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of. were exa

the timexerciseses, and thed

Jacobea of Baden was murdered. Far in the faction, animals, plants, etc., were examined, distance you can see the towers of the Cathe- classified, and disposed of. Gymnastics, dral of Cologne, begun some time during the climbing of trees, and the tight rope, followed. thirteenth and finished during our nineteenth Class exercises and games occupied part of century. Yonder is the ancient convent built the time. Certain daring feats were applauded by the successor of Bishop Boniface; here the and imitated. The teachers were always ruins of the ancient Falkenburg, the feudal among the boys, suggesting and advising, but castle in which lived the owner of the land as never showing their authority except when an far as you can see.”

order came by bugle-sound. Then he drew a vivid picture of the differ- When the sun went down, we all assembled ence between feudalism and modern institu- at the summit of the hill and enjoyed the grand tions. The knights and barons in their forti- sight of a sunset. Then the regiment forined fied castles were all robbers, swooping down in line and marched toward home, drum corps like hawks on the fords, on the highways, on in front, and the whole school joined in singthe moorlands, on the forests, on the little set- ing and shouting. Another lunch at the inn, tlements below them, and sometimes on the and then the march was taken up again. As fortified cities, within the walls of which were we approached the city gates perfect order and fostered the feeble germs of self-government, silence were established, the ranks closed, and civil rights, and civil virtues. It was a splen- by degrees the companies grew smaller, as the did lesson! The students crowded around him boys would, singly or in small groups, leave with bated breath. Pencil and note-book the ranks, turn into side streets, and go were brought into requisition, and within the home. short space of an hour so many references There was never a break or a lull. Every were made to points studied in the class-room change proposed, every new move made, was that this lesson proved a profitable review over so well suited to the occasion, that the whole a month's hard study.

day resembled a kaleidoscope of beautiful ideas A bugle signal brought all the different and scenery. I have my well-founded doubts classes together in the Wolfgully. Here the that Young America could pass a day as deprofessor addressed the whole school and pro- lightfully and profitably as these healthy Gerposed to make this the scene of the battle of man lads did. — Klemm's European Schools, Thermopylæ. About fifty agile, strong boys D. Appleton & Co. were selected to represent the Greeks who should defend the pass. Their leader was a

PARENT'S DAY AT RICE LAKE. fine lad of noble bearing, who played the role of Leonidas superbly. All the other boys The much talked of and widely advertised were requested to advance and retreat as Per parent's day and accompanying program at the sians. The fight in the pass was not rude, opera house Friday, was a success. The though pretty severe; and the battle could not house was well filled in the afternoon and the be fought through with historical faithfulness, various exercises were listened to with pleasure since not one of the boys was willing to play by many that were present. Dr. O. M. Satthe role of Ephialtes, the traitor, so the teacher tre had an excellent paper on “Sound Mind had to lead the Persians over the hill on a se- and Sound Body,” emphasizing the fact that cret path into the rear of the gallant Greeks, with unsound bodies minds could not be sound. who were disarmed after a most heroic resist. F. T. Watson read an able paper on "The ance. The historical anecdotes, such as the Boy and the High School,” in which several answer of Leonidas to Xerxes about ''fighting strong points were made. He showed the in the shade" and others, were woven into the great difference between the school of twenty play. This was doing history as pupils do years ago and the school of to-day. Rev. Burarithmetic in the class-room.

rows in a short talk, strongly advocated the The supercilious reader, if there be one, may advisability of parents making a special effort smile over this boyish enthusiasm. Let him! to get acquainted with the teachers that have The world owes all its prizes to enthusiasts their children in charge. Co. Supt. Museus and nothing to callous men.

read a scholarly paper on Common Schools After the battle a welcome rest was enjoyed, and High Schools.” then vocal music followed. Mendelssohn's Prof. Chandler, inspector of high schools, “Farewell to the Forest” and similar choruses made a short speech, emphasizing the presswere rendered charmingly. Now the treas- ing needs of our high school, the main one ures found during the afternoon were brought at present being more room in the recitation forward. Queer looking specimens of petri- rooms.

