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retreat through the Jerseys, and in the greatest consequence to this country, as it attack on Trenton. In the last, he was in terminated in the acquisition of Louisiana. the vanguard, and received a ball through In the same year, he was appointed ininhis left shoulder. For his conduct in this ister to London, and the next year to action, he was promoted to a captaincy. Spain. In 1806, in conjunction with the General Wilkinson, in his Memoirs, bears late William Pinkney, he was appointed strong testimony to the gallantry and zeal minister to London, where he pursued the of Mr. Monroe, in the New Jersey cam- negotiations with the Fox ministry. Mr. paign. He was soon after appointed aid Monroe, having been prominently brought to lord Sterling, and served in that capacity forward as a candidate for the presidency, during the campaigns of 1777 and 1778, as successor to Mr. Jefferson, had an opand was engaged in the actions of Bran- tion given him to remain at the court of dywine, Germantown and Monmouth. London, or return. He returned, but soon He distiyguished himself in these actions. after withdrew from the canvass. In By entering the family of lord Sterling, he 1810, he was again

elected a member of lost his rank in the line, which he was the assembly of Virginia, and, in a few anxious to regain; but, as this could not weeks after the meeting of that body, govbe regularly done, Washington recom- ernor of that state. Nov. 26,1811, he was mended him to the legislature of Virginia, appointed secretary of state. The war de who authorized the raising of a regiment, partment being in a very embarrassed state, and gave him the command. In the ex- on the departure of its head, general Armhausted state of Virginia, colonel Monroe strong, Mr. Monroe undertook it, and made failed to raise bis regiment, and therefore extraordinary and very useful exertions to resumed the study of the law, under the help the war on the lakes, and the dedirection of Thomas Jefferson, then gov- fence of New Orleans. After he had reernor of Virginia. He was active as a duced to order the war department, he volunteer in the militia, in the subsequent resumed the duties of the department of invasions of Virginia, and, in 1780, visited state, which he continued to exercise unthe southern army, under De Kalb, as a til, in 1817, he was chosen by the people military commissioner, at the request of of the U. States the successor of James governor Jefferson. In 1782, he was Madison. In 1821, he was reëlected by a elected a member of the Virginia assem- vote unanimous with a single exception, bly, and, the same year, by that body, a one vote in New Hampshire having been member of the executive council, and, in given to John "Q. Adams. He was wise 1783, at the age of twenty-four, a member and fortunate in the selection of his minof the old congress, in which he served isters and measures. He went further three years. He was always at his post, than either of his two immediate prede engaged in the most arduous duties." He cessors, in muintaining the necessity of an introduced a resolution to vest in congress efficient general government, and in the power to regulate the trade with all strengthening every arm of the national the states, and other important resolutions. defence. He encouraged the army, inHe was appointed a commissioner to settle creased the navy, and caused those füreign the controversy between New York and naval expeditions to be sent out to the Massachusetts. In 1787, he was again West Indies, the Mediterranean, the coast returned to the assembly of Virginia, and, of Africa, and the shores of South Amerin 1788, was a member of the convention ica, which have given instruction to our of that state, to decide on the present con- officers, augmented the number of our stitution of the U. States. In 1790, he seamen, protected the national commerce, was elected a member of the senate of the and caused the country to be universally U. States, in which body he served until respected by distant nations. He ordered 1794. In May, 1794, he was appointed the principal headlands and exposed minister plenipotentiary to France. Mr. points along our borders and the seaMonroe was recalled from this mission in coast to be accurately surveyed, plans of 1796, by president Washington, with an fortifications drawn, and the reports made implied censure. In 1799, on the nomi- up, with a view to the ultimate complete uation of Mr. Madison, he was appointed defence of the frontiers of the U. States, governor of Virginia, in which situation, both on the land and sea side. He directo he served the constitutional term of three ed inquiries, surveys and plans, as to the years. In 1803, he was appointed minis- most suitable sites for the northern and ter extraordinary to France, to act in con- southern naval depots for the repair and junction with Mr. Livingston, the minister accommodation of our fleets during times resulent there. This mission was of the of war and peace. The cession of Flori.

