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vorn in 1720. She had an opportunity of prosecuting her studies under the direction of doctor Conyers Middleton, to whom she was probably indebted for the tincture of learning which so remarkably influenced her character and manners. In 1742, she became the wife of Mr. Montagu, who left her mistress of a handsome fortune, which enabled her to gratify her taste for study and literary society. In 1769, she published an Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shakspeare. This work raised Mrs. Montagu to the rank of an arbitress of public taste. She opened her house, in Portman-square, to the BlueStocking Club-a society so denominated from a peculiarity in the dress of Mr. Benjamin Stillingfleet, one of the members; and carried on an epistolary correspondence with men of letters, published after her death, August 25, 1800.

MONTAIGNE, Michel de, one of the most ingenious French writers, was born Feb. 28, 1533, at the castle of the same name, belonging to his family, in Perigord. His father, Pierre Eyghem, seigneur de Montaigne, an Englishman by birth, and a brave soldier, who had been chosen mayor of Bordeaux, bestowed the greatest care on the cultivation of young Michel's promising talents, but adopted a peculiar mode of education. In order to facilitate his son's acquisition of the Latin language, which he had himself found difficult, he employed a German tutor, entirely ignorant of French, but complete master of Latin, before the child had left the nurse's arms; and as all the family were never permitted to speak any other language in the presence of the child, he had the pleasure of seeing the infant so completely matriculated into it as to be obliged to learn the French as a foreign tongue. "We all Latinized," says Montaigne, "at the castle, in such a manner that several Latin expressions came into use in the villages around, which exist to this time." Greek he learned in the usual manner, after it had been attempted in vain to delude him into a knowledge of it. The treatment of his father was peculiar in some other respects; thus he caused him to be waked in the morning by the sound of musical instruments, lest the genius of the boy should be injured by his being roused too suddenly; he allowed him the most unrestrained indulgence in his plays, and endeavored to lead him to the faith ful performance of his duties solely by inspiring him with a sense of right and wrong. Montaigne always shows the greatest regard for his father's memory.

At the age of 13, he had finished his studies at the college of Bordeaux, under Grouchy, Buchanan and Muret. His father destined him for a judicial station and married bim somewhat later to Françoise de la Chassaigne, daughter of a counsellor of the parliament of Bordeaux. Montaigne was for some time a parliamentary counsellor, but his aversion to the duties of the station led him to retire from it. The study of man was his favorite occupation. To extend his observations, and to restore his health, which had been shattered by the attacks of a hereditary disease (the stone), he travelled in Germany, Switzerland and Italy, and was every where received with great distinction. At Rome, which he visited in 1581, he received the title of a Roman citizen. In 1582, he was chosen mayor of Bordeaux, and the citizens of that place were so well satisfied with his administration, that they sent him to the court (in 1584), to attend to their interests there. Without doubt, the order of St. Michael was conferred on him by Charles IX, at this time, without any solicitation on his part, as has been reported. After making several other journeys of business, he returned to his castle, and devoted himself entirely to philosophy. His quiet, however, was disturbed by the troubles which distracted France in consequence of the cruel persecutions of the Huguenots; his castle was plundered by the leaguers, and he himself was ill treated by their adversaries. To these causes of distress was added the plague, which broke out in Guyenne, in 1586, and compelled him to leave his estate, with his family, and wander through the country, which was then the theatre of all kinds of atrocities. He then resided some time in Paris, but finally returned home, and died in 1592, after much bodily suffering, with the composure of a philosopher. Montaigne has described himself in his celebrated Essais; but he confesses only the lighter faults. He acknowledges himself indolent and averse to restraint, and complains of the badness of his memory. He had few of what are commonly called friends, but to his chosen intimates he was warmly attached. He loved to converse on familiar terms with educated men, whose observations were teints d'un jugement mûr et constant, et mêlés de bonté, de franchise, de gaieté et d'amitié. He was also fond of the society of handsome and intelligent women, although he says one should be on his guard against them The imagination he considered a fruitfu

