not thy bushel down; reading does little more for poetry than to

The smallest spark may send his beam spoil it, since it tends to destroy its totality

O'er hamlet, tower, and town. and break it up into epigrams; nevertheless, Woe, woe to him, on safety bent, preliminary reading may pave the way for it.

Who creeps to age from youth,

Failing to grasp his life's intent, Studies similar to Romola, Hypatia, Ivanhoe,

Because he fears the truth! and Julius Cæsar require preliminary reading,

--Home and Club Life. geographic, historic, and classic. The study

MRS. WASP AND MRS. BEE. of Dante requires all this, and collateral reading also. But all collateral reading in con

Said Mrs. Wasp to Mrs. Bee, nection with studies of purely artistic value

"Will you a favor do me?

There's something I can't understand; comes under the head of "lumber."

Please, ma'am, explain it to me. In addition to the laws of art already mem

“Why do men build you a house, tioned, the child can easily see that the work

And coax you to go in it, of art which portrays a national life, a religion,

While me, your cousin, they'll not let

Stay near them for a minute? is greater than one which shows some pettier

"I have a sting, I do confess, feeling. Macaulay tells us that religion is at

And should not like to lose it; the foundation of the best art, and that na

But so have you, and when you're vexed tional life is at the foundation of religion.

I'm very sure you use it." That Homer reveals the most intense feeling

"Well," said the Bee, "to you, no doubt,

It does seem rather fuony; of a great nation is sufficient reason why he

But people soon forget the stings should be read. It is not above a child's com

Of those who give them honey." prehension that the greatest work of art will

-American Bee Journal. have universal types in the foreground and

TWO PICTURES. universal life in the background. Hector and Andromache caressing their babe in the fore

The sun was shining calm and bright,

The meadow grass was deep; ground form a type of the universal. Every

The daisies and the buttercups manly man would linger to kiss his wife and

Were nodding. half asleep;

And overhead the sparrow sat babe before going into battle. The great con

And dozed upon the bough, tending armies in the background make a type

For all the world was sleepy, then, of universal or national life in the days of

When Johnny drove the cow. Homer. Millais's Huguenot Lovers is another

The sun was like a flaming beast! picture of the sort, although the national lite

The field was like the sea!

The grass, like angry snakes, did hiss is suggested rather than represented. Romola

And wriggle a: his knee. is a wonderful illustration of this law. Her

The sparrows turned to goblin imps trials are just such trials as women in general

That yelled, and fluttered on,

As, through a world gone raving mad, have, especially if they are loyal and high

The cow was driving John. -St. Nicholas. .


[I have also seen somewhere an item about

a legacy of 10,000 yen left by a gentleman in NOTES FROM JAPAN.

Yamaguchi prefecture (in the western part of

the empire) to three common schools in his It is really quite interesting to one on the county.] outside to watch the drift in educational affairs Mr. Sen Katayama, M. A., author of "A in this empire. Much the same questions are aris- Railway System,” and “Present Society in ing here as in Occidental countries, and growth England,” has recently established at Misaki seems to be much on the same lines and in the Cho, Kanda, an interesting work under the same ways; and yet there is also diverse name of Kingusurei Kwan (Kingsley Hall). development and differing ways of dealing Its object is to promote a good Christian eduwith the various problems. To illustrate cation among the poor unfortunate classes of both similarity and diversity I have culled our people in Tokyo, and to study their social from various sources a few items as straws to condition in order to their advancement and "show which way the wind blows," and call happiness. your attention to the following paragraphs: The abominable rule to strictly preclude the

The Formosan educational authorities are physically defective students from the higher assiduously discharging their duties. On the middle schools, has been abolished by the re26th of May the first female school in Formosa cent conference of the directors on the condiwas opened, being subordinate to the national tion that they possess other superior qualificalanguage school under the direct control of tions. We hope this will be adopted by the the governor-general's office. Forty-eight ordinary middle schools also. girls and women applied for admission and According to the existing system, about lessons were started the same day. It is note- 7,500 students can be accommodated in the worthy that of the total, seventeen are married ordinary normal schools in this country, and at and thirty-one unmarried, and that their ages least one-fourth of the number should turn range from about fifteen to about twenty-nine. out as teachers every year. But the fact is

It is suggested that the practice of the that only about 1,500 enter the educational Wasida middle school be followed by all ele- field, the rest seeking more lucrative employmentary and middle schools, namely, that ment. At any rate, there is an annual desmoking be strictly forbidden. There is no ficiency of about 3,500 teachers. Even if an doubt that smoking commenced at an early effective system for raising 2,000 more teachage is injurious in many ways. Expense is ers than at present be found, still it will take not now a consideration, but in ten years time twenty long years to fill the present deficiency it is likely to become so, as the Japanese are of about 27,000. beginning to understand that the taxation of One of the proposals introduced by the luxuries proves in most countries to be one of educational department for discussion at the the chief sources of revenue.