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MONROE_MONSIGNY.

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da by Spain to the U. States was effected most too late, by liberal appropriations of
during his administration. It was during congress to satisfy the large claims which
his administration that the emancipated he preferred on the government for mon-
Spanish and Portuguese colonies were eys disbursed and debts incurred on its
formally recognised by the American gov- account.
ernment. He assumed high constitutional Mons (Latin for mountain); found in a
grounds in favor of internal improvement great number of geographical names, par-
and the bank of the U. States. He was ticularly in languages derived from the
mainly instrumental in promoting the Latin, as Montigny (inflamed mountain),
pension law for the relief of indigent rev- Piedmont (foot of the mountain), Mont-
olutionary soldiers. During his adminis- pellier (Mons Puellarum), Montmirail (ad-
tration, the illustrious: Lafayette was invit- mirable mountain), Montmartre (mountain
ed to visit these shores as the guest of the of Mars or of the martyrs), Montreal (roy-
nation. . He took the most energetic al mount), Vermont (green mountain), &c.
measures in favor of the abolition of the MONS (Berghen); a city lately belong-
slave-trade, and continued to encourage ing to the kingdom of the Netherlands, at
the establishment of the principles of present in the kingdom of Belgium, capi-
commerce with all nations, upon the basis tal of the province of Hainaut, situated
of free and equal reciprocity. It is a high on a steep hill, on the Trouille. Since
compliment to the firmness, judgment and 1818, its fortifications have been much
sagacity of Mr. Monroe, that he proclaim- extended and strengthened, and it now
ed to the world the determination of the forms one of the strongest frontier for-
U.States not to suffer any European pow. tresses of Belgium. The country around
er to interfere with the internal concerns can be easily laid under water. Popula
of the independent South American gov- tion, 20,000. Its manufactures have been
ernments. The well-timed expression of considerable, consisting of woollen, linen
this sentiment put an end to all rumors of and cotton goods, oil, soap, pottery; and it
any armed intervention in the affairs of bas carried on an extensive trade in coals,
Spanish America. Colonel Monroe retir- obtained in the neighborhood, hops, grain,
ed from the office of president at the end cattle, horses, mill-stones, marble. Mons
of his second term. In the late stages of is an old city, and has belonged by turns
his life, he was associated with the ex- to Spain, Austria, and France. (See
presidents Jefferson and Madison, in Netherlands.)
founding and regulating the university of MONSEIGNEUR (French, my lord); a title
Virginia. Subsequently, he was chosen a of dignity in France; the dauphin was
member of the convention for amending formerly styled monseigneur, without any
the constitution of his native state, and addition. Princes, archbishops, bishops,
presided over the deliberations of that as- cardinals, marshals of France, presidents.
sembly. He did not disdain to act as jus- of parliament, &c., were addressed by this
tice of the peace in the county of London, title. The plural is messeigneurs. The
in which he resided. Mr. Monroe died at Italian monsignore is used in a similar
New York, on the 4th day of July, 1831, manner.
the anniversary of American indepen- MONSIEUR (in French), used simply,
dence, like the ex-presidents Adams and without any addition, formerly designated
Jefferson. · Colonel Monroe's biography the king's eldest brother. in common use,
is intimately and honorably connected it answers both to the English sir and Mr.,
with the civil and military history of the aud is also used before titles. In writing,
U. States. We have merely indicated the it is expressed by the abbreviation M.
principal stations which he held, and the The plural is messieurs. Monsieur is
nature of the services which he perform- sometimes used by English writers as a
ed. He was one of the leaders of the term of coutempt for a Frenchman.
democratic or Jefferson party, and involv- Monsigny, Pierre Alexandre, born 1729,
ed in most of the party questions and oc- in Artois, a popular musical composer,
cuurences by which the country was who is considered as the creator of the
divided and agitated. He possessed a French comic opera. While young, his
very energetic, persevering spirit, a vigor- talent for music was suddenly awakened
ous mind, and extraordinary powers of by his witnessing the performance of Per-
application. In his unlimited devotion to golesi's Serva Padrona, and he devoted
the public business, he neglected his pri- himself entirely to the study. He learned
vate affairs. He retired from office ex- composition under Giannotti, who dis-
tremely deep in debt-a situation from · missed him in five months, as a pupil who
which he was relieved, though when al- knew all that he could teach. But Giav