source of evil. He had many ideas on education which have been revived in our times, without his receiving the credit of them; he wished that children should enjoy both physical and moral freedom; swathing he considered as injurious, and was of opinion that habit would enable us to dispense with all clothing. His views on legislation and the administration of justice enlightened his own age and have been useful to ours. He endeavored to simplify the laws and legal processes, and very justly remarks that laws are often rendered futile or injurious by their excessive rigor. His moral system was in general indulgent, but on some points strict. Speculative philosophy he rejected, devoting himself to the lessons of experience. He studied human nature in children and illiterate peasants. Equally removed from a general skepticism and from dogmatism, he was accustomed to suggest possibilities instead of making assertions, and to throw light on his subject from every point. His motto was Que sais-je? His great work, his Essais (first published in 1580, and often republished and translated into many languages), contains a treasure of wisdom. It may still be deemed one of the most popular books in the French language. The essays embrace a great variety of topics, which are touched upon in a lively, entertaining manner, with all the raciness of strong, native good sense, careless of system or regularity. Sentences and anecdotes from the ancients are interspersed at random with his own remarks and opinions, and with stories of himself, in a pleasant strain of egotism, and with an occasional license, to which severer casuists can with some difficulty reconcile themselves. Their style, without being pure or correct, is simple, bold, lively and energetic, and, according to La Harpe, he "impressed on the French language an energy which it did not before possess, and which has not become antiquated, because it is that of sentiments and ideas, and not alien to its idiom. It is not a book we are reading, but a conversation to which we are listening; and he persuades, because he does not teach." The best edition is that of Coste (3 vols., 4to., London, 1724). His style, though not always pure and correct, accurate and elevated, is original, simple, lively, bold and vigorous. Besides his Essays, his Voyages deserve mention, although not intended for publication. Montaigne also translated, at the request of his father, a treatise on Natural Theolgy, by Raymond Sebonde. There are

two English translations of the Essays, one by Charles Cotton, and an earlier one by John Florio.

MONTALEMBERT, Marc René, marquis de, born at Angoulême, in 1714, entered the army in his 18th year, served in the campaign of 1733, and distinguished himself at the sieges of Kehl and Philipps burg. As a reward for his services, the company of the prince of Conti's guards was given him. After the peace, he devoted his leisure to the sciences, and entered the academy in 1747, whose memoirs contain some of his papers, no less remarkable for the originality of their ideas than for their purity and elegance of style. During the seven years' war, he was stationed with the Russian and Swedish armies, and, at later periods, was sent to Brittany and the isle of Oleron, the latter of which he fortified on his new system. In 1779, he erected a wooden fort on the island of Aix, which astonished scientific men by its strength and completeness. His extravagance obliged him, in 1790, to sell his estate in the Angoumois, for which he received payment in assignats, and passed the rest of his life in poverty. As a partisan of the revolution, he (1789) sur rendered his pension, which had been conferred on him on account of the loss of an eye. During the stormy period of the revolution, he was imprisoned. He died in 1800. Among his works are La Fortification perpendiculaire, ou Art défensif supérieur à l'Art offensif (11 vols., 4to.); Mémoire sur les Affûts de la Marine; Réflexions sur le Siége de Saint-Jean d'Arc ; Mémoires ou Correspondance avec les Généraux et les Ministres, from 1761 to 1791; with some comedies, tales and chansons.

MONTANUS, in the middle of the second century, bishop of Pepuza, in Phrygia, an illiterate man, who gave himself out for the promised Comforter, who was to bring to perfect maturity the Christian system. In his doctrines, he deviates from the received opinions only in maintaining that all true Christians receive the inspirations of the Holy Ghost. The chiliastic or millennarian notions, and his rigid adherence to the letter of the law, he had in common with the Judaizing Christians; and the moral peculiarities of his sect consisted merely in a more strict observance of externals, frequent fasts, the contempt of heathenish learning and worldly conven iences, abstinence from second marriage, and a willingness to submit to celibacy and martyrdom. His disciples called themselves Pneumatici, from a belief in their superior spiritual perfection; they


were also called Pepuzians and Phrygians, because their doctrines principally prevailed in Phrygia and Asia Minor in general. Tertullian, himself a Montanist, defends their monastic rigor. On the other hand, the Alexandrian school, which was inclined to the Gnostic dogmas, opposed their fanaticism till they became extinct, in the fourth century, with the exception of some remains which survived a short time in Gaul, where the sect had been introduced by Phrygian colonists.

