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embellish the front parlor, but he had learned ods. “We have accustomed ourselves to nothing real, nothing vital. Left to his own thinking of drawing,” she says, “as only one resources, he could not even repeat the feat. more means of expression, but it is more. It
A revolution has been worked within the is in itself a thought study because its pracpast two or three years, the credit of which tice generates in the mind an activity, a qualbelongs to Miss Josephine Locke and her in- ity of feeling, a synthetic grasp of ideas not telligent, enthusiastic assistants, Miss Jame- to be attained through the most faithful devoson, Mrs. Miller, and others. Drawing is no tion to literature and mathematics or even longer an isolated study, but one that goes through a citical external study of pictures hand in hand with every other, helping and and statues, an internal sympathy is acquired illuminating all.
that to be appreciated must be experienced. “The Chicago course of study in drawing is Of course I do not use the term drawing in the unlike any other in the country," says Miss old sense of making lines, drawing geometric Locke; “it is not to be found formulated in figures and reciting definitions. No one depany text-book, but it is being worked out recates more than I do the teaching of drawthrough daily experience with the children. ing for drawing's sake. *,* * The exHere is the creed we are seeking to impress pert lightning calculator and the ornamental upon the teachers: The child is greater than writing master are too recent members of the his work; let the child be seen through his social order for us to quite escape their baleful work. First have rapid drawing, making sev. influence." eral sketches in one exercise. Fix the work, Paper cutting is not confined to the connot by repetition, but by studying the thing struction of geometric solids. The most rein a fresh way-in its opposites. Present side markable part of the work on the walls of the by side with the study of the blocks their ap- Art Institute consists of cut paper pictures of plication, Study everything in its use, in its everything imaginable. In the neighborhood function. Let the work be crude, but keep of one school nearly every family keeps geese. it thoroughly honest. Work for the thought The children were told to notice these geese before the expression. Forget lines, never carefully, and cut pictures of them when they think lines, think the form; think the picture; came to school. The result was a flock of try how large an image or idea the child can geese in a silhouette which probably no older carry and encourage him to carry the largest person in the room could have equaled. Anpossible.”
other time a new trolley-car line was laid, and The blocks alluded to are the ordinary geo being interested in trolleys the children cut them metrical solids, cube, cylinder, cone, prism, with remarkable correctness; a visit to the etc., used everywhere, but nowhere else to etci v echi
circus, a day in the woods, or a Decoration such profit. The children draw their out- day parade are some of their experiences which
de the lines and shades; they cut paper models of they have told in this way. them; a disk and a triangular piece, for ex- Their lessons in history or literature are ample, form a cone; two hexagonal bases and charmingly illustrated. Washington's little an oblong creased into the proper number of hatchet, the raids of the Vikings, the difficulsides, form a prism. Then they use them ties of early settlers, Hiawatha and Pau-pukas building blocks. It is play for the small keewis, Pandora's box, etc. Of course these children to make bridges, bird-houses illustrations are frequently naive; Pandora is gateways, and the like, while the older a little girl in a pinafore, the hieroglyphics ones form churches, temples, or the his- on Egyptian temples are out of proportion to . toric architecture they have been told of.. the size of the building. More frequently they Perfectly recognizable models are built of say, astonish a trained artist by their intuitive the old Egyptian temples, the Taj Mahal or spirit and correctness. The younger children the Parthenon. Could a more practical or a use cut papers. The older ones draw with pen more pleasurable way be devised of fixing the or pencil. form and construction of the world's great In all grades there is a great deal of drawmonuments upon these young minds? After ing done, considering the brief time allotted building them, the children draw their churches to it—three half hours a week No flat copies and temples, adding such imaginative graces are used, but groups of objects, chairs, tables, to the bare blocks, as windows, doors, hiero- vases, books, etc., potted plants, vegetables, glyphics—they arevery strong on Egyptian hie- flowers; sometimes the pupils pose for each roglyphics—setting them among trees, making other. In accordance with Miss Locke's ideas, birds Ay about them, or a roadway lead up to the sketches are rapidly made, and the shadthem. For the development of the imagina- ows broadly handled. tion is a strong point in Miss Locke's meth- It may be said in a general way that such
are the principles of the Ecole des Beaux Arts are becoming very self-conscious. That exof Paris, for example, and almost necessarily quisitely frilled dress; that hair so carefully the teachers are themselves graduates of an combed and curled; those petite gaiters. Not Art school. Where the system rightly differs one thing is lost on the proud little aristocrat. from that of an art school is in its close asso. See her flaunt her diminutive skirts as she ciation with its studies. Thus the drawing of makes her entrance. See the conscious air of trees, fruits, flowers, figures, connects with superiority she wears. She doesn't need the study of nature; the use of the geometric “bringing out” at your pending exercises. solids is indissolubly joined with construction, The greatest tact will be necessary to handle architecture, and mechanics; illustration illu- both parent and child. Frequently more difminates history, geography, and literature. ficulty will be found in dealing with the par
There is a psychological side involved to ent than with the child. Neither must be ofwhich space fails to do justice. Possibly fended. Neither will have a conception of the enough has been said to show how this kind of true state of affairs. If this class of pupils drawing strengthens the memory, sharpens the need anything, and they do, it is to learn to observation, arouses the imagination. It appreciate the rights of, and the merits in might also be shown how easy and simple others. They need a little training in selfand natural it is when taught as a simple nat- control; they need to learn to be more demoural development. It is interesting to know cratic. This will tend to make them sweeter,. that the drawing teachers alone are inet with prettier, happier, more lovable. applause when they enter a school room.