sto

4.18-47 kapta Harvey

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notti was astonished to find that his pupil subsequently by the power of the imhad already composed an opera, Les agination of the mother, transferring the Aveux indiscrets., which he brought out, imperfection of some external object, or after having recast it, three years afterwards the mark of something for which she (1759). Encouraged by its success, he longed, and with which she was not inproduced, in 1760, Le Čadi dupé and Le dulged, to the child of which she was Maitre en Droit. The opera On ne s'Avise pregnant, or by some accident which bapjamais de tout, brought forward in 1761, pened to her during her pregnancy. But completed the musical revolution at the this has been disproved by common théâtre de la Foire, which then took observation, and by philosophy, not, perthe name of the Italian opera. Le Roi et haps, by positive proofs, but by many le Fermier; Rose et Colas ; Aline, Reine strong negative facts; as the improbabilide Golconde ; L'Isle sonnante ; Le Deser- ty of any child being born perfect

, had teur, &c., were received with great ap- such a power existed; the freedom of plause. On the death of Grétry, Monsigny children from any blemish, though their succeeded him in the institute, and on the mothers had been in situations most exdeath of Piccini, in 1800, he was appoint- posed to objects likely to produce them; ed director of the conservatoire, at Paris. the ignorance of the mother of any thing He died in 1817.

being wrong in the child, till, from inMonsoons (from the Malay mussin, formation of the fact, she begins to recolseason); periodical trade-winds, which lect every accident which happened durblow six months in one direction, and the ing her pregnancy, and assigns the worst rest of the year in an opposite one. They or the most plausible as the cause; the prevail in the Indian ocean, north of the organization and color of these adventi10th degree of south latitude. From April tious substances; the frequent occurrence to October, a violent south-west wind of monsters in the brute creation, in blows, accompanied with rain, and from which the power of the imagination canOctober to April a gentle, dry north-east not be great; and the analogous appearbreeze prevails. The change of the ances in the vegetable system. Judging, winds, or the breaking up of the mon- however, froin appearances, accidents soons, as it is called, is accompanied by may perhaps be allowed to have constorms and hurricanes. These periodical siderable influence in the production of currents of winds do not reach very high, monsters of some kinds, either by actual as their progress is arrested by mountains injury upon parts, or by suppressing or of a moderate height. (See Winds.) deranging the principle of growth, be

Monsters ; in physiology, creatures cause, when an arm, for instance, is wantwhose formation deviates in some re- ing, the rudiments of the deficient parts dimarkable way from the usual formation may generally be discovered. of their kind. The deviation consists MONSTRELET, Enguerrand de, a chronsometimes in an unusual number of oue icler of the fifteenth century, born at Camor several organs; sometimes, on the con- bray, of which he became governor, was trary, in a deficiency of parts; sometimes the author of a history in French, of his in a malformation of the whole

own times. The history extends from some portion of the system, and some. 1400 to 1467; but the last fifteen years times in the presence of organs or parts were furnished by another hand. It connot ordinarily belonging to the sex or spe- tains a narrative of the contentions of the cies. In most cases, these unusual for. houses of Orleans and Burgundy, the mations are not incompatible with the capture of Normandy and Paris by the regular performance of the natural func- English, with their expulsion, &c. Montions, although they sometimes impede strelet died in 1453. them, and, in some cases, are entirely in- Mont Blanc (white mountain); the consistent with the continuance of the loftiest mountain of Europe, one of the vital action. It is not surprising that we summits of the Pennine Alps, on the should be ignorant of the manner in borders of Savoy and Aosta, between which monsters, or irregular births, are the valleys of Chamouni (q. v.) and Engenerated or produced; though it is prob- treves; lat. 45° 50 N.; lon. 6° 52' E. able that the laws by which these are The following measurements of its elevagoverned are as regular, both as to cause tion above the surface of the Mediterraand effect, as in common or natural pro- nean sea are deemed the most accurate: ductions. Formerly, it was a general by M. Deluc, 15,302 feet; M. Pictet, opinion, that monsters were not primordial 15,520 ; sir George Shuckburgh, 15,662; vor ahoriginal, but that they were caused M. Saussure, 15,670; M. Tralles, 15,780.