As Wm. Hawley Smith could not be here it up, but sentimental considerations should in the evening to deliver his lecture as adver- not outweigh practical advantages, and if the tised, Prin. McClelland prevailed on Professor new system is a better one, the old system Walker, of the Superior normal, to speak, and should be discontinued by all means.-Atlanta he chose the subject, “What Is He?" which he Constitution. did justice to. Mr. Walker is a pleasant

WAR IN SCHOOL HISTORIES AGAIN. speaker and his talk contained some new ideas to the audience. The house was not as well filled as it would have been had it been more


Sir:-In glancing over your interesting editogenerally known that there was to be a lecture.

rial in the March number of the JOURNAL, -Rice Lake Chronicle.

“War in School Histories,” we are led to won

der whether among the six text-books on A DICKEN'S EVENING AT THE BEAVER DAM HIGH SCHOOL,

United States history referred to you included

our own History of the United States, by Dr. Piano Duet-Boston School Regiment Quickstep-Hart. Charles Dickens

Elouise Helen Fuller

W. A. Mowry and his son. From certain Phoebe Cary's Poem, "Dickens" - Elizabeth Sculley comments which we cannot believe applicable In Chancery .

to our book, we are inclined to think that this David Copperfield

Edla Ingram Rowell Margarita Waltz-Bredouw-High School Quintette. was not one of the text-books under considerGabriel Grub .

• Nellie Mae Pomeroy ation, since our authors aimed throughout to American Notes - - Louis Henry Zimmerman

preserve well-balanced periods, and not to The Ivy Green - ... - Erma D'Etta Crane Dr. Blimber's School - - George Leland Edgerton give undue prominence to war periods, espeViolin Duet-Selection from "Faust" -Gounod.

cially to the details of wars. Reference to Death of Paul Dombey - Lucy Lewis Shipman The Pickwickians on Ice - - William Bert Shepard

their preface shows that their book devotes Sairey Gamp and Betsey Prig

115 pp. to the colonial period, that is down • Sadie Margaret Davison, Stella Marie Powers Pride of the Ball—Verner-High School Quintette.

to 1763; 76 pp. to the revolutionary period, A Child's Dream of a Star

Clara Adell Snyder only a portion of this being given to the revMrs. Pardiggle and Family Mary Marguerite Weatherby olution itself: 02 po. to the develonment of The Circumlocution Office - "Erwin Frank Scherubel Vocal Solo-Angel's Serenade-Braga.

the new republic from 1781 to 1860; 50 pp. Jarley's Wax Work.

to the civil war and associated events; and "The only stupendous collection of real wax work in the 47 pp. to events subsequent to 1865. This

world." Mrs. Jarley .

- Cora Ella Binzel

brief summary will show you a division of Wax Figgers

- By Members of the Class topics much more in accordance with your ideas (Curtain.)

than that found in general text-books. The

treatment of topics, of social, educational and THE TWENTY-FOUR HOUR SYSTEM.

industrial interest is also largely in the line of

your own thought, so much so that it afforded On the 1st of May next the twenty-four

us pleasure to read such an indorsement hour system of time measurement will be

(though indirect) of the plan and purpose of adopted by the railways, postoffices and tele

our authors. graph stations of Belgium.

Very truly yours, In order to meet the national demand for

Silver, BURDETT & COMPANY. new timepieces the clockmakers of Belgium

[The inference is correct. This is not have been hard at work for several months among the books examined in preparing our past. Of course, the new system will be uni- article versally adopted throughout the country, as the action of the railways alone would render this inevitable. If it proves to be successful,

THE SCHOOL ROOM. as it no doubt will, other European countries will follow the example of Belgium, and in the

WALT WHITMAN. course of time the new system will find its way across the Atlantic.

