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the consideration of every thoughtful, loving 6. That the degrees of Ph. D., Sc. D., M. mother and teacher.

D., Pd. D., should never be given honoris causa A MEMBER OF THE SECTION ON nor in absentia. That S. H. D., S. T. D., D.

D., L. L. D., D. C. L. and Mus. D. be recognized as honorary degrees.

7. That the matter of publication of a list CONTRIBUTIONS.

of thesis subject in the Handbook be left within UNIVERSITY DEGREES.

the discretion of the Handbook.

The stipulation in resolution (5) B., that As a supplement to the article in the Feb- only one year shall be required at the instituruary JOURNAL on the Federation of Gradu- tion conferring the degree, has an important ate Clubs it will be of interest to note the at bearing. It was adopted in the interest of titude taken toward granting degrees by the student migration, that is, going from univerlate convention of the Federation at Balti- sity to university for the purpose of coming in more. This was the most important question contact with the best men in the respective discussed in the meeting. The general feeling fields of study. The report of the committee of the delegates was that there is great need on migration showed much less student migrafor unification of requirements for degrees and tion in the United States than it seems would that many of the less rigid institutions should be desirable. Committees were appointed by raise their standard. A majority of the con- the convention to make further report on mivention expressed hearty disfavor of the prac- gration, degrees, and other subjects of importtice of granting honorary degrees. As a re- ance to graduate students and universities offersult of their deliberations on these questions ing graduate courses. H. E. BOLTON. the following resolutions were adopted:

Madison, Wis. Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention:

A HALF YEAR'S WORK IN HISTORY. 1. That it is inexpedient for any institution to grant the same degree honoris causa as it While the influence of the report of the grants in regular course on examination. Committee of Ten is directly traceable in the

2. That in every case, the reason for be present active movement towards better hisstowing an honorary degree should be openly tory teaching in the secondary schools, the avowed, and should be stated in the program movement is in fact but the larger outgrowth of the commencement exercise and in the an- of precedent conditions which were themselves nual catalogue of the institution so bestowing the immediate occasion of that famous report.

There had been a general awakening to a con3. That bachelor degrees are inappropriate sciousness of the defects of the then prevailing as honorable degrees or ex gratia and should methods. These were seen to be not only be made to signify the completion of a recog- barren of good results in the way of mental nized grade of undergraduate work in their re- acquisition and growth, but positively dwarfspective departments.

ing and stilling to thought, to the cultivation 4. That the master's degree should never be of literary taste, and to the development of granted except for resident graduate work of personal independence in investigation and at least one year's duration tested by adequate judgment. Even in the mere learning of facts examinations.

and dates, which, it was coming to be seen, 5. That the minimum requirement for the was but a small and subordinate element in degree of Doctor of Philosophy should be as real historical culture, the old methods were follows:

yielding far from satisfactory results. The A. The previous attainment of a bachelor's higher schools were setting higher entrance redeegree or its equivalent.

quirements in history. Valuable literature on B. The completion of at least two years the subject was stimulating discussion in eduresident graduate study, not more than one cational circles and leading to better practice year, however, to be required in residence at in the schools. A better prepared class of the institution conferring the degree.

teachers were being sought out from among C. Adequate examination and a thesis em college and university graduates, who having bodying the result of original research. Such caught from the higher sources something of thesis should bear the written acceptance of the true historical spirit, were by the power of the professor or department in charge of the their own inspiration helping to leaven the major subject, and should be accompanied by lump. Finally the ideals and the practice of a short biography of the candidate.

the better teachers found expression in the re


Fourth v

port of '93. They had also prepared the way History of England, with a text for general for the readier acceptance and application of guidance, but doing much collateral reading its recommendations, so that now there are to both in connection with his class and home be found few grade or high schools whose readings of the courses in English Literature, courses in history they have not greatly mod- and by way of copious references to special ified or thoroughly transformed.

works in the high school and in the public Yet there are some who question the wis- library of some 11,000 volumes to which he dom of attempting intensive study or research has convenient access. The following statework in the lower schools—who insist that it ment from the Course of Study will indicate is but a fad of callow collegiates to attempt to the scope and character of the work for the bring the methods of the university seminar fourth year of the high school: down to the high school—that the girls and boys of the high school lack both the neces

Fourth Year. sary preparation and the maturity of mind for The work of this year will be in the nature such work. Besides, among those who do be- of individual investigation of authorities, collieve in the possibility of something better lation of original documents, personal correthan mere text-book routine in the high school spondence, etc. The results of these researches and even in the lower grades, there is much will finally be reduced to the form of monoconfusion and diversity of opinion as to ineth- graphs, bound copies of which will be preods, or the kind, quality, or amount of work served in the high school library. to attempt. The only way to a solution of B. STUDIES IN AMERICAN HISTORY. such questions lies through interchange of First and second quarters, three times a views, comparison of work and experiences, week, 20 weeks. Three-fiths course. Credit discussion and criticism. It is with a view to value, .6 promoting such comparison and discussion that Intensive study from authorities and public the following account is submitted of the semes- documents of special periods or phases of Amerter's work in American history just finished by ican history. the senior class of the Broadway high school During the first and second quarters of '96–7 at Superior.