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MONT BLANC-MONTAGU.

Its elevation above the valley of Chamou- attracted notice by his verses on the death ui is 12,160 feet. It is discernible from of Charles II ; and, in 1687, he wrote, Dijon and Langres, 140 miles distant. It in conjunction with Prior, the City receives its name from the immense mantle Mouse and Country Mouse–a travesty of snow with which its summit and sides on Dryden's Hind and Panther. In the are covered, and which is estimated to reign of William III, he obtained the extend not less than 12,000 feet, without place of clerk of the privy council, and the least appearance of rock to interrupt became a member of the house of comits glaring whiteness. An ascent to the mons. In 1694, he was made chancellor summit was first made, in 1786, by doctor of the exchequer, and subsequently first Pacard, of Chamouni, and his guide, lord of the treasury. His administraJames Balma. In August, 1787, Saus- tion was distinguished by the adoption sure ascended it with 18 guides, and re- of the funding system, and the establishmained on the summit five hours. The ment of the bank of England. In 1698, pulse was found to beat more rapidly, Montagu was a member of the council of and the party complained of exhaustion, regency during the absence of the king, thirst, and want of appetite. The color and, in 1700, was raised to the peerage. of the sky was very deep blue bordering In the reign of Anne, when tory influon black, and in the shade the stars were ence prevailed, he was twice impeached visible. Up to 1828, fourteen ascents had before the house of lords; but the probeen made. In 1818, Messrs. Howard ceedings against him fell to the ground. and Van Renssalaer from New York, in George I created him earl, and bestowed 1825, doctor Clark and captain Sherwill, on him the order of the garter; but Haliascended it.—See Sherwill's Visit to the fax, being disappointed in his expectation Summit of Mont Blanc (London, 1827). of obtaining the office of lord treasurer, In 1827, two English gentlemen, who joined the opposition. His death took

, made the attempt, were obliged, by a new place May 19, 1715. The poems and cleft in the ice, to take a new course, speeches of lord Halifax were published, which has proved to be less toilsome and with biographical memoirs, in 1715 (8vo.); hazardous than the former. Eighteen and the former were included in the glaciers lie around, whose various and edition of English Poets, by doctor Johnfantastic forms increase the magical effect son. He aspired to the character of the of the wonderful spectacle from the sum- Mæcenas of his age, and his patronage of mit, from which the view extends nearly Addison is creditable to his discrimina150 miles in almost every direction. The tion, though little can be said in praise of highest summit is a small ridge, about six bis munificence. feet wide, precipitous on the north side, Montagu, lady Mary Wortley, one of and called in Savoy, the dromedary's back. the most celebrated among the female It is covered with a solid body of snow. literary characters of England, was the (See Alps, Glaciers, Andes, Himalaya, and eldest daughter of Evelyn, duke of KingsMountains.)

ton, by his wife lady Mary Fielding, the Mont D'OR; a mountain of France, in daughter of the earl of Denbigh. She Puy-de-Dôme, about 6130 feet above the was born about 1690, at Thoreshy, in level of the sea, abounding in curious Nottinghamshire, and displaying uncomplants and mineral springs.

mon abilities at an early age, was educated Mont PERDU; summit of the Pyrenees, upon a liberal plan, and instructed by the on the frontier line between France and same masters as her brother, in the Greek Spain; about 100 miles east of the bay Latin and French languages. In her of Biscay, and further west from the twentieth year, she gave an extraordinary Mediterranean. It has a double summit, proof of her erudition, by a translation of one computed at 10,700 feet, or, by anoth- the Enchiridion of Epictetus, which was er statement, 11,265 feet high; the other revised by bishop Burnet, by whom her at 10,400. The line of perpetual congela- education was ultimately superintended. tion here is about 7500 feet in height. Her mind was nourished in great com