MONTASSAR. (See Caliph, vol. 2, page 410.)

MONTAUBAN; a city of France, in the department Tarn and Garonne, see of a bishop, with some public offices and 26,466 inhabitants. It is finely situated and well built. The cathedral, the episcopal palace, the hôtel de ville, and the bridge over the Tarn, are particularly worthy of being seen. Lat. 44° 0′ 55′′ N.; lon. 1° 21' E.; 140 leagues south of Paris. During the religious wars in France, Montauban was a stronghold of the Huguenots, and was besieged in 1580 by Montluc, and in 1621 by the troops of Louis XIII, without success. It suffered severely from the dragonnades, under Louis XIV.

MONTAUK POINT; the eastern extremnity of Long Island, New York, in Easthampton; lon. 72° W.; lat. 41° 4' N.; with a light-house.

MONTBELLIARD (in German, Mümpelgard); a city of France, in the department of the Doubs, in a fertile plain, commanded by an old castle, formerly the residence of the princes of Montbelliard; 4600 inhabitants. It was formerly strongly fortified, but Louis XIV captured it, and demolished the works, in 1674. It was ceded to France, with the territory forming a county of the same name, in 1796. Lon. 6° 44′ E.; lat. 47° 31' N.

MONTCALM DE SAINT-VERAN, Louis Joseph, marquis of, lieutenant-general in the French service, was born near Nimes, in 1712; after receiving a careful education, entered the military service in his 15th year, and distinguished himself on several occasions. In 1756, he was sent to Canada, as commander-in-chief of the French American colonies; and, although exposed, with a feeble army, to the rigors of a severe climate, and neglected by the mother country, he obtained repeated advantages over lord Loudon in the first campaign, gained a complete victory over Abercromby in the second, and fell, under the walls of Quebec, in 1759, in the battle with Wolfe.

MONTE BELLO; an Austrian town in


Vicenza, in Italy, 13 miles south-west of Vicenza; population 1500. Here was an engagement, in 1796, between the Austri ans and French under marshal Lannes (q.v.); hence his title of duke of Monte Bello.

MONTE CASINO; a celebrated benedictine abbey in the kingdom of Naples, in the province Terra di Lavoro, near the small town of S. Germano, and about 45 miles from the city of Naples, founded by St. Benedict of Norcia, in 529. It is situated on a mountain, from which it derives its name, near the ruins of the an cient Casinum, and is approached by a well-paved and winding road, the ascent of which occupies about two hours. The abbey, after having suffered repeated reverses, finally became considerable for its privileges and its wealth, and in the 11th and 12th centuries was the seat of science, particularly of medicine, the celebrated school of Salerno having been founded by the monks of Monte Casino. The church is very magnificent, although overloaded with ornament, and contains the tomb of the founder; the library is valuable, and there are many valuable pictures belong. ing to the abbey, particularly in the room and tower which St. Benedict is said to have inhabited. The monastery has served as a place of refuge to several sovereigns and pontiffs, and was formerly much visited by pilgrims and travellers, who were entertained free of expense. A hospitium, with four monks, was also supported at S. Germano, where travel. lers were received and provided with mules for continuing their journey to the abbey. At present, the road on which it lies is little frequented; the neighborhood is infested with robbers, and the old abbey has few visitors. (See Benedict, St.. and Benedictines.)

MONTE CIRCELLO (anciently Circæum promontorium, or jugum); a mountainous cape of Italy, near the sea, and by the ancients called an island, and celebrated as the habitation of Circe, the sorceress, who used to transform her lovers into brute animals. On this promontory once stood a town called Circaum; here was a chapel dedicated to Circe, and an altar to Minerva. Fifty miles south-east of Rome; lon. 12° 57' E.; lat. 41° 17′ N.