Normal school directors' conference on the 2d Whatever may be the cause, the people in of June, relates to the curtailing of the four the northern parts of Japan are setting an ex- years' course of the normal school students to ample to those living in the south in the mat- two years, in order to meet the keenly-felt ter of school education. We noticed a few want of common school teachers without an days ago that a certain merchant and his wife increase of expenditure. The Hochi vehein Fukushima, set aside a plot of farm land mently protests against this measure, with good worth about 1,100 yen as an endowment to the reason, and trusts that it will not pass through common school of that town. A similar act the council. The same paper remarks that by owners of fishing grounds in Isoya District, the course of the normal school students formHokkaido, is more noteworthy. The catch of erly consisted of two years, which was inherring was unusually large this year, and the creased by the late Mr. Mori to four years, headman of the district and other local worthies and thus better qualifications for the educaconceived the good idea of using this oppor- tional staff of the country have been secured. tunity for creating a fund for the Isoya Com. It is true, the Hochi notes, that the vacancies mon school. A special committee was elected for common school teachers were 23,000 in for that purpose and the principal fishermen 1895, and 25,000 in 1896, and no doubt the were persuaded to give contributions. The figures further increased this year, but it is a call was readily responded to, and from the most short-sighted measure to apply a tem. two villages of Notsuto and Shimakotan about porary remedy at the risk of incompetency. 25,000 yen have already been collected, sev. The standard of efficiency is already low eral individuals having contributed sums of enough in all conscience; one of the crying 1,000 yen.

evils of the educational system at present is that good men are not sufficiently numerous, the benefit of Japanese who wish to acquire a and to reduce the time of training is the very knowledge of foreign languages, some daily worst thing that could be done..

papers give English columns; there is one The higher normal school for young ladies English daily, called Japan Times, published permits only thirty students to enter the and edited by Japanese; there is a monthly special course in household economy. Can- magazine called The Far East, which pubdidates for this course must apply before the lishes English, German, and French articles; 30th of June next. It is required that.can- and now comes a new monthly called The Fordidates be persons of good morals and that eign Language Magazine, which is to contain their health be such as to meet the standard in each number articles in eight languages required for school teachers. They must be (English, German, French, Chinese, Korean, graduates of the higher female school of six Russian, Italian and Spanish). Verily, Japan years' course or of the normal school of two is becoming quite cosmopolitan. years' course, or must have attained an equal

ERNEST W. CLEMENT. standard of proficiency. They must also be be Tokyo, June 25, 1897. tween the ages of seventeen and thirty. Tuition free.

BOOK TABLE. The number of graduates of higher schools seeking admission to the Imperial university

University Publishing Co., 43-47 E. 10th St., N. Y. has been so great that comparatively a small --STANDARD LITERATURE Series, of from sixty-four to one percentage of them are taken into the latter

hundred thirty pages each, sold at 122 cents each for the

single numbers and 20c for the double, has much to cominstitution on competitive examination. Now

mend it to the favorable attention of teachers and pupils. that the Kyoto university has been organized, The books are well printed and neatly bound in stiff paper the students will be freed from the inconveni

sides. They are selections where essays, poems and short

stories are presented, and abridgments in the case of larger ence hitherto caused by the limited accommo works of fiction. It is the latter that attract most the attendation of the university. Another difficulty tion of the reviewer, and we are surprised at the success

with which this work has been done. To test it we selected still remains here, that is how to distribute

Cooper's Spy and Scott's Rob Roy for more detailed examthe graduates of different higher schools, there ination. We found the unity of the plot well preserved, being the possibility of a majority desiring to

and the delineations of character little affected by the

abridgment. Long descriptions, discussions and discourses enter the university in Tokyo. In case of ap

which only annoy and hinder young readers are here cut plicants to either university outnumbering the out so that the story drives right to the point as a boy likes limit they will be distributed by lot.

to have it. It is indeed a service to young readers to help

them thus to an earlier appreciation of Scott, and Dickens, A SOCIAL SCIENCE Society was founded and Cooper, for they will go on to other full works of these lately in Tokyo. In order to accomplish its writers after they have got a taste for them. The list of

books in the series is already a long one. On our table we object, it publishes journals four times a year,

find Cooper represented by The Spy, The Pilot and the and holds lectures twice a year. It will also Deerslayer, Scott by Rob Roy, Kenilworth, and Lady of have occasional social gatherings. It is estab

the Lake; IRVING by the Alhambra, The Sketch Book, and

The Knickerbocker Stories; Dickens by Christmas Stories, lished by Christians.