Secondly, I plead more earnestly for the "Art,” once said William Morris, “is the children of modest attainments. For the chilexpression of a man's pleasure in his work." dren from poor homes and of unsympathetic That is the kind of art these children are parentage, For the children with poor clothes, learning, and they will not have to unlearn it and for the brow-beaten, humbled, discourshould they in after life turn to painting or aged, poorly treated children. Their first apsculpture or architecture.— The Standard. pearance will not meet the smiles of an audi
ence. Give that no consideration; they will CHILDREN IN PUBLIC EXERCISES.
hardly appear to do credit to themselves or
their teacher, but they will really do credit to It is not our purpose to discuss the necessity both. There is little for some of them to be nor the value of rhetorical exercises, but to proud of. No reason to be proud of old shoes, assume that the occasions of Thanksgiving of faded and patched clothes. Show them and Christmas serve as opportunities to bring that there are ways in which they may shine in some rhetorical work, especially in smaller even as brightly as their more fortunate playschools and the lower grades of larger sys- mates. It is no particular credit to the teacher tems. We do not wish to discuss the advan nor to the school that a little boy from a home tages or disadvantages of this work, but rather of refinement and culture and care does well. to voice a vigorous plea for two classes of chil. It is of the greatest credit that the child of darkdren—the very bright and the very backward; ness and sin, of poverty and vice, shall have both alike need our care and thot in this inat reason to be proud of his ability. Don't give ter.
them too much to do the first time. Perhaps I take it that not many believe in using nothing more than to help in the preparation school-time, forces or energies for exhibition for the day, or at most only a trifling partor for pure entertainment. If no purpose is one stanza, a quotation or singing in a chorus, in mind other than to tickle and please a few joining in an exercise or game. Who can esfond and doting parents, then these occasional timate the manhood and womanhood instilled programs are better omitted. That much good into a human heart by such a course even in may come of them, if they are judiciously such a matter as a special day program? And managed, will appear equally plain. Granted, when your school days are o'er, and you have I trust, that we seek only the education, the time to look over the results, perhaps the sucdevelopment of the children, then how shall cessful preacher or teacher, legal or medical we secure the greatest good to those who need practitioner, or the solid man of business, will it most?
owe his start in life to the fact that the wise First, for those bright, showy little people teacher gave him a chance and permitted him -those who have spoken so many times in to discover himself by showing him his opporyour church, school and social affairs. Please tunity, and thus made the boy a man. Give do not give them a place on every program. all the children an opportunity.—Child-Study Pass them by at least once in a while. They Monthly.
EDUCATION IN CHINA.
in close imitation of the old-time poets. They
must follow elaborate rules as to rhythm, and In no country is education more highly es- the words must rhyme according to the classteemed than in China. The child of the ical sounds, which are very different from workingman, as a rule, cannot hope to get those of to-day.- The Nineteenth Century. more than a mere smattering. But scattered through the country are numberless families,
SPECIAL MEMORIES IN IDIOTS. the members of which, for generation after generation, are always students and from Winslow records the case of a man who rewhom, as a rule, the officials come. They have membered the day of burial of every person no knowledge of any business or trade. They who had died in the parish for thirty-five correspond very closely to what are, or used years, and who could repeat with perfect acto be, called gentlemen in England, and pre curacy the names and ages of the deceased serve their position with great tenacity, even and of the mourners at the funeral. He was when hard pressed by poverty.