MONTECUCCULI, or, more correctly, MONTECUCCOLI, prince Raymond, one of the greatest military commanders of mod ern times, born in the Modenese, in 1608, bore arms at first in the capacity of a common soldier, under his uncle, and rose successively through all the ranks. His first brilliant exploit was in 1639 wben.

by a forced march, at the head of 2000 horse, he surprised a body of 10,000 Swedes, and captured all their artillery and baggage. Baner (q. v.), however, hastened to attack the victor, and made him prisoner. Montecuccoli now passed two years of captivity in the assiduous study of the military art. In 1646, he gained a victory over general Wrangel, at Triebel. After the peace of Westphalia (1648), he visited Sweden, and then returned to Modena, where, at a carrousel in honor of the marriage of the duke, he had the misfortune to kill his friend, the count Manzani. In 1657, the emperor of Germany sent him to the aid of John Casimir, king of Poland, against Ragotsky and the Swedes. Montecuccoli defeated the Transylvanians, and drove the Swedish forces from Cracow. Charles Gustavus, king of Sweden, then attacked Denmark; but Montecuccoli hastened to its defence, and relieved Copenhagen by land before the Dutch could introduce reinforcements by sea. The peace which followed this success did not leave him long in retirement: the conqueror of Ragotsky was now employed to protect that prince against the Turks. He compelled them to withdraw from Transylvania, and, by a wise system of delay, baffled all the attempts of their formidable force, until the arrival of the French, by whose aid he gained the great victory of St. Gothard (1664). This victory led to a peace, and Montecuccoli was mnade president of the imperial military council. On the breaking out of the war between the empire and France, he was placed at the head of the imperial troops, and checked the progress of Louis XIV, by the capture of Bonn, and by forming a junction with the prince of Orange, in spite of Turenne and Condé. The next year, the chief command was taken from him, but was restored in 1675, that he might make head against Turenne, on the Rhine. Montecuccoli was the only adversary worthy of that great commander. They spent four months in following and observing each other, each conjecturing the movements of his opponent by what would be his own in the same circumstances, and they were never deceived. They were on the point of risking a battle, when the French general was killed by a cannon ball. (See Turenne.) In the letter of Montecuccoli to the emperor, in which he speaks of the death of his great rival, he says that he cannot help regretting the loss of a man who was an honor to human nature: these words he had repeated several times on hearing the

news of Turenne's death. The prince of Condé could alone dispute the superiority which that event gave him. The prince was at first worsted, but finally succeeded in making head against the imperial commander, who considered this campaign as the most glorious of his life-not because he conquered, but because he was not conquered. Montecuccoli passed the reinainder of his life at the imperial court, the patron of learning, and promoted the establishment of an academy for natural science. He died at Lintz, in 1680. His memoirs, written in Italian, are distinguished for conciseness, clearness, and profound and scientific views.

MONTE FIASCONE; a papal town in the Patrimonio, 5 miles south of Bolsena, 10 north-west of Viterbo; lon. 11° 56' E.; lat. 42° 33′ N.; population 3000; see of a bishop. This is by some said to be the ancient Falerium, or Falerii, capital of the Falisci. It is now remarkable only for its situation, and for the hills surrounding it, which produce great quantities of excellent wine, particularly Muscadel.

MONTEM; a singular celebration which takes place every three years at Eton school, England. (See Eton.)

MONTEMAYOR, Jorge de a celebrated poet, born about 1520, in the small town of Montemayor, or Montemor, not far from Coimbra, in Portugal. He was much less indebted to study than to his natural genius, but he understood several living languages, and his translations from them are characterized by ease and faithfulness. In his youth, he entered the military career, although his inclination attracted him to music and poetry. He afterwards went to Castile, and, being destitute of other means of subsistence, joined the chapel of Philip II as a singer, and accompanied that prince to Germany, Italy and the Low Countries. After his return, he appears to have lived in Leon, where he wrote his celebrated Diana, which constitutes him the founder of the Spanish pastoral romance. Queen Catharine, sister of Charles V, and regent of the kingdom, called the poet to her court, and conferred on him an honorable post. By an elegy of Francisco Marcos Dorantes, which is contained in all the editions of the Diana, it appears that he died as early as 1562. Although a Portuguese by birth, he is considered as belonging to Spanish literature, as he wrote in Castilian. Cervantes calls the Diana the finest model of the pastoral romance. Besides that work, which is unfinished, we have a Cancionero, or collection of his poems.


