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EXAMPLES OF RHETORICAL PAUSES.

120. SHORT PAUSE, QUAVER REST, 7
The laurels of the warrior 7 are dyed in blood ,
Anxiety is the poison of human life i
And Nathan 7 said unto David Thou 7 art the man I
Well bonour7 is 7 the subject of my story !

Riches 7 pleasure and health 7 are evilst to those who know not7 how to use them

Nations like men7 fail in nothing which they boldly 7 and virtuously attempt 1

Let but one brave great7 active disinterested man 7 arise and he will be received 7 followed 7 and venerated ,

A people 7 once enslaved may groan 7 ages 7 in bondage i

Add to your faith 7 virtues and to virtue 7 knowledge and to knowledge temperance and to temperance7 patience

121. MIDDLE PAUSE, CROTCHET REST, P

This pause is chiefly employed To divide the principal parts of a sentence: My heart7 was wounded 7 with the arrow of afflictions and my eyes7 became dim7 with sorrow I

Man 9 that is born of a woman 7 hath but a short time to liver and is full of misery i

There can be nothing more prejudicial to the great interests of a nation than unsettled7 and varying policy i

Before and after all parenthetic clauses:Beauty like a flowers soon fades away

Genius' the pride of man7 as man is 7 of the creation has been possessed but by few 1

In connecting sentences closely allied in sense :Logicians 7 may reason about abstractions but7 the great mass of mankind I cannot feel an interest in themi They must have images 1

In his own viewl Napoleon 7 stood apart from other men He was not to be measured by the standard of humanity He was not to be subjected to laws 7 or obligations which all others were expected to obey | Nature and the human will7 were to bend to his power i

122. LONG PAUSE, MINIM REST,. This pause is used at the close of every proposition that conTeys complete sense. When perfect rhetorical meaning is not conveyed at the close of a grammatical sentence, the crotchet rest should be used

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123. LONGEST PAUSE, SEMIBREVE REST, I This pause should be employed at the close of every division of a discourse; before a new train of ideas, or a course of argument; at a return from a digression, or from excited declamation to calm statement and logical discussion.

GENERAL EXERCISE IN PAUSE.

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When7 at length 7 Hyder Aliy found that he had to do with men7 who either would sign no convention or whom no treaty7 and no signature 7 could bindi and who were the determined enemies 7 of human intercourse itself I he decreed to make the country possessed by those incorrigible and predestinated criminals a memorable example to mankind.He resolved in the gloomy recesses of a mind 7 capacious of such things to leave the whole Carnatic7 an everlasting monument of vengeances and to put perpetual desolation as a barriers between him and those against whom the faith7 which holds the moral elements of the world together was no protection

He became at length7 so confident of his force) and so collected in his might that he made no secret whatever7 of his dreadful resolution-Having terminated his disputes with every enemy and every rivall who buried their mutual animosities? in their common interest7 against the creditors of the Nabob of Arcotr he drew7 from every quarter7 whatever a savage ferocity9 could addy to his new rudiments in the art of destruction and7 compounding all the materials of fury7 into oue black cloudr be hung7 for a while on the declivities of the mountains - Whilst the authors of all these evils7 were7 idly, and stupidly gazing on this menacing meteor7 which blackened all the horizont it suddenly burst i and poured down the whole of its contents upon the plains of the Carnatic

Then ensued7 a scene of woes the like of which7no eye7 bad seens nor heart7 conceived and which no tongue7 can adequately tell - All the horrors of war7 before known 9 or heard of i were mercy to that new havoc - "A storm of universal fire 7 blasted every field 7 consumed every house and destroyed every templer The miserable inhabitants7 flying from their flaming villages in part7 were slaughteredt others without regard to sexy to age to rank7 or sacredness of function{ fathers 7 torn from their childrenľ husbands7 from wives enveloped in a whirlwind of cavalry andy amidst the goading spears of drivers and the trampling of pursuing horses were swept into captivity7 in an unknown" and hostile land - Those who were able to evade this tempest7 fled to the walled citiesť but

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escaping from fire7 sword7 and exile they fell into the jaws of famine 1

So completely did these masters in their art7 absolve themselves of their impious vowl thats when the British armies 7 traversed as they did 7 the Carnatic7 for hundreds of miles in all directions through the whole line of their march they did not see one man7 not one woman not one child7 not one fourfooted beast7 of any description whatever One deady uniform silencel reigned over the whole region 1 -Burke.

124. Perhaps the readiest mode of acquiring a correct idea of rhetorical punctuation is, to consider every cluster of words so connected as to admit of no separation, and containing a distinct primary or modifying idea, only as one oratorical word. These oratorical words must be separated from each other by pauses of greater or less duration.

125. The division of sentences into oratorical words is equally necessary to present a composition in intelligible groups to the ear of the auditor, and to enable the speaker to replenish his lungs for the easy delivery of the words (secs. 17, 119.). The necessities of respiration are thus combined with the partial developments of sense, till the completion of the proposition, or of the period, is made. They also give time the most important adjunct of effect in expression and action.

126. The following may serve as a specimen of the system recommended : analogous groupings may be formed on every page:

Reason guides-a-man to-an-entire-conviction of-the-historical-proofs of-the-Christian-religion ; after-which it-delivers aud-abandons-him to-another-light which thoughnot-contrary is-entirely different-from-it and-infinitely-superior-to-it. 127. Marked thus, according to the musical notation.-Sec. 117.