a profound idiot, and could not reply intelliRich parvenus, as a matter of course, en- gibly to a single question beyond this, nor, be gage tutors for their children; and in the trusted even to feed himself. humblest ranks of life occasionally parents Morel cites the instance of an idiot who was will stint themselves to give an opportunity unable to count twenty, yet could name all the to some son who has shown a marked intelli- saints of the calendar and the days of their regence at the village school. But neither of spective fetes. these classes compete on an equality with In some of the books on these defectives is those to whom learning is an hereditary pro- mentioned an idiot with a wonderful memory fession. The cultivation and intellectual dis- for English history. When supplied with the cipline prevailing in such families give their slightest cue, he recounted in measured tones members a marked advantage over those who whole passages of it. get no help of any kind at home, and who Falret noted an imbecile who could give immust therefore depend entirely on what they mediately the days of birth and death and the learn from their paid teachers.
principal events in the life of any celebrated . The orthodox scheme of education is en personage mentioned to him. tirely concerned with the ancient literature of Such instances of elaboration of special China. The original works which occupy the memories where all other faculties are in abeystudent's attention were for the most part ance might be multiplied. The cases above written before the literature of either Greece mentioned were, no doubt all of them, exor Rome had reached its prime. But there amples of extraordinary development of the are commentators belonging to later periods auditory tracts and centers. There are other who must also be perused with diligence. cases in which the visual memories are disproChina has not seen an influx of new races, portionately developed, as in idiots with unussuch as have overrun Europe, since the days ual memory for places or faces. These paof our classical authors; but still, from mere tients, too, are congenital defectives. —Popular lapse of time, the language of the country has Science Monthly. greatly changed, and the child beginning his studies can not without explanation under
SELECTIONS FOR RECITATIONS. stand a single sentence, even if he has learned to read the words of the lesson which he has It is a great mistake to be too ambitious in before him.' The student makes himself ac- preparations for a school festival. Good recitaquainted as thoroughly as possible with these tions, dialogues and readings are satisfactory classical works. The more he can quote of for most occasions. Essays and original orathem the better, but he must master the mat- tions ought not to be presented in grades beter contained in them as well.
low the high school, and even in the high He must get to know the different readings school there is more occasion for recitations and different interpretations of disputed pass- than for original productions. Perhaps in the ages, and, finally, he practices himself in prose last years of the course some original pieces and verse composition. In prose he carefully may be given in public to stimulate care and preserves the ancient phraseology, never ad- thoughtfulness in composition; but it is cermitting modern words, though there are cer- tainly an error to make such work a burden, tain technicalities of style which will prevent or to assume that interesting and profitable his productions from being an exact imitation public exercises cannot be given without it. of the ancient literature. His verses must be The disciplinary results of school festivals, such
IF ONLY THE DREAMS ABIDE. If the things of earth must pass Like the dews upon the grass, Like the mists that break and run At the forward sweep of the sun, I shall be satisfied If only the dreams abide.
as development of self-command, a good bearing, a pleasing and effective delivery, may be secured without original productions.
LEARN TO WAIT.
Conned perchance through blinding tears
To the tread of passing years.
Faint not, though the way seem long;
Hearts through suffering may grow strong.
Ne'er would ripen fruit or flower;
Nay; I would not be shorn
I pray thee, spare me, Fate,
-Clinton Scollard, in the October Century.
A SUGGESTION TO TEACHERS. If teachers mean by examination To show the scholar's information Why do they carefully seek out Such difficult things to ask about?
Nor heed hope's sweet beguiling?
At sorrow's bowl keep quaffing?
Then do not be repining:
Is shining. -John T. Hinds in September Ladies Home Companion.
IT DOESN'T COST MONEY.
To have a good time on the earth:
Who know how to value their worth.
The loveliest flower's grow wild.
All free to man, woman and child.
Such pictures as nature supplies
Who use to advantage their eyes.
Cost nothing-no, nothing at all.
Can make no such pleasures befall.
Honest toil the enjoyment of health,
Without any portion of wealth.
To love and be loved for love's sake-
Are free to whoever will take.
And that is the reason, alas!
Their lives in such misery pass.
The world's best enjoyments are free;
-W. C. Dodge.
These are the questions, as a rule, The teachers ask us in our school: "What's the time in the Congo State When Persian clocks are striking eight?'' "Halve the square of seventy-three, And what will a tenth of sixteen be?" • What was the reason Charlemagne Sent his great-grandaunt to Spain?'' "Explain what came of the Gothic war, And what the Turks were fighting for When Venice conquered Charles Martel And ancient Constantinople fell." "Name the products of Peru, And all the rulers of Timbuctoo." "Point out the errors in the words, 'Green cheese ain't not made of curds;' 'Him was not the friend of he;' 'He hadn't ought to written me.'"