the class will study: (1) The History of the What may reasonably be expected of a Lake Region, with especial reference to Northgiven student or a given class is not a mere ern Wisconsin; (2) The Diplomatic 'Relations question of age, but rather of previous work between the United States and Great Britain and the methods, means, and motives that since 1860. went to the doing of it. To judge intelligibly A. STUDIES IN EUROPEAN HISTORY. of the work done or attempted by the class Third and fourth quarters, three times a under consideration, therefore, it is necessary week, 20 weeks. Three-fifths course. Credit to know something of the work in history and value, .6 related subjects leading up to that of the Special investigations in assigned periods or senior year in the superior schools. Space topics, on a plan similar to that of American forbids the briefest outline of any part of that history studies. [B.] work here, but the syllabi in English and Reading and references will be given as topGeography (40 pp.), Literature, History and ics are assigned. Sociology (25 pp.), and the high school courses The work in (1) History of the Lake Rein English and History (11 pp.), will be freely gion, etc., was arranged as follows: sent to principals and others interested on 1. PREHISTORIC INHABITANTS. application to Supt. W. H. Elson or to the

1. Prehistoric Copper-miners of Wisconsin. writer. Briefly summed up, the work of the 2. The Mound Builders in Prehistoric Wisgrades is planned to send the pupil up to the consin. high school well grounded in the essential II. THE RED MEN. facts of his country's history, his memory en 1. The Chippewas of Wisconsin. riched, his imagination quickened, his literary 2. Local Indian Legends. taste awakened, his patriotism aroused, his 3. Indian Names of Wisconsin, their Meansense of kinship with man and the world ing and Origin. touched by the tales of heroism of this and III. THE FRENCH REGIME. other lands, by the choice poems, the stirring 1. French Occupation as told in Geographnational songs which he has learned and by ical Names. the literature he has read. During the first 2. French Missions of the Seventeenth Centhree years of the high school he studies in tury. order civics, History of Greece and Rome, and 3. Early Fur Traders of the Northwest.

Literature.school coreely

9. PREHI istoric Coulders in


4. Daniel Grayson Du L'Hut.

Great Britain since 1818, I can give no better 5. First Establishment of the French Gov- notion than by submitting a specimen examernment in the Northwest.

ination paper written at the final test. It is 6. The Fox War and End of the French sent just as written, and without correction of Régime.

any kind. 7. Characteristics of the French Régime. The work of the second semester this year IV. PERIOD OF BRITISH SUPREMACY. will be in modern European history. The 1. British Control of the Northwest.

class will use Judson's Europe in the Nine2. Jonathan Carver.

teenth Century as a text, supplemented by a 3. George Clark Rogers.

liberal collection of available references. 4. The Wresting of the Northwest from

J. S. GRIFFIN. Great Britain—What due to Diplomacy? V. UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES.

EXAMINATION IN AMERICAN HISTORY. 1. Pioneer Life in Wisconsin. 2. Missions of this Century.

HISTORI IV. FINAL TEST 29 JAN. '97. 3. The American Fur Trade Company. 4. Early Industries of Wisconsin.

[Broadway High School, Superior, Wis.] 5. The Story of Wisconsin's Admission to Select any three groups including I or II, the Union.

and write what you can upon the included 6. The Indian Wars of the Century.

topics during the period. (2 hours.) 7. The Beginnings of West Superior.

I. (a) State the origin of the America 8. History of the Old Lighthouse at the en- (United States) claims to the right of fishing trance to Superior Bay. (Early Navigation, along certain British coasts. (b) What waters Surveying and Military Operations at the and coasts have been the principal points of Head of the Lakes.)

controversy in fishery question? (c) What 9. Indian Cemeteries of this Vicinity. special privileges have usually been claimed by 10. The Indian Problem of To-day.