1819–1892. There is nothing in the least repugnant His LIFE.—Mr. Whitman was a farmer's about the new system, and since the day is son and was born at West Hills, Long Island, twenty-four hours in length, there is no good thirty miles from New York city. When he reason, either practical or scientific, why the was about five years old the family moved to divisions of the clock should not correspond Brooklyn, and the lad for a short time attended with nature's measurements. As the twelve- the city schools, but he never was a scholar, hour system has been in use so long, there are He became a printer when quite young, and thousands of people who will be loath to give speaks of himself as “a country school teacher,

gardener, printer, carpenter, author and jour revising it. He declared that he had omitted nalist, domiciled in nearly all of the United nothing; that he was all there; that the book States and principal cities north and south was to be his “carte de visite to future generwent to the front (moving about and occupied ations.” Its aim, as its author expressed it, as army nurse and missionary), during the is “to present a complete picture of man in Secession war, 1861 to 1865, and in the Vir- this age;" and if a running catalog, minute ginia hospitals, and after the battles of that and specific, of every detail and accessory of time, tending the northern and southern modern life is what was meant, the book has wounded alike-worked down south and in accomplished its purpose. He has touched Washington city arduously three years, con- upon every subject; he has described everytracted the paralysis which I have suffered thing, and has omitted nothing in his descripever since, and now live in a little cottage of tions. He has filled page after page with enumy own, near the Delaware in New Jersey.” merations like this:

His WORKS.—“The works of Walt Whit. “Land of wheat, beef, pork! Land of wool and hemp! man cover a great many pages, but the text- Land of the potatoe, the apple, and the grape!

Land of the pastoral plains, the grass fields of the world! ure of them is anything but subtle. When

Land of those sweet-aired, interminable plateaus! Land once the mind perceives what it is that Whit there of the herd, the garden, the healthy house of man says, it is found that he repeats himself

adobe! Land there of rapt thot and of the realization

of the stars! Land of simple, holy untamed lives! over and over again, and that all his “gospel”

Land where the northwest Columbia winds and where the (as the odious modern cant puts it) is capable southwest Colorado winds!

Land of the Chesapeake! Land of the Delaware! of being strained into very narrow limits. One

Land of Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan! “poem” contains at least the germ of all the Land of the Old Thirteen! Massachusetts land! sheaves and sheaves of writing that Whitman Land of Vermont and Connecticut!" etc. published. There is not one aspect of his na. Many of his longer poems contain no conture which is not stated, or more than broadly secutive thot; they wander all over the cosmos hinted at, in the single piece which he named and beyond. A long list of the fauna of after himself, “Walt Whitman.” It was ap- North America is followed by a description of propriately named, for an unclothing of him the defence of the Alamo; of the capture of self, an invitation to all the world to come and the Serapis by John Paul Jones, and then by prove that, stripped of his clothes, he was ex. a minute catalog of New York street sights.” actly like everybody else, was the essence of Pattie's American Literature. his religion, his philosophy, and his poetry: * * * The absence of intellectual quality

O Captain! My Captain! the superabundance of the emotional, the objec

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done,

The ship has weathered every rock, the prize we sought is tive, the pictorial, are no reason for underval

won; uing Whitman's imagination. But there is one The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, condition which distinguishes art from mere

While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and

daring; amorphous expression; that condition is the

But O heart! heart! heart! result of a process through which the vague

O the bleeding drops of red,

Where on the deck my captain lies, and engaging observations of Whitman never

Fallen cold and dead. passed. He felt acutely and accurately, his

O Captain! my captain! rise up and hear the bells, imagination was purged of external impuri

Rise up-for you the flag is flung-for you the bugle trills, ties, he lay spread abroad in a condition of lit

For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths—for you the shores erary solution.”Edmund Gosse in Critical a-crowding, Kit-Kats.

For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces

turning. HIS MANNER.—Whitman smears his pages

Hear captain! dear father! with the commonest slang and the most hid

This arm beneath your head!

It is some dream that on the deck eous newspaper English. He regards with

You've fallen cold and dead. contempt the scholastic speech and polished

My captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still! diction of the great poets. He will have no My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will, speech but the speech of the people.”—Smyth's The ship is anchored safe and sound, its voyage closed and American Literature.


From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won; In Leaves of Grass," not merely are rhythm

Exult O shores, and ring O bells! and meter conspicuously absent, but composi

But I with mournful tread,

Walk the deck my captain lies tion, evolution, vertebration of style, even

Fallen cold and dead. syntax and the limits of the English tongue are disregarded. Edmund Gosse.