Paul Dombey, and Little Nell; TENNYSON by Enoch Arden; SOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION SOCIETY. John P. KENNEDY by Horse-Shoe Robinson; BYRON by The This was lately founded on the proposal of

Prisoner of Chilon; BULWER LYTTON by Harold; JONATHAN

Swift by Gulliver's Travels; HAWTHORNE by Twice Told Mr. Sen Katayama, M. A. It holds a meet Tales, Wonder Book, and the Snow Image; VICTOR HUGO ing once a month in the Tokyo Y. M. C. A. by Ninety-Three; R. H. Dana by Two Years Before the building. The object of the society is the study

Mast; and LONGFELLOW by Evangeline.

-Golden Rod Books, four volumes, are a very attractive and investigation of social phenomena, be

series for supplementary reading, edited by John A. Haaren. ginning with those in the great city of Tokyo. Rhymes and Fables is a collection for the First Reader The near approach of the time when, by the

Class (12c.). SONGS AND STORIES, a charming compila

tion for the next class (150.), FAIRY LIFE, tales in verse and new treaties, this country will be thrown open prose (20C.), for Third Reader grades; and BALLADS AND for “mixed residence,” is the occasion of many TALES, from popular ballads and famous stories, for still

older readers enterprises tending to bring Japanese and foreigners to a better understanding of each

Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

-Poems and Essays By Ralph W. Emerson. (Riverside other. For instance, for the sake of the in- School Library; 94 and 142 pp.) Contains about forty creasing number of tourists and business men short poems, arranged under the rubrics, Patriotic who will be drawn hither, a book ambitiously

and Occasional Pieces, Nature, and Life and Character;

followed by the essays on the Fortune of the Republic, called Japanese Self-Taught,” has just been The Young American, American Civilization, The Emanpublished, which, though not intended to be cipation Proclamation, Abraham Lincoln, and the Amer

ican Scholar. The introductory matter contains an apa thorough grammatical treatise on the Jap

preciative estimate of Emerson, as especially a poet, and a anese language, really gives a very practical biographical sketch which contains a brief and clear actreatment of colloquial phrases in both the

count of Emerson's manner as an essayist. The volume is

convenient, beautiful in paper and print and substantially "familiar" and the polite" styles. Again, for and attractively bound.

Journal of Education



No. 10



now touches in its yearly meetings, and gives JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, promise of a vigorous and profitable gathering. 208 East Main Street, Madison, Wis. It is unnecessary any longer to urge attendance

at these meetings, as wide-awake teachers 1. W. STEARNS, I

have learned their value, and the difficulty is A. O. WRIGHT, 1.

to provide for the large crowds sure to be SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $1.00 A YEAR. present. [Entered at the Madison postoffice at second-class mailing rates.) CONFIRMATION of what we have been urg

ing as to the necessity of skilled supervision TABLE OF CONTENTS.

for our schools, is afforded by the following

PAGE. passage from the Report of the Committee of EDITORIAL ..........................

................... 217-220 Brief Comments—Criticisms and Aims in Geogra

Twelve on Rural Schools: “If supervision is phy Teaching-Improving Rural Life.

to be effective it must be the product of skill THE MONTH..........

.......... 220-224 and experience. As well put an ordinary Wisconsin News and Notes - School Reports: Madison and Wausau—The School of Education

seaman, selected from the crew by lot, in at the University-Eli Whitney and the Cotton charge of an ocean steamer, with its precious Gin-The Essentialness of Dynamic Force--The cargo of lives and wealth, as to place a raw,

Vortex of Fiction.
The SCHOOL Room.....

.... 224-237

uncultivated man or woman, selected by the George Bancroft - Alaska and the New Gold chances of a political convention, in charge of Field-Alaskan Natives—The Varied Climate of

the schools in which our youth are being Hawaii-Origin of Mountain Chains-Some Vagaries of the Mississippi River - The Causal Notion

trained for citizenship. The sub-committee in Geography-An Atoll in the Pacific-A Phase of is of the opinion that certain qualifications, Geography-Europe and Political Geography, Laboratory Work in Elementary Physiography.

moral and mental, should be exacted from CONTRIBUTIONS .........

.............. 237-240 every one who aspires to the duties of a superSome Facts Concerning Alaska-Contracts Made

visory office." Before the School Meeting. OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.....

.... 240 SUPERINTENDENT HARPER's discussion of Program of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association.

the validity of appointments by a retiring BOOK TABLE....................