Montagu, Charles, earl of Halifax; an parative retirement, previously to her English statesman and poet, bom at Hor- marriage, in 1712, with Edward Wortley con, in Northamptonshire, in 1661. He Montagu. Even after her marriage, she was descended from the family of the lived chiefly at her husband's seat of Montagus, earls of Manchester, and was Wharncliffe, near Sheffield, until the lateducated at Westminster school, and ter, being introduced to a seat in the Trinity college, Cambridge. From the treasury, by the earl of Halifax (see the university he went to London, where he preceding article), brought his Indy ir

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London. Being thus placed in the sphere copied by herself, and presented, in 1766, of the court, she attracted that admiration to the reverend Mr. Sowden, of Amsterwhich beauty and elegance, joined to wit dam, of whom they were purchased by and the charms of conversation, never fail the earl of Bute: a surreptitious copy of to inspire. She became familiarly ac- them was published in 1763, in 3 vols., quainted with Addison, Pope, and other 12mo. The authenticity of these letters, distinguished writers. In 1716, Mr. Wort- which obtained universal admiration for ley being appointed ambassador to the their wit, judgment and descriptive powers, Porte, lady Mary determined to accompa- was, for a long time, doubted; but all disny him, and hence her admirable corre- trust was done away by the following pubspondence, chiefly consisting of letters ad- lication, under the sanction of the earl of dressed to the countess of Mar, lady Rich Bute: the Works of the Right Honorable and Mr. Pope; to whom she communi- Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, including her cated her observations on the new and in- Correspondence, Poems and Essays, pubteresting scenes to which she was a witness. lished by permission from her genuine paOn many occasions she displayed a mind pers (London, 1803, 6 vols., 12mo.), with a superior to common prejudices, but in none Life, by Mr. Dallaway. This edition conso happily as in a courageous adoption tains many additional letters, written in the of the Turkish practice of inoculation latter part of her life, which display much for the small-pox in the case of her own excellent sense and solid reflection, alson, and a zealous patronage of its intro- though tinged with some of the prejudices duction into England. In 1718, Mr. of rank, and indicative of increasing misWortley returned to England, and at the anthropy. request of Pope, lady Mary took up her MONTAGU, Edward Wortley, the only summer residence at Twickenham, and a son of the subject of the preceding article, friendship was formed between these kin- was born in 1713. At an early age, he dred genuises, wbich gradually gave way was sent to Westminster school, from to dislike, produced by difference of po- which he ran away three times, and, assolitical opinion, petulance and irritability ciating himself with the lowest classes of on the side of the poet, and no small dis-society, passed through some extraordinaposition to sarcastic keenness on that of ry adventures, sailed to Spain as a cabinthe lady; and a literary war ensued, which boy, and was at length discovered by the did honor to neither party. Lady Mary British consul at Cadiz, and restored to preserved her ascendency in the world of his family. A private tutor was then rank and fashion until 1739, when, her provided for him, with whom he travhealth declining, she took the resolution elled on the continent. During his resiof passing the remainder of her days on dence abroad, he wrote a tract, entitled the continent, not without the world sur- Reflections on the Rise and Fall of Anmising that other causes concurred to in- cient Repnblics. On bis return to Engduce her to form this resolution. She, jand, he obtained a seat in the house of however, retired with the full concurrence commons; but, living extravagantly, he of her husband, with whom her subse- became involved in debt, and left his quent correspondence betrays neither re- native country never to return. His fusentment nor humiliation. Venice, A- ture conduct was marked by eccentricivignon and Chamberry were, in turn, her ties not less extraordinary than those by l'esidence, until the death of Mr. Wortley, which he had been distinguished in the in 1761, when she complied with the so- early part of his life. He went to Italy, licitations of her daughter, the countess where he professed the Roman Catholic of Bute, and returned to England, after religion; and from that he apostatized to an absence of twenty-two years. She become a disciple of Mohammed, and a enjoyed a renewal of family intercourse scrupulous practiser of the formalities of for a short time only, as she died of a Islamism. After passing many years in uradual decay, in 1762, aged seventy-two. Egypt, and other countries bordering on As a poetess, lady Mary Wortley Monta- the Nediterranean, he was about to return yