Natural Selection in the Wild

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Princeton University Press, 21 апр. 1986 г. - Всего страниц: 336

Natural selection is an immense and important subject, yet there have been few attempts to summarize its effects on natural populations, and fewer still which discuss the problems of working with natural selection in the wild. These are the purposes of John Endler's book. In it, he discusses the methods and problems involved in the demonstration and measurement of natural selection, presents the critical evidence for its existence, and places it in an evolutionary perspective.


Professor Endler finds that there are a remarkable number of direct demonstrations of selection in a wide variety of animals and plants. The distribution of observed magnitudes of selection in natural populations is surprisingly broad, and it overlaps extensively the range of values found in artificial selection. He argues that the common assumption that selection is usually weak in natural populations is no longer tenable, but that natural selection is only one component of the process of evolution; natural selection can explain the change of frequencies of variants, but not their origins.

 

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Содержание

Introduction
3
11 Definition of Natural Selection
4
12 Relationship to Genetic Drift and Evolution
5
13 Restricted Meanings of Natural Selection
8
14 Modes of Selection
15
15 Summary
26
Philosophical Comments
27
21 Natural Selection and Tautology
28
43 Reasons for Misleading Detection of Selection
115
44 Summary
125
Direct Demonstrations of Natural Selection in the Wild
126
51 Characteristics of Demonstrative Studies
127
52 Observations on the Distribution of Kinds of Traits Selected
154
53 Observations on the Distribution of Modes of Selection
160
54 General Comments on Detecting Natural Selection
162
55 Summary
165

22 Force Action and Intensity
29
23 Fitness and Adaptation
33
24 Two More Useful Distinctions
50
25 Summary
51
Methods for the Detection of Natural Selection in the Wild
52
Correlation with Environmental Factors
56
Comparisons between Closely Related Sympatric Species
59
Comparisons between Unrelated Species Living in Similar Habitats
62
Deviation from Formal Null Models
64
LongTerm Studies of Trait Frequency Distributions
73
Perturbation of Natural Populations
75
Genetic Demography or Cohort Analysis
81
Comparisons among Age Classes or LifeHistory Stages
82
Predictions about Natural Selection
86
Nonequilibrium Predictions of Changes in Trait Frequency Distributions
88
Equilibrium Predictions about Trait Frequency Distributions
91
312 How to Detect Natural Selection in the Wild
93
313 Summary
96
Problems in Detecting Natural Selection
97
41 Reasons for Lack of Detection of Natural Selection When It Exists
98
42 Reasons for Apparent Detection of Selection When It Is Nonexistent
107
Estimating Selection Coefficients and Differentials
167
61 Introduction to the Methods
168
62 Direct Univariate Methods
171
63 Univariate Mean Fitness Methods
176
64 Multivariate Methods
179
65 The Use of Selection Coefficients and Differentials
199
66 Summary
201
Distribution of Selection Coefficients and Differentials in Natural Populations
203
72 Observed Distributions
207
73 A Comparison of Observed and Expected Distributions
215
74 Summary
222
The Importance of Natural Selection
224
82 Origin and Replacement
240
Natural Selection and Evolution
245
84 Summary
248
Multiple Regression and the Estimation of Selection Differentials
251
Comparisons Between Selection Differentials and Regression Coefficients Using Simulated Data of Selection with Known Properties
260
References
273
Species Index
325
Subject Index
328
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