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WISCONSIN

No. 1

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO

a journal as shall stimulate effort and advance-

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, ment and help them to keep abreast of

23 East Main Street, Madison, Wis.

the times. One who is to succeed in school

work needs such help now more than ever

J. W, STEARNS,

f......... EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS.

A. O. WRIGHT, .

before, because competition is sharper and

ideals are advancing rapidly. We appreciate

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 81.00 A YEAR. the cordial support which is given us by many

friends, and shall try to merit it in the future.

(Entered at the Madison postoffice at second-class mailing rates.) We wish to extend our influence, and ask the

further help of our friends in doing this. We

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

will send sample copies to any whose address

may be furnished us and try to be helpful to

EDITORIALS...................

them in securing any publications which they

Brief Comments—The Normal Schools and the

University-Another Report of the Commissioner

may desire, as well as in other ways.

of Education.

An article on "Curfew for City Children,"

THE MONTH......

Wisconsin News and Notes-Corrections to the in the North American Review for December,

High School List-The Academy at Oshkosh-

states that of the 13,000 boys and girls in re-

Normal School Graduates Now Undergraduates
at the University-A Question of the Almanac-

form schools in 1890, 98 per cent. went from

Interesting Move at the Platteville Normal School cities, towns and villages; that is, from one-

- Wisconsin Superintendents' Convention-Im-

third of the population, as two-thirds resided

pressions of the Ashland Library Meeting-Library
Institute at Menomonie-Need of the Curfew Law

on farms. The chief cause of this result in

-Traveling Libraries.

town life is parental neglect; the children are

CHILD-STUDY.........

....... 10-12

on the streets in the evening instead of at

Milwaukee Society for Child-Study.

home. The writer says: “In June, 1896, I

The School Room....

......... 12-15

Edgar Allan Poe-A Bird Day-How to Teach

received a statement announcing that two
Composition – On Teaching Arithmetic - The hundred cities had adopted the Curfew law,
Child-Study Movement.

and that city officials, parents, school teach-

THEORY AND Practice........

News from Prussian Schools.

ers, employers of youthful labor, and especially

OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT...

chiefs of police were emphatic in their praise

Forty-Fourth Annual Meeting of Wisconsin

of its efficacy." Among the statements cited

Teachers' Association.

is that of the chief of police of Lincoln, Neb.:

Book Table..

........... 22-24

“After the Curfew was in force a few weeks

arrests for disorderly conduct and truancy fell

EDITORIAL.

off fully seventy-five per cent.” He adds: “I

cannot see why any city government in the
· With this number we send hearty new year

country should hesitate to enact the ordi-
greetings to our many readers. It is due to

nance.” Instead of being irritated by the op-
their loyal support that the JOURNAL comes

eration of the law it is found that most of the
through the period of hard times with so good

parents welcome it as an aid to family disci-
a clientage and so hopeful an outlook. To prine.
indicate what the JOURNAL will be in the FROM the “no-recess" plan, which a few years
future we point confidently to the past and ago was the ruling "fad" in school matters,
hope to show added strength and variety. It to the more-recess plan, is just such a change
will be our aim to present, each month, as must be expected in a period of rapid edu-
thoughtful discussions of educational matters cational development like that thru which we
of real and present importance, to reflect the are now passing. We noticed in November
most progressive educational sentiment of the the experiments of Prof. Friedrich, of Wurz-
state, to keep our readers posted on the most burg, showing that the errors of children are
important school movements in the state and diminished almost one-half when a recess of
the country, to furnish helps and suggestions ten minutes is allowed each hour. A writer
for the school room, -in short to make such in the December number of the Educational

..............

15-17

17-22

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Review, treating of “Some Characteristics of happiness lies in doing your duty in the sphere Prussian Schools,” says: At the end of the in which you find yourself, with the teachfirst recitation there was a recess of several ing of the new school that it lies in rising minutes, during which the windows were above that station. He notes the profit to opened and the boys were given an opportu the nation coming of this universal ambition, nity of stretching their muscles on the play- and also the danger resulting from the more ground. These recesses, which varied in and more complete closing of opportunilength from five to fifteen minutes, occurred ties to rise as the country fills up. In our between all recitations, and all the boys were opinion it is not the school but the society, required to spend the longer intervals out of which has been preaching this discontent." doors, except a few invalids who were ex- It is stimulated by the possibilities, the speccused by the order of a physician. This cus- tacles of success on every hand, the talk of tom of relieving, as often as once an hour, the the marts and the shops. It is the courage nervous tension generated in growing children and hopefulness of national youth. Doubtby the physical and mental restraints of the less the spirit brings dangers, especially with class-room, was an established rule in every the diminution of opportunity to advance. The school that I visited, and seemed to me a prac- remedy will not be to return to the old teachtice worthy of general adoption.”

ing, which means stagnation, but in rational

izing the new, so that joy may be found in SELECTING text-books is really a matter

effort and success in the development of requiring large experience in school work,

strength and character, a success which all maturity of judgment and thorough scholar

may achieve. This comes to the same thing ship. This is especially true in our American

as saying that with maturity must come an schools, where the text-book determines almost absolutely what shall be taught, in what

escape from the purely materialistic ideals of

youth, to the rational and attainable ideals of order it shall be taugh:, and even the method of teaching it.

maturity. The schools must help this develIf there be in the whole field of education a matter which ought to be de

opment. termined by the judgment of experts it would

THE NORMAL SCHOOLS AND THE UNIVERSITY. seem to be this. Yet in our practice this is left to the school board, a body very properly