us, and within what limits of the coasts?) The class in charge of Miss Jennie S. Shortt (d) Why has the question been so often remet twice a week to report on personal work, opened for discussion? (e) Give names, to read and discuss papers, and to take notes dates, and provisions of the most important and references for future work. The inter- treaties concerning this question. (f) What vening days were given to library and other is its present status, and what do you think of personal work assigned, such as personal in the arrangement do you think it permanently terviews, correspondence, visits to localities settled? Criticise it either favorably or ador collections of interest in connection with versely. the work, etc. Each member kept a note- II. (a) Discuss the question of boundaries book of personal work and of the points de- between the United States and Great Britain, veloped in class meetings. When a period or describing the most important changes down epoch had been thus worked over by the en- to the present. (b) What portion of the tire class, each member was assigned a special boundary has recently been under discussion? topic under it to write up from the collected (c) State our claims in the case and our data. Thus while preserving the historical grounds for them. (d) What other boundary unity and continuity of the work by making between the two countries is also in question, each member a participant in it and a con- and give arguments for your side of the case. tributor to the common fund of data, each be- (e) Where and how far is the nearest British came finally a specialist and an independent boundary from here, and how is it marked? worker in the preparation of his final paper. III. (a) Give a short history of the events These papers were carefully revised and re- leading up to the Treaty of Washington. (b) written in as complete and finished form as State the provisions of the treaty. (c) State possible, preparatory to their final collection important results (1) of direct benefit to this and arrangement in book form. A bound country, (2) of general benefit to the civilized manuscript or type-written copy of each semes- world. (d) What did it establish (1) in reter's work will be preserved in the high school gard to the relations of neutral powers toward library as reference material and as a me- belligerents? (2) as to the rights of belligermento of the class. The present work will ents? (e) What advance did it mark towards be printed and published by the class in a arbitration? limited edition of 100 copies.

IV. (a) What was the immediate or chief Of the second quarter's work, the History occasion of the Extradition Treaty? (b) Speeof Diplomacy between the United States and ify any good results which you think it has produced, and give your reasons for your opin- revenue is greater than the gain of fishing ions.

rights. Treaties on the subject were seldom V. (a) Give the history of the Bering Sea continued for more than ten years, thus keepdispute. (b) From what pre-existing treaty ing it in discussion most of the time. with what other nation do we derive our claims (e) The first treaty containing a fishing clause in part? (c) What was Mr. Blaine's position was that of 1783. It provided that American in regard to the question, and what notable and British subjects should have as a common action did he take upon it.

right the privilege of taking fish where they VI. (a) State briefly the origin, scope, and had been accustomed to fish before, but the main provisions of the proposed Arbitration Americans lost their right of drying and cutTreaty? (d) What is to be the personal ting their fish on Canadian shores. (Treaty makeup of the proposed Board of Arbitra- of 1783 or Paris). tion?

The next treaty containing a fishery clause VII. Name six Americans whom you con- was the treaty of 1818. It provided that: sider to have rendered the greatest service in The Americans can take, dry or cure fish on our diplomatic relations with Great Britain shores of Magdalen Islands, Newfoundland, state what position was held, and what special and along the coast from Rameau Islands to services rendered by each.

Cape Ray, from Cape Ray to Mt. Joli, from VIII. Give names, dates, and leading fea- Mt. Joli to Quirpon Islands, from thence tures of our important treaties with England. through the Straits of Belle Isle, thence along

the coast of Labrador, northward indefinitely. A Sample Examination Paper.

The United States relinquished all rights of I. Origin of the American claims. The United fishing closer than three miles of shore in any States after its departure from the protection of the places not named. They were also of England, after the Revolutionary War, prohibited from inland fishing, and of curing claimed as an inherent right the privilege of and drying their fish except in uninhabited sharing equally with British subjects the fish- places or obtaining permission of the owners ing localities in the Atlantic, especially the or inhabitants. (Continued on 4.) Newfoundland Bank.

(f) Next treaty was the Reciprocity Treaty British reply. All privileges enjoyed by of 1854. In this the Americans were granted citizens of the United States were annulled the same privileges in 1818, with the removal by the war. And no part could be called of the three mile limit, and the privilege of valid without considering all so.

drying their fish anywhere, so long as they The principal points in dispute were: New did not interfere with British subjects. foundland, Magdalen Islands, Quirpon Islands, In return for these privileges the United and the coast from Cape Ray to the Rameau States was to open her ports to Canadian Islands, from Mt. Joli through the straits of products of forest, field, and stream. The Belle Isle, Rameau Islands and Prince Edward Canadians were granted the privilege of fishIsles and Gut of Canso.

ing in United States waters down to the 36th In the first part of the controversy the parallel. American claimed that they should not be In the treaty of 1818 the Americans could limited to any distance from the coast (three enter Canadian harbors for the purpose of mile limit), but afterward did not make it one shelter, obtaining wood and water, and reof their points of dispute. The British at one pairing damages, but for no other purposes. time (1854) tried to enforce what was known The next treaty containing a fishing clause as the "headline" theory, or, that the limit was that of Washington (1871). In that they should be three miles from a line drawn from were granted the same privileges as in 1854 point to point designated in the treaty. After with the exception that fish cured in oil should a time they discontinued the attempt to en- not be on the free trade list. For the priviforce it.