Now for instance, we'll suppose, They wish to show what a fellow knows: . Then they'll be glad of a few suggestions As to a set of useful questions. "What did one Columbus do In October, 1492?". Will some bright scholar kindly say Which is 'Independence Day?'" "What little girl will be so candid As to tell us when the pilgrims landed?'' "The war of 1812, my dear, Was fought in what particular year?'' "Kindly tell us, if you will, What nations fought at Bunker Hill?" "Who cut down a cherry-tree, And helped to make a nation free?" "Name a certain English queen Who still upon her throne is seen."
If teachers only had the tact
DO YOU S'POSE.
longer. Fifthly, there are dull people who Do you s'pose little flies, with their thousands of eyes, are perverse and vicious. With these, the When their mamma is busy with tea,
teacher must strive hopefully." This classifiEver climb on the chairs and get in her way And cry, "Lemme see, lem-me see!''
cation does not meet the demand of modern
times, but we are no less indebted to ComenDo you s'pose little fish when their mammas wish To take a short nap-just a wink
ius for directing our attention to these diferEver pound on the door with their soft little fins,
ences of individualities in children. . With And whimper, "P'ease gimme a d'nk!"
Comenius's suggestions as a basis, a close study Do you s'pose little quails as they creep through the rails of physical and mental characteristics enables
And into the weeds where they stay,
the teacher to determine with a good degree "But why can't I whistle to-day?"
of certainty the temperament of the children
with whom he or she has to deal. TemperaDo you s'pose little bees, as they hum in the trees And find where the honey-sweets lurk,
ments concern the home as well as the school Ever ask of their papa who's busy near by,
and call for hearty co-operation of parents, "I know-but what for must I work?"
especially the mothers, and teachers, and this Do you s'pose, do you s'pose that any one knows
co-operation is not new, as we are told that Of a small boy who might think awhile Of all this and more? You do? So I thought
Pestalozzi "assigned from twelve to sixteen And now let us see if he'll smile!
boys to each teacher and that each teacher met the parents in weekly conference.”
There are four commonly accepted pure temCHILD-STUDY.
peraments, viz. : Sanguine, bilious, nervous and
lymphatic. The term nervous has two meanTEMPERAMENTS.
ings: Ist, strong, vigorous; 2d, easily disturbed,
weak, timid, often irritable. The first two, Considerable interest is manifested, by sanguine and bilious, represent the animal mothers and teachers, in the study of temper side, the nervous and lymphatic the spiritual aments, a section of the Milwaukee “Child side. No one person has a pure temperament Study Society” being given to it. The leader but a mixture of two, often three and someor chairman of this section having devoted times four. There is a type, also, known as some time to the study of temperament, be- the harmonious temperament. A person poslieves it to be the keynote of the guiding action sessing it is at peace with himself and all the of life. This belief is strengthened by the world; no friction or clashing in such a teinfact that Comenius wrote in his Didactica perament. Taking the physical characteristics Magna of a “sixfold treatment of children of the different temperaments as a basis of excorresponding to the differences of natural amination, there will be found, probably, a gifts.” He says, “Firstly, there are men of sufficient number prominent, of any one or two keen perceptions, who are desirous of learn- temperaments to admit of an easy classificaing, formable and above all others, excellently tion, while the mental expression may be fitted for the pursuance of studies requiring somewhat changed by the child's environment, only that wisdom be offered for nourishment. yet, the parent or teacher should not reach too This class should not be allowed to advance hasty conclusions, because of the physical chartoo rapidly and weaken before their time. acteristics, but look beyond and examine the Secondly, others are keen of perception, but mental as well. slow, though willing to advance. Thirdly, A careful and close study of temperaments there are those who are keen of perception will prove the key that may unlock many of and desirous of learning but who are stubborn the teacher's difficulties, when viewed, as reand inflexible.
lated to habits, emotions, incentives, motives, People of this sort are usually hated at etc. An understanding of what prompts boys school and teachers generally give them up, and girls to do certain things will help a yet these very people sometimes become great teacher to anticipate and remove many of the if properly treated. Fourthly, there are obe- annoying causes of friction in the schoolroom. dient people, who are, while desirous of learn- A teacher should thoroughly understand ing, slow and clumsy in the acquisition of her own temperament as well as that of her knowledge. These can follow and in order to pupils. Nothing is more pitiable than to see keep them the teacher must adapt methods to a teacher with the nervous predominating in their weaknesses, so as not too heavily burden her own temperament, dealing with a like them, but kindly, patiently aid, raise, encour- temperament, not understanding either. age and cheer them on their way. This class How a knowledge of temperament is related of people arrive later at the goal but last to, and may be utilized in discipline deserves