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EXAMPLES OF RHETORICAL PAUSES.
120. SHORT PAUSE, QUAVER REST, 7
Riches 7 pleasure and health 7 are evils to those 7 who know not7 how to use them
Nations 7 like men 7 fail in nothing which they boldly and virtuously attempt
Let but one brave great7 active disinterested many arise and he will be received 7 followed 7 and venerated
A people7 once enslavedľ may groan7 ages in bondage i
Add to your faith 7 virtues and to virtue 7 knowledge and to knowledge temperance and to temperance 7 patience
121. MIDDLE PAUSE, CROTCHET REST,
This pause is chiefly employed To divide the principal parts of a sentence:My heart7 was wounded 7 with the arrow of affliction and my eyes7 became dim 7 with sorrow I
Many that is born of a woman 7 hath but a short time to liver and is full of misery i
There can be nothing more prejudicial to the great interests of a nation than unsettled7 and varying policy i
Before and after all parenthetic clauses:Beauty like a flowers soon fades away!
Geniusr the pride of many as man is 7 of the creations has been possessed but by few 1
In connecting sentences closely allied in sense :Logicians 7 may reason about abstractions but the great mass of mankind 7 cannot feel an interest in themi They must have images 1
In his own views Napoleon 7 stood apart from other men He was not to be measured7 by the standard of humanity He was not to be subjected 7 to laws 7 or obligations which all others were expected to obey | Nature 7 and the human will? were to bend to his power i
122. LONG PAUSE, MINIM REST, This pause is used at the close of every proposition that conTeys complete sense. When perfect rhetorical meaning is not conveyed at the close of a grammatical sentence, the crotchet rest should be used
123. LONGEST PAUSE, SEMIBREVE REST, I This pause should be employed at the close of every division of a discourse; before à new train of ideas, or a course of argument; at & return from a digression, or from excited declamation to calm statement and logical discussion.
GENERAL EXERCISE IN PAUSE. When 7 at length 7 Hyder Aliy found that he had to do with men7 who either would sign no conventions or whom no treaty and no signature 7 could bindi and who were the determined enemies 7 of human intercourse itself he decreed to make the country7 possessed by those incorrigible7 and predestinated criminals a memorable example to mankind.He resolved in the gloomy recesses of a mind7 capacious of such things to leave the whole Carnatic7 an everlasting monument of vengeances and to put perpetual desolation as a barriert between him and those against whom the faith7 which holds the moral elements of the world together was no protection
He became at length7 so confident of his force 7 and so collected in his might that he made no secret whatever7 of his dreadful resolution-Having terminated his disputes with every enemy and every rivall who buried their mutual animosities? in their common interest against the creditors of the Nabob of Arcot he drewy from every quarter7 whatever a savage ferocity9 could add to his new rudiments in the art of destruction and compounding all the materials of fury7 into one black cloud he hungo for a while on the declivities of the mountains - Whilst the authors of all these evils7 were7 idly, and stupidly gazing on this menacing meteory which blackened all the horizont it suddenly burst i and poured down the whole of its contents7 upon the plains of the Carnatic
Then ensued a scene of woer the like of which 7 no eye7 had seenľ nor hearty conceived and which no tongue7 can adequately tell - All the horrors of war7 before known7 or heard of i were mercy to that new havoc - A storm of universal fire 7 blasted every field7 consumed every house7and destroyed every templer The miserable inhabitants7 flying from their flaming villages in part7 were slaughteredt others without regard to sex7 to age to rank7 or sacredness of functions fathers torn from their childrenr husbands, from wives enveloped in a whirlwind of cavalry andy amidst the goading spears of driversy and the trampling of pursuing horses were swept into captivity in an unknown1 and hostile land - Those who were able to evade this tempest7 fled to the walled citiesť but I
escaping from fire 7 sword7 and exile they fell into the jaws of famine 1
So completely did these masters in their art7 absolve themselves of their impious vow that when the British armies traversed as they did the Carnatic7 for hundreds of miles in all directions through the whole line of their march 7 they did not see one man7 not one woman7 not one child7 not one fourfooted beast7 of any description whatevers One dead7 uniform silencel reigned over the whole region 1 -Burke.
124. Perhaps the readiest mode of acquiring a correct idea of rhetorical punctuation is, to consider every cluster of words so connected as to admit of no separation, and containing a distinct primary or modifying idea, only as one oratorical word. These oratorical words must be separated from each other by pauses of greater or less duration.
125. The division of sentences into oratorical words is equally necessary to present a composition in intelligible groups to the ear of the auditor, and to enable the speaker to replenish his lungs for the easy delivery of the words (secs. 17, 119.). The necessities of respiration are thus combined with the partial developments of sense, till the completion of the proposition, or of the period, is made. They also give time the most important adjunct of effect in expression and action.
126. The following may serve as a specimen of the system recommended : analogous groupings may be formed on every page:
Reason guides-a-man to-an-entire-conviction of-the-historical-proofs of-the-Christian-religion ; after-which it-delivers and-abandons-him to another-light which thoughnot-contrary is-entirely different-from-it and-infinitely-superior-to-it. 127. Marked thus, according to the musical notation.-Sec. 117.