leges of fishing the United States paid $5,500,(d) The fishery question has been open to ooo, the award of the Halifax fishery comdiscussion so long on accounť of the inability mission. of the parties concerned to come to an agree. We are at present living under the treaty ment satisfactory to both. If, as in 1854, the of 1818, as regards the fishery question. All United States can get satisfactory fishing priv- the treaties, except 1818, were abrogated ileges she must pay in return for them their after the limit determined had expired. The equivalent in money or make other conces- treaty of 1818 lasted from that time until '54. sions, such as a reciprocity treaty. Both are The treaty of 1854 lasted until '66 and the unsatisfactory, as the amount paid or lost in Washington treaty till ’85. There are many

next times, but for and watc purpose of damagoing woors for thericans

not be cahing the unhe Halifax

The amo

ing Alaska iho,000 to Russ.

objections to the present conditions of the and the selection of an umpire shall decide it. fishery clauses. Among them are:

In case no agreement can be made as to who ist. Having to pay a license fee for shipping shall act umpire, no hostile measures shall be fish caught by Americans, from Canada to the resorted until the mediation of a friendly naUnited States.

tion, has been asked by either party. In ter2nd. Prohibiting vessels from entering Can- ritorial claims, if the territory in dispute should adian ports for purposes except as stated in be a colony of either party the executive shall treaty of 1818. It makes the fishing business have the right of appointing an official of that of the Americans unhandy to have to procure colony to act as arbitrator. bait and supplies in their own country, being The men to be chosen in each, nearly, shall prohibited from getting them in Canada. It be jurists of repute.” is to be hoped that better understanding may V. United States purchased Alaska in 1867, be reached between the two countries relative chiefly for its fur seal fishing. The amount to fishing rights, by the agreement to arbi- paid was $7,000,000 to Russia. By purchastrate future difficulties.

ing Alaska the United States claimed exclus

ive right over the Bering sea, claiming that it VI.

had been recognized as in the sole possession The proposed arbitration treaty of 1897 of Russia while she owned it, and that by purclassifies the controversies as three classes: chase she had inherited the same right.

ist. Claims not exceeding £100,000, nor She claimed that by the treaty of 1825 beinvolving any territorial claims.

tween England and Russia, England had rec2nd. Claims exceeding £100,000 but not ognized the Bering sea as the exclusive propincluding territorial claims.

erty of Russia. This, however, they could 3rd. Territorial claims.

not prove. In 1886–87 several seizures of For claims in the first class the following British vessels were made who were sealprovisions are made. A tribunal to settle said poaching. For the seizures made the claims consisting of three members, one ap- United States had to pay the sum of $450,000. pointed by each government (shall be a jurist An arbitration committee was appointed and of repute) the two to choose an umpire within the following regulations were made. Each three months. If they cannot agree on one, vessel fishing should have a license, a flag, he shall be chosen by Supreme Court of sailors expert in the catching of seals by methUnited States and members of Privy Council ods allowed. The use of nets, firearms or of England. If they cannot agree, shall be any explosives should be prohibited, except appointed by King of Sweden and Norway, if the use of shotguns in the places and time he is not suitable, the parties may choose a prescribed for their use. The Bering sea insubstitute. A decision of a majority shall be cluded between 35th and 180th meridian east, final. The third arbitrator shall be the president should be closed from July ist to 31st incluof the board. Second class claims shall be sive. Indians should be prohibited from fishsettled by a tribunal appointed as in class ing in boats not manned by more than five 1." A decision if unanimous shall be final, if men, and not catching seal under contract. not a tribunal consisting of five members, two During breeding time the coast around the to be appointed by each party, and those Pribilof islands for a distance of sixty miles appointed by the United States must be mem- shall be closed. bers of the Supreme Court, or Justices of the Every captain of a "whaler" shall keep an Circuit Court, and those appointed by Eng account of each catch, the time and the sex land must be members of the Supreme Court of same. or members of the Privy Council of England. Mr. Blaine was one of the men instrumental In case the umpire can be agreed upon by the in bringing about the treaty in 1892. He arbitrators, he shall be appointed by the two claimed the right of the United States to progovernments, and if they cannot agree, by tect her seal as being her own private property. King of Sweden and Norway. Third class This right they (United States) lost outside of claims shall be settled by a tribunal composed the three mile limit. of six members, three appointed by each party. The arbitrators were: An award by a majority of five to one shall be J. T. Morgan, Justice Harlan, American. final. An award by a majority of less than James Hannen, J. Thompson, British. five to one shall be final if neither party pro Baron de Courcelles, appointed by President tests the decision within three months. If of France. . they stand tie, or decision is protested, a com- Marquis Venosta, appointed by King of mittee of five members appointed in the man- Italy. ner above, two to be chosen by each party, W. W. Gram, appointed by King of Sweden.

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