Patroling Barnegat. "Leaves of Grass" is Whitman's master- Wild, wild the storm, and the sea bigh running,

Steady the war of the gale, with incessant undertone mut. work; he spent his life in perfecting it and



Shouts of demoniac laughter, fitfully piercing and pealing to all lines of manufacture. Technical instruc-
Waves, air, midnight, their savagest trinity lashing.
Out in the shadows their milk-white combs careering,

tion in the trades and arts furnished in public On beachy slush and sand spirts of snow fierce slanting, schools, with free text-books and material, Where thro the murk the easterly death wind breasting. might remove the reproach now sometimes Thro cutting swirl and spray watchful and firm advancing, (That in the distance! is that a wreck? Is the red signal

cast upon our system of education, that it turns flaring?

the children of good mechanics and artisans Slush and sand of the beach tireless till daylight wending

into poor clerks and inferior professional men. Steadily, slowly, thro hoarse war never remitting,

-Mrs. Alice B. Wiles in the Chicago Times. Along the midnight edge by those milk white combs career- Herald A group of dim, weird forms, struggling, the night confronting,

That savage trinity warily watching.

It shows itself in various ways, some of

which I will illustrate, thus: wus for was, fur What hurrying buman tides, or day or night! Wbat passions, winnings, losses, ardors swim thy waters,

for for, git for get, runnin' for running, 'n or What whirls of evil, bliss, and sorrow stem thee!

un for and (not once in a hundred times is and What curious questioning glances--glints of love!

fully pronounced); las' steps for last steps, Leer, envy, scorn, contempt, hope, aspiration! Thou portal-thou arena-thou of the myriad long-drawn mus' go for must go, winda for window, lines and groups!

thish year, for this year, azh usual for as (Could by thy fagstones, curbs, facades, tell their inimitable

usual, las' chear for last year, unaty for unity, tales; Thy windows rich, and huge hotels--thy sidewalks wide;) opporchunity for opportunity, juty for duty, Thou of the endless sliding, mincing, shuffling feet!

Henery for Henry, Febuary for February, Thou, like the parti-colored world itself - like infinite, teeming, mocking life!

figger for figure, visable for visible, spur't Thou visored, vast, unspeakable show and lesson!

for spirit, bar'n for baron, pote and pome for


Now, what is the cause of this bad articula

tion, which is almost universal and is one of The systems of education in foreign cities the worst defects in reading? differ most widely from our own in the stress It is, in the first instance, a national, not laid upon manual and industrial training in merely a provincial defect, and this increases elementary schools and in the larger number, the difficulty of the situation. Every unculvariety and excellence of technical schools of tured Briton has the defect, and some cultured every kind. In London there are 142 cooking ones, too. The natural tendency in speaking centers in connection with public schools, is to draw back the tongue with its tip pointsixty-two laundry centers, two housewiferying in an upward direction, whilst there is a centers and seventy-two manual training cen- strong disinclination to push the lips out and ters, and twenty-four sewing machines are cir- use them in articulation. Another noticeable culated in connection with the training work. tendency in our speech, which contributes to French girls are taught dressmaking, cookery, bad articulation, is the increase of accent at laundering, corset-making, tailoring, embroid- the expense of the unaccented syllables. This ery, drawing and industrial designing in con- I need not illustrate. The unaccented syllanection with the public schools. In every bles are but indistinctly heard, or, as it has considerable city of Great Britain or the con- been facetiously put, they are swallowed. tinent art and technical schools give theo- Having regard also to a common tendency to retical knowledge and practical skill “in all the close the mouth partially, with consequent imscientific, artistic and technical principles and proper labialization or the muffling of certain processes that pertain to standard lines of vowel sounds, the Germans, indeed, say of the manufacture.” They also instruct “in literary English that they speak, not with their mouth and commercial subjects, elementary science, like other people, but with their nose and drawing, designing, bookkeeping, typewriting, throat. The accompanying lip-contraction is shorthand and modern languages, as well as in also one of the main causes of the dull, lowengineering subjects, mathematics, physics pitched intonation so characteristic of the and practical electricity, applied chemistry, speech and reading of our schools. wood-working, metallurgy, building trades. Many of the vowel sounds in ordinary use sanitary engineering and plumbing, bleaching amongst us are also incorrect; for instance, and dyeing, spinning and weaving, and numer- we often hear noos for news; constitootion for ous other specialties and trades.” Paris spares constitution; and no difference is made beno pains nor money that her artisans may re- tween fool and full. The Italian sound of a, main pre-eminent in decorative art as applied which is frequent in good English speech, is seldom heard in our schools. The common become indurated, the slowness of the rate of substitute for it is one of the most disgusting reading might well be exaggerated at first. sounds I know of—a sort of cross between eh I have not the direct knowledge that would and ah, with a nasal accompaniment. We enable me to say at what stage in the educahave also acquired the habit of letting many tion of the public school pupil the subject of of our vowel sounds end in “vanishes." (Ob- articulation is most neglected — if, indeed, serve the common pronunciation of pay and there is any stage in particular. From apno.) This habit, of course, makes many of pearances I should say that, considering its 'our vowel sounds impure. .

