Second Nature: Economic Origins of Human Evolution

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Cambridge University Press, 25 окт. 2001 г. - Всего страниц: 254
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This book spans two million years of human evolution and explores the impact of economics on human evolution and natural history. The theory of evolution by natural selection has always relied in part on progress in areas of science outside of biology. By applying economic principles at the borderlines of biology, Haim Ofek shows how some of the outstanding issues in human evolution, such as the increase in human brain size and the expansion of the environmental niche humans occupied, can be answered. He identifies distinct economic forces at work, beginning with the transition from the feed-as-you-go strategy of primates, through hunter-gathering and the domestication of fire to the development of agriculture. This highly readable book will inform and intrigue general readers and those in fields such as evolutionary biology and psychology, economics, and anthropology.
 

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Содержание

Exchange in human and nonhuman societies
9
Symbiotic exchange
11
Kin and nepotistic exchange
14
Mercantile exchange
20
Tentative conclusions
24
Classical economics and classical Darwinism
26
Darwins selfrestraint
27
The second point of junction
31
The primate connection
98
Baboon speciation versus human specialization
105
Antipredator behavior
110
Adaptive radiation in the baboons
114
The southern ape
115
Foundereffect speciation
117
Trade and adaptive specialization
118
Departure from the feedasyougo strategy
125

Separate approaches to a common puzzle
34
The third point of junction
35
Wallaces independent proof
36
The blunder of Epimetheus
38
The second fundamental problem
41
Evolutionary implications of division of labor
44
The capacity for specialization and differentiation
45
The enigma within the enigma of domestication
49
The sexual division of labor
54
The capacity to operate in grandscale formations
55
Division of labor in insect society
56
The invisible hand
58
The feeding ecology
62
The economic approach to food consumption
64
An adaptive approach to food consumption
65
The shrinking human gut
66
Externalization of function
67
The expensivetissue hypothesis
68
pro and con
69
The transition to huntinggathering
71
Lifecycle versus evolutionary consequences
73
Runaway arms races in a vertical feeding ecology
74
The giraffe
75
The sequoia tree
79
Incidental advantages and disadvantages
82
The origins of nepotistic exchange
84
Convergent body structures
86
Analogy as distinct from homology
87
Bilateral convergence
88
Multilateral convergence
89
Mass convergence
90
Convergent social structures
95
Stone tool technology according to Darwin
128
Exchange augmented foodsharing
131
The origins of market exchange
138
The impetus to trade
142
The nature of commodities and the structure of markets
143
whats in a name?
151
Domestication of fire in relation to market exchange
153
The question of fuel
155
Incendiary skills
157
Provision of fire in the absence of ignition technology
159
Fire and occupation of caves
162
The Upper Paleolithic and other creative explosions
168
The Upper Paleolithic toolkit
169
Longdistance trade
172
Economic and geographic expansions
173
Monetarization of exchange in relation to symbolic behavior
179
Transition to agriculture the limiting factor
190
The history of the problem
192
Agriculture versus huntinggathering
194
The temporal nature of farming
195
Climates on average
196
Topography of heat and moisture
198
The atmospheric fertilizer
200
a clue in the ice caps
202
a regional case study
207
Transition to agriculture the facilitating factor The specializationdiversification dichotomy
212
The caprine paradox
217
Agrarian origins of ancient cities
222
summary
226
References
228
Index
237
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Haim Ofek is Professor of Economics at Binghamton University, New York.

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