........... 240-vii

school board, published elsewhere in this EDITORIAL.

issue, is timely and important. It makes evident that this subject is by no means so fully

settled as has been supposed. The danger A COLLECTION of geography topics will be

that such a right if maintained would be subfound in this number of the JOURNAL, chiefly

ject to abuse must be apparent to every one, pertaining to three phases of the subject, des

so that it would have to be carefully guarded. criptions of interesting scenes and conditions,

It is a misfortune that the constant and necesas the articles regarding Hawaii, Alaska, and

sary renewals of our boards should involve a Atolls; dynamic geography as in the articles

yearly tenure only for teachers, and doubtless on the Mississippi River, mountains, and po

this has contributed to make the profession a litical geography; and method and plans of

migratory one. That phase of its history, teaching. Those of the first and second classes

however, seems to be slowly passing away. will be found useful to be read by pupils. In

We have never seen so few changes in importthe next issue we propose to give especial at

ant positions as the present year. While this tention to the present problems of the rural

may be due in part to the hard times, there schools. The subject of the Literature article

seems beyond doubt less disposition to make will be Bryant.

unnecessary changes both on the part of ELSEWHERE we publish a preliminary pro- boards and teachers. Thus the remedy for gram of the coming meeting of the Wisconsin changes of teachers is not to be sought in the Teachers' Association. It shows at a glance point here in issue, but in the growth of sound what a wide range of interests the organization opinion on that matter.

WHETHER hostility to England is inculcated CRITICISMS AND AIMS OF GEOGRAPHY TEACHING. in our school histories by their treatment of the wars for independence is discussed by Gold Notwithstanding the criticisms upon our win Smith in the North American Review for teaching of geography it must be confessed September. Prof. Smith, as an Englishman that our people in general are well informed and the author of a very interesting brief his- on this subject. We are a nation of newspatory of this country, may be considered a com per readers, and intelligent newspaper readers, petent judge on the subject, and it is there who not only locate Cuba, Venezuela, the fore gratifying to find him writing, after ex Phillipine islands, Khartum, Klondyke, Afamining certain of the manuals: “I must con ghanistan, and so on, but usually know somefess that I do not find in any of them aught thing of conditions in different countries. of which an Englishman could seriously com- This is certainly due in large measure to the plain.” This is as it should be. It is absurd teaching of geography in our common schools. to foster the animosities of a struggle now Examinations confirm this conclusion, as more than a century past. A friend, how- to the success of the teaching. There is perever, suggests that while the text-books are haps no other subject upon which the candifree from blame in this matter, some of the dates appearing at the State examination do teachers may not be. They sometimes con- so well uniforınly as in geography—we do not found patriotism with this anti-British acri- mean what is technically called “physical gemony, and echo still the outworm animus of ography,” in which the results are far from former Fourth-of-July orations. If this is true satisfactory, but the descriptive geography of it comes of the lack of thoughtfulness, which the elementary schools. In this we certainly tends to make the study of our history emo have been prone to under-estimate the results tional and memoriter, instead of a rational of teaching. It will be seen, however, that consideration of the issues and principles in the prevalent criticisms when rightly undervolved. We must substitute thoughtful dis- stood do not deny what has been said. They cussion of issues for the recounting of events affirm only that time is wasted on the subject, in our history classes.

and that our processes are mechanical where

they ought to be vital. PROFESSOR SMITH in the article above re- In developing the latter point quite too ferred to, makes another remark which de- strenuous emphasis has been placed upon the serves the careful consideration of our teach- need of something more than the geography ers of American history: “The Revolutionary of position. Constantinople must be someWar does, in fact, fill rather a large space in thing more than a black dot on a map, placed the comparatively brief annals of the United on the Bosphorus. The pupil, we are told, States. Its chief actors are the national he- must see the sumptuous eastern city, its imroes and the national types of patriotic viftue. posing site, its mosques and palaces, its streets Its incidents, or those of the war of 1812, are thronged with strange peoples, and so on. about the only matter by which an ungifted To add to the force of this it is not necessary American writer can hope to enliven his work to speak contemptuously of the dot on the and appeal to the imagination of young read- map.” In fact that is of great value. The ers. It is not in American school histories map with its lines and dots is a kind of symalone that a disproportionate space is occu- bol by means of which complex relations are pied by the annals of war. Thirst of martial readily apprehended and retained in memory. glory is nowhere extinct, and nothing is so It is the very center and heart of sound geogpicturesque as a battle. It is not easy to pre- raphy teaching, which aims constantly to grave sent in a form interesting to a child a series of this upon the pupil's mind. From this he political events and characters, the issues be- must work to get what knowledge he can by tween Jefferson and Hamilton, the struggle inference, and to this he must refer whatever between Adams and Jackson, or even the po- he learns from other sources. Its dots and litical contest with slavery. Nor can an ordi- lines he must indeed be able to interpret into nary writer lend picturesqueness to the progress things, but it is easy to push the process too of social improvement, of commerce, or of in- far, and lose the general result-location gevention.” This probably tells correctly the ography-in a confusing mass of details. real reason why so much space is devoted to Descriptions of cities, for example—how mowar in our school manuals. We must ardent- notonous and unprofitable they are for the ly hope, then, that soon some “gifted writer" most part. And who will claim that he is will effectively develop in a school text these able to form even a tolerably correct picture neglected topics.

of a great State, with its varied surface, its

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