Reason 7 guides a man to an entire conviction of the historical proofs7 of the Christian religion after which7 it delivers and abandons him to another lights which though not contrary, is entirely different from it and infinitely superior to it
EMPHATICAL PAUSE. 128. A sudden pause, introduced where the rhetorical sense does not require it, is frequently a very effective mode of giving expression to emotion:
Oh, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth,
ACCENTUATION OF ORATORICAL WORDS, 129. As an oratorical word may consist of a far greater number of syllables than a grammatical word, it becomes necessary to introduce new degrees of stress, that the relative value of the various groups may be effectively presented to the ear and to the mind. The principal part of the oratorical word must be distinguished in the same manner as the accented syllable of the grammatical word, but with greater organic force.
130. Stress, applied to the accent of grammatical words, is called Syllabic; applied to oratorical words, being determined by meaning, it may be called Sentential.
131. The sentential accent of oratorical words always coincides (unless in certain cases of emphasis) with the syllabic accent, but it is uttered with greater respiratory chest-effort. In general, emphatic words are distinguished by an increased degree of accent: thus, the words iynoble, angel, temperance, have a syllabic accent, which coin. cides with the emphatic accent heard in the following lines :
Rising to the IGNOBLE call.
As if an ANGEL spoke.
Health consists with TEMPERANCE alone. 132. The accents of oratorical words are distinguished from those of grammatical words by being employed in determining the meaning, or in denoting the relative value, of the various groups; sentences thus forming compound oratorical words, having the primary accent on the principal word.
133. It is impossible to assign invariably the position of the sentential accents, for it constantly changes with the sense; so that the proper application of these accents, being left wholly to the speaker, becomes, in some manner, the best test of the accuracy or comprehensiveness of his judgment. The general principle of sentential accents is, that qualifying words require a stronger accent than the words which they qualify. The grouping of the several oratorical words is denoted by hyphens; the marks for the primary (") and secondary (1) sentential accents have no connexion with the marks employed in the after-part of this work to denote Inflexion.
He-reads'-correct'ly. She-sings'-sweet'ly. The-Christian'shope". The-poor-man’s-pray'er. The-rights'-of-the peo"ple. Relig'ion without-big''otry. The-fear' of God” is-the-begin'ning of-wis"dom. Av"arice cov'ets-wealth". To-prac"tise-vir'tue isthe-sure'-way to-love"-it. A-true"-friend' unboʻsoms-free”ly, advi'ses-just"ly, assists’-read"ily, adven'tures-bold"ly. Hisen'ergies as-a-man", his-affection as-a-fa"ther, his-solicitude as-a-king", his-zeal' as-a-Chris"tian, were-nev'er-e"qualled.
And-his-long'-nights of-rev"elry and-ease". 134. Frequently, adjectives, adverbs, and other words which usually qualify, are merely expletive or additive, and then require only the secondary accent.
Their-great-Orig''inal proclaim". 135. The simile, or illustrative phrase, takes the primary accent.
Be-thou' as-a-light" to-direct-my-steps.
Hope', the balm"-of-life', soothes-misfortune. The-earth', like-a-ten'der-mo"ther, nourishes-her-children.
136. Sameness of expression requires to be concealed and relieved by variety of accent. « Come'-back"! come"-back'!" he cried-in-grief.
None" but-the-brave' None' but”-the-brave", deserves'-the-fair". 137. Words, which in ordinary use are unaccented, may be made ruggestive of antithesis, or emphatic, * by being accented.
My' book is torn. Did you" not speak to it? It is past" six o'clock. I" will not say so. It is not your" business. He did not flee to the of"ficer.
133. Syllabic stress (i. e. verbal accent) is sufficient to denote antithesis, when the word is, in its natural expression, unaccented; as, on the table (not under it).
139. All emphatic* words are best expressed by the primary accent.
All-par"tial-e"vil's univer''sal-good". They'-that-sow" intears”, shall-reap" in-joy". Rend”-your-heart", and-not-yourgarments. If-to-do” were-as-ea'sy as-to-know what-weregood"-to-do, chap''els had been-chur"ches, and-poor"-men'scot"tages prin"ces’-pal’aces. Who' steals'-my-purse", steals'trash".
Unblem"ished, let'-me-live"; or-die",-unknown"!
Oh, grant-me hon"est-fame', or" grant'-me none". 140. Antithesis may be suggested by the primary accent. Section 137.
I fight not for" Cæsar. We can do nothing against" the truth. No man can form a just estimate of his own" powers. Strength and majesty belong to man". He is one of Na"ture's noblemen. The awful now", asks us but once to embrace it.
* To make an accented syllable emphatic, a greater degree of respiratory effort from the chest should be given on its utterance. The syllabic accent has, for its principal machine, the pharynx. But emphatic syllables may be distinguished by many other modes.-Vide EMPHASIS.