Mass Extinctions and Their Aftermath
Why do mass extinctions occur? The demise of the dinosaurs has been discussed exhaustively, but has never been out into the context of other extinction events. This is the first systematic review of the mass extinctions of all organisms, plant and animal, terrestrial and marine, that have occurred in the history of life. This includes the major crisis 250 million years ago which nearly wiped out all life on Earth. By examining current paleontological, geological, and sedimentological evidence of environmental changes, the cases for explanations based on climate change, marine regressions, asteroid or comet impact, anoxia, and volcanic eruptions are all critically evaluated.
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Extinctions in the early history of the Metazoa
one disaster after another
the Kellwasser and Hangenberg
Extinctions within and at the close of the Triassic
Minor extinctions of the Jurassic
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ammonite ammonoids anomaly anoxia anoxic anoxic event Anticosti assemblages basal Basin benthic benthic foraminifera Benton biomere biostratigraphic biotic bivalves black shale bolide impact boundary sections brachiopods Brasier Brenchley calcareous Cambrian carbon isotope Carnian catastrophic Cenomanian Changxingian climatic conodont cooling correlation Cretaceous Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary crisis deepwater deposition dinosaurs disappeared diversity early endCretaceous endPermian Eocene evidence extinction event extinction mechanism extinction rates facies Famennian fauna foraminifera Formation fossil record Frasnian genera Geological Society glaciation global graptolites groups habitats Hallam Hangenberg Hirnantian Holser interval iridium isotope Jurassic K–T boundary Kellwasser Late Devonian Late Permian Maastrichtian major marine mass extinction mass extinction events North occurred oceanic Oligocene Ordovician ostracods oxygen isotope Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology Palaeogeography Palaeozoic Paleobiology PermoTriassic Phanerozoic planktonic planktonic foraminifera PTr boundary radiation Raup recognised reefs region regression Scythian sealevel changes sediments Sepkoski shallowwater species stratigraphic suggests survived taxa terrestrial transgression Triassic trilobites turnover Upper Western Interior Zone