importance and the difficulties which beset it As you are aware, most of the tendencies I the subject receives proper attention in few have mentioned have existed for hundreds of localities of the province; for few entrance years, and have had an important influence classes give evidence that they have had their upon the present forms of our vocabulary. attention specially directed to their articulaAll languages suffer from them, to some ex- tion. tent, in the natural state, if I may use the While the first stages in learning to read are term. It is, indeed, simply an application of the most important, the pupil's vocal organs the Principle of Ease, and the only limitation should be carefully trained at every stage. is intelligibility. Unless we follow the model Owing to his surroundings and our linguistic of the best speakers, we pronounce our words tendencies, the danger of a relapse in the case in a way we find the easiest. The effects of of a convalescent is so great that the best these tendencies are, however, worse in Eng- teachers I have seen give unremitting attenlish than in French and German, for instance, tion to articulation. Distinct utterance of the owing to the very composite character of our proper sounds is regarded as the first essential language, the marked absence of regularity in in every reading lesson; and each lesson is pronunciation, and the unusual discrepancy often-generally, indeed — introduced with between our spelling and our sounds.

special exercises in vocal gymnastics, having, Most pupils enter the public schools with in some of the details, at least, a direct bearthese bad habits already formed, or in process ing on the reading lesson to follow. of formation. It is the duty of the school-of I desire to emphasize the importance of this the public school, in particular—to correct subject; for I regard bad articulation, associthem when the organs of speech are plastic ated, as it always is, with ignorance of the and the pupils are at what is distinctively the true sounds of our language, as the prime dehabit-forming age. Now and then, we find a fect of the reading of all our schools.—John pupil who can articulate well, and who uses Leath, in Educational Record. proper English sounds. He, however, is invariably the product of a cultured home and EXHIBITION OF DRAWING IN THE CHICAGO SCHOOLS. cultured surroundings. He has learned to use his vocal organs well, just as he has learned Recently the Art Institute of Chicago has to speak good English, by imitating good displayed in its galleries the drawings of the models. The teacher's task will be an easier pupils of the Chicago public schools. On the one when the general culture of the commu- same walls where usually hung careful selecnity improves; but the school-master will al- tions of modern paintings, under the same roof ways need to be abroad. Even in matters of with the finest procurable examples of the old articulation, we shall never reach our ideal, so masters, were placed the works of childish far, at least, as most of mankind are con- hands. This in itself is worthy of remark, and cerned. If oral reading had no other claim to far more remarkable is the attention attracted an important place in our school progam, it by the little show. Not so long ago there was has this one, that, if properly taught, it will, a determined warfare against drawing in the in time, go far to cure many of the defects of public schools. Tax payers objected to the our provincial speech.

cost of special teachers; parents preferred to Some excellent teachers with whom I have have their children's time employed in “somediscussed this subject are inclined to attribute thing useful;" artists scornfully agreed that any bad articulation to the very common habit of child intending to become an artist would first fast reading. It so happens, however, that the have to unlearn all that he learned at a public defect exists even when the pupil reads slowly. school. Drawing, as taught, was the most Fast reading, of course, intensifies it, and the superficial thing imaginable, scarcely even an first step in the remedial process is to secure accomplishment. Under the teacher's eye the the proper rate of reading. In senior classes, child laboriously produced a neat picture, indeed, in which the habit of fast reading has which, like worsted work, might be used to

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