A friend, who had been looking over the constituted of business men, whose chief func

statistics published in our last issue as to the tion ought to be to look after the material and

qualifications of high school teachers in Wisbusiness side of school management, and whose

consin, suggested that a considerable number members presumably in the great majority of

who are reported as university graduates are cases are very far from educational experts.

also normal graduates. We are glad to call What results? Why, the decision is deter.

attention to the fact that there are such teachmined by all sorts of secondary considera

ers. We have been examining the list again tions,—the price of the books, the trades that

with a view to ascertaining as nearly as poscan be made, above all the tactical skill and

sible how many such are now in the schools, manipulations of the interested book agents.

and are surprised at the relatively small numAs our larger cities come to employ thoroughly

ber. Out of a total of one hundred and fiftytrained expert superintendents, and our prin

six university graduates now teaching in the cipals in smaller places devote time and effort high schools we have been able to find but to forming sound judgments in this matter,

tter, twelve who are also normal school graduates. and securing such respect for their judgments We may have overlooked one or two cases. as they will then be entitled to, we may hope

but not enough materially to modify the profor an escape out of the present anomalous

portion. The reasons for this are probably and unsatisfactory situation. Thus we shall

many. We are able to think of four such gradreach the only rational solution of the vexed

uates who are teaching in the normal schools; "text-book problem."

three are teaching in the university; several RARELY has a monthly magazine crowded are pursuing graduate courses; some have colso much that is stimulating to thought as is lege or normal school positions out of the found in the December number of the Forum. state; and some of course have entered other Our purpose at present is to call attention to callings. It is very much to be desired that a single paragraph in Mr. Goldwin Smith's the number of such in the schools should be "The Brewing of the Storm," a review of the increased, and the development of a special conditions giving rise to the Chicago platform course for normal graduates at the university, and party. Among other conditions he con- which will be inaugurated next year, will, it is trasts the old-fashioned school teaching, that hoped, tend rapidly to add to their number

trained experter places devote timchis matte

But the remark carries with it a suggestion ANOTHER REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCAthat there exists such a rivalry in this matter

- TION. between the normal schools and the university as makes the correct exhibition of the number Dr. Harris is effecting a most desirable adof teachers contributed by each to the high vance in the work of his office by bringing schools a matter of justice and importance. about a more prompt issuance of the annual Such is not our view of the case. In this mat- reports. These had so far fallen behind that ter the interests of these institutions are the the volume for 1893-94 appeared at the close same and not opposed. The influence of some of 1896 and was noticed in our last issue. of the normal schools we know to be in favor Close upon it follows the report for 1894of the largest culture on the part of those seek- 95, the first volume of which now lies before ing to become teachers, and they make open us. This indicates increased efficiency and and easy the passage of their students to thoroughness of organization in the work of higher institutions. The list of normal grad the office, which is also shown by many feauates now in the junior and senior classes at tures of this very interesting volume. We the university, which we publish elsewhere, is may be permitted to specify particularly the evidence of this fact. The normal schools reports for secondary schools in this country, and the university are working together for which are remarkably complete and very satthe upbuilding of the schools of the state: the isfactorily systematized. The large volume of field is large, larger than all of them can ade- 1,152 pages presents so many matters of inquately supply; so that any other relation than terest that we must content ourselves at presthat of co-operation and mutual helpfulness ent with a brief allusión to a few of them. would be wholly inexcusable. Moreover, the In addition to the general account of Edu crying need of the schools at the present time cation in Great Britain, which sets forth with is greater culture, more breadth, on the part considerable detail the important controversy of those who teach. By this alone can the over religious instruction and public support schools be rescued from formalism, so that the for denoininational schools, we find here an work in them shall develop intellectual life in admirable summary of the important report of the pupils in place of the conventional routine the royal commission on secondary schools, still too common. This breadth of view which which incidentally gives a detailed view of the gives meaning and inspiration to studies is present system of secondary instruction in needed in the grades below the high school. England. The papers appended to this reOur conception of grade work is undergoing a port are of even greater interest. American rapid expansion. We are not merely intro. readers will be especially profited and pleased ducing new subjects and curtailing some which by Mr. Findlay's able report on certain feathad grown out of proportion, but we are com- ures of secondary education in the United ing to recognize that the awakening of real in- States and Canada, in which he reviews Ameriterests—the forming of the human spirit to can interest in education, the kinds of schools, right ways of action and to far reaching ideals the educational authorities and their powers, is the proper aim. This can be done only by the training of teachers, and instruction in rethose who have the insight and knowledge ligion and in citizenship. Add the memoranda that result from thorough culture. We must on Canadian education, Mr. Fitch's memoranhave better trained grammar school teachers. dum on the training of teachers in England, It is impossible longer to limit our demand for Mr. Herbart Ward's on the training of teachhigher attainments to the high school teach- ers for secondary schools in France, and Mr. ers. Thus the field expands before us. We Findlay's on their training in Germany and the cannot take the measure of it, or of the use. range and value of these studies will be seen fulness of the agencies for training teachers, at once. by simply reckoning with the high schools. Of at least equal interest is the chapter enTherefore while it has seemed to us occasion titled Education in Central Europe. It opens for rejoicing that the number of broadly trained with a paper on the new (Herbartian) educateachers in our high schools—still far too lim- tion in Germany, by Prof. Rein, of Jena, the ited—is on the increase, it does not seem use- leader of this school, followed by one repreful to try to measure the relative value of our senting the views of the opposing school in institutions for training teachers by so narrow pedagogy, entitled “Is German Pedagogy in a a standard as the number of high school teach- State of Decomposition,” by Dr. F. Dittes. ers they may furnish. Such a standard would The account of supplementary and industrial be especially unjust in its application to our schools in Germany, of ungraded schools, of normal schools.

S. German views on monitorial instruction, of

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