Reason 7 guides a man7 to an entire conviction 7 of the historical proofs7 of the Christian religion after which it delivers and abandons him to another light which though not contrary, is entirely different from it and infinitely superior to it i

EMPHATICAL PAUSE, 128. A sudden pause, introduced where the rhetorical sense does not require it, is frequently a very effective mode of giving expression to emotion:

Oh, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth,
That I am meek and gentle, with these 7 butchers!
If thou dost slander her, and y torture 7 me,
Never pray more!

ACCENTUATION OF ORATORICAL WORD8. 129. As an oratorical word may consist of a far greater number of syllables than a grammatical word, it becomes necessary to introduce

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new degrees of stress, that the relative value of the various groups may be effectively presented to the ear and to the mind. The principal part of the oratorical word must be distinguished in the same manner as the accented syllable of the grammatical word, but with greater organic force.

130. Stress, applied to the accent of grammatical words, is called Syllabic; applied to oratorical words, being determined by meaning, it may be called Sentential.

131. The sentential accent of oratorical words always coincides (unless in certain cases of emphasis) with the syllabic accent, but it is uttered with greater respiratory chest-effort. In general, emphatic words are distinguished by an increased degree of accent: thus, the words iynoble, angel, temperance, have a syllabic accent, which coincides with the emphatic accent heard in the following lines:

Rising to the IGNOBLE call.

As if an ANGEL spoke.

Health consists with TEMPERANCE alone. 132. The accents of oratorical words are distinguished from those of grammatical words by being employed in determining the meaning, or in denoting the relative value, of the various groups; sentences thus forming compound oratorical words, having the primary accent on the principal word.

133. It is impossible to assign invariably the position of the sentential accents, for it constantly changes with the sense; so that the proper application of these accents, being left wholly to the speaker, becomes, in some manner, the best test of the accuracy or comprehensiveness of his judgment. The general principle of sentential accents is, that qualifying words require a stronger accent than the words which they qualify. The grouping of the several oratorical words is denoted by byphens; the marks for the primary (") and secondary (1) sentential accents have no connexion with the marks employed in the after-part of this work to denote Inflexion.

He-reads'-correct'ly. She-sings'-sweet'ly. The-Chris'tian'shope". The-poor'-man’s-pray'er. The-rights'-of-the peo"ple. Relig'ion without-big"otry. The-fear' of.God” is-the-begin'ning of-wis"dom. Av"arice cov'ets-wealth". To-prac"tise-vir'tue isthe-sure-way to-love"-it. A-true"-friend' unbo'soms-free"ly, advi/ses-just”ly, assists'-read"ily, adven'tures-bold”ly. Hisen'ergies as-a-man", his-affection as-a-fa" ther, his-solicitude as-a-king", his-zeal' as-a-Chris"tian, were-never-equalled.

The-shud"dering-ten'ant of-the-frig''id-zone
Bold’ly-proclaims'-that-hap" py-spot his-own",
Extols"-the-treas'ures of-his-stor'my-seas'

And-his-long"-nights of-rev"elry and-ease". 134. Frequently, adjectives, adverbs, and other words which usually qualify, are merely expletive or additive, and then require only the secondary accent.

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The-spa'cious-firmament on-high',
With-all'-the-blue' ethe'real-sky",
And-spang'led-heav"ens-a-shin"ing-frame'-

Their-great-Orig'inal proclaim". 135. The simile, or illustrative phrase, takes the primary accent.

Be-thou' as-a-light" to-direct-my-steps.

Hope', the balm"-of-life', soothes-misfortune. The-earth', like-a-ten'der-mo"ther, nourishes-her-children.

136. Sameness of expression requires to be concealed and relieved by variety of accent. “Come'-back"! come"-back'!” he cried-in-grief.

None' but-the-brave"

None" but-the-brave' None' but”-the-brave", deserves'-the-fair". 137. Words, which in ordinary use are unaccented, may be made suggestive of antithesis, or emphatic, * by being accented.

My" book is torn. Did you" not speak to it? It is past" six o'clock. I” will not say so. It is not your business. He did not flee to the of"ficer.

133. Syllabic stress (i. e. verbal accent) is sufficient to denote antithesis, when the word is, in its natural expression, unaccented; as, on the table (not under it).

139. All emphatic* words are best expressed by the primary accent.

All-par”tial-e" vil's univer"sal-good”. They'-that-sow" intears”, shall-reap" in-joy". Rend'-your-heart", and-not'-yourgar"ments.

If-to-do” were-as-ea'sy as-to-know what-weregood"-to-do, chap"els had-been-chur"ches, and-poor"-men'scot"tages prin'ces'-pal”aces. Who' steals'-my-purse", steals'trash".

Unblem"ished, let'-me-live"; or-die",-unknown" !

Oh, grant-me hon"'est-fame', or grant-me none". 140. Antithesis may be suggested by the primary accent.—Section 137.

I fight not for" Cæsar. We can do nothing against" the truth. No man can form a just estimate of his own" powers. Strength and majesty belong to man". He is one of Na"ture's noblemen. The awful now', asks us but once to embrace it.

* To make an accented syllable emphatic, a greater degree of respiratory effort from the chest should be given on its utterance. The syllabic accent has, for its principal machine, the pharynx. But emphatic syllables may be distinguished by many other modes.-Vide EMPHASIS.

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