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Faery Queen, but with the royal vixen of England, of whose cruelty and ambition he was found the unscrupulous advocate. Sir Walter Raleigh, too, the chivalrous and polite, is known to Ireland only as the instrument of ruthless tyranny and barbarity. Elizabeth's entire reign, indeed, was a continued series of disgusting cruelties and crimes. Famine and devastation were the “good queen’s ’, handmaidens; the rack, the gibbet, and the dungeon, her Protestant missionaries. And thus, at last, was Ireland “pacified”; and, after a contest of 440 years, brought under the dominion of the crown of England. The cost to Elizabeth was most serious. More than £3,000,000 sterling was expended on the conquest, with an incalculable number of her bravest soldiers. And after all, as the queen was assured by her own servants, "little was left in Ireland for her majesty to reign over but carcasses and ashes"!

The “ Reformation from Popery” was also “completed” in Elizabeth's reign. The history of this movement in Ireland is, throughout, one of merciless persecution, of wholesale spoliation, and of murderous cruelty. The instruments by which it was accomplished were despotic monarchs, unprincipled ministers, a rapacious aristocracy, and venal and slavish parliaments. It sprung from brutal passion, was nurtured in selfish and corrupt policy, and was consummated in bloodshed and horrid crime. “ The work," observes a contemporary, “ which had been begun by Henry, the murderer of his wives, was continued by Somerset, the murderer of his brother, and completed by Elizabeth, the murderer of her guest.” Such was the “Reformation," and such were its instruments; and the consequences which flowed from it, at least in Ireland, were of a kindred character for centuries to come.

SAMUEL SMILES, History of Ireland and the Irish People, under

the Government of England.

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As it has not unfrequently been alleged against the Catholics that, if they had the power, and pos

, sessed ascendency in the Irish Legislature, that the Protestants have done, they would use it for purposes of their own aggrandizement, and to the injury of other religious sects—it may not be uninteresting and uninstructive here to place in juxtaposition, the Acts passed in the Catholic Parliament of James and those passed by the Protestant Parliament of William, allowing the reader to judge for himself which of the two legislated most in the spirit of constitutional freedom, and for the true interests of Ireland :

Acts Passed in the Catholic Acts Passed in the ProtParliaments of James. estant Parliaments of Will

An act declaring that the iam and Mary. parliament of England can An act, 3 William, recognot bind Ireland; and against nized by the Irish parliament writs and appeals to be (thereby recognizing the subrought for removing judg- premacy of England), for ex

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c. 5.

c. 1.

ments, decrees, and sentences cluding Catholics from parliain Ireland to England. ment. - Lords' Journal, v. i.,

An act for taking off all in- p. 496. capacities from the natives of An act restraining foreign this kingdom.

education.—7 William, c. 4. An act for liberty of con- An act for disarming Pascience, and repealing such pists, containing a clause acts and clauses in any acts of rendering their spoliation, Parliament which are incon- robbery, etc., legal.—7 Will., sistent with the same.

An act for banishing archAn act for the encourage

bishops, priests, etc., for the ment of strangers and others purpose of extinguishing the

Catholic religion.-9 Will., to inhabit nd plant in this kingdom of Ireland.

An act for discouraging An act for vesting in his Majesty the goods of absen- marriages between Catholics

and Protestants.—9 Will., c. 5. tees. An act for prohibiting the

An act confirming (i. e., importation of English, violating) the articles of Lim

erick.-9 Will., c. 11. Scotch, or Welsh wools into this kingdom.

The acts for discouraging

the Woolen Trade of Ireland, An act for the advance and improvement of trade and passed in the English parliafor the encouragement and ments, -(1 Will. and Mary, increase of shipping and navi- c. 32; 4 Will. and Mary, c.

24 ; 17 and 8 Will., c. 28 ; gation, etc., etc.

9 and 10 Will., c. 40), and recognized afterward by the Irish parliament, in the Bill passed 25th of March, 1699.

An act completing the ruin of the woollen manufactory, and imposed with all its viola

tions of the trial by jury, etc., by the English parliament on Ireland. 10 and 11 Will. and Mary, c. 10.

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Such were the Protestant parliaments from the hands of which Ireland afterward received its destinies, and such the constitution to which the monopolists of the present day still wish that we should revert! Such men and such assemblies were much more fitting to entertain the petitions of coal-heavers for the exclusion of Papists from the trade, or to burn Molyneux's book by the public hangman, than to legislate for the rights and interest of a free nation.

SAMUEL SMILES, History of Ireland and the Irish People, under

the Government of England.

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