MONTENEGRINS; the inhabitants of Montenegro, a country in the western part of Turkey in Europe, in the province of Albania, between lat. 42° 8′ and 43° 5' N., and lon. 18° 38′ and 19° 35′ E. In the language of the natives, the country is called Tschernagora, and received the name of Montenegro (Black Mountain), from the dark color of the forests which cover its mountains. The inhabitants are Sclavonians, and are described as bold, warlike and hospitable, but inclined to robbery. They are estimated at about 60,000, of whom 15,000 are capable of bearing arms. The superficial area of the country is 1000 square miles. This district was never reduced by the Turks, and, in 1797, the inhabitants threw off all dependence on Turkey, and formed an independent state, under the protection of Russia. Their ruler is called wladika, and is the spiritual and temporal head of affairs. Their language is Illyrico-Sclavonian. They belong to the Greek church, but have their own patriarch. The principal town is Atigne. In 1767, an adventurer by the name of Steffano Piccolo, made his appearance among them, who gave himself out for the Russian emperor Peter III, and excited an insurrection, which was not pacified without much bloodshed.-See Sommières, Voyage Historique et Politique de Montenegro (2 vols., 1820).

MONTE NOTTE; a mountain in Italy, on the borders of the state of Genoa and the duchy of Monferrat, 7 miles north of Savona, 12 south of Acqui, On the 11th of April, 1796, the Austrians, commanded by general Beaulieu, were defeated by the French under Bonaparte; the imperialists lost 2000 men killed, and as many prison


MONTE NUOVO; a mountain in Naples, thrown up by an earthquake, in the 16th century, in the valley of Averno. In 48 hours it attained the height of 2100 feet. Some part of it is cultivated. Near the foot of the mountain the sand is very hot from subterraneous fire.

MONTEREAU. (See Chatillon.) MONTE SANTO. (See Athos.) MONTEREY, a seaport or bay in New California. Lon. 121° 51′ W. Lat. 36° 36′ N. The bay is spacious, and is situated between Point Pinos, and Point Anno Nuovo. The climate is healthy, but subject to thick fogs.

MONTESPAN, Françoise-Athénais de Rochechouart de Mortemart, marchioness de, mistress of Louis XIV, born in 1641, was the second daughter of the duke of



Mortemart, and, in 1663, was married to the marquis de Montespan. To the most fascinating beauty she added a natural liveliness and wit, and a highly cultivated mind. Her conversation was gay, natural and piquante. On her first appearance at court, as the queen's dame du palais, Mlle de la Vallière possessed the favor of the monarch; but the grace, beauty and wit of the lovely marchioness soon made an impression on him (1668), and it was not long concealed from the courtiers-although the pious queen was slow to credit it-that, while that voluptuous prince already had one mistress at court, he was living in double adultery with another. Her husband had been ordered to retire to his estates, and Mme. de la Vallière withdrew in 1674. The first child of this adulterous connexion was born in 1672, and the birth was carefully concealed. The education of the children was committed to Mme. Scarron, afterwards De Maintenon, under the strictest injunctions of secrecy; but this exterior of decency was soon laid aside, and they were openly avowed. The influence of the favorite mistress was often exercised in public affairs, and her advice was often formally asked and followed. Several transient passions of the king still left her her power, until age and long possession, remorse, and a growing attachment to Mme. de Maintenon(q. v.), finally overcame his passion, and the frequent quarrels of the two ladies finally estranged his affections from Mme. de Montespan. She rarely appeared at court after 1685, and, in 1691, she entirely quitted it. Her last years were devoted to religious exercises, acts of benevolence and penitence. She died in 1707.

MONTESQUIEU (Charles de Secondat, baron de la Brède et de,) was descended from a noble family of Guienne, and was born Jan. 18, 1689, at the castle of Brède, near Bordeaux. When only twenty years old, this philosophical genius collected materials for his Esprit des Lois. An uncle, who was president of the parliament of Bordeaux, left him his property and office. In this sphere of action, Montesquieu tried to be useful in various ways. In the academy which was formed at Bordeaux, he delivered many excellent lectures on history, sought to attract atten tion to the natural sciences, in his time almost entirely neglected, and, for that purpose, projected the plan of a Histoire physique de la Terre ancienne et moderne, (which, however, as his efforts were afterwards turned in other directions, was never finished), &c. In 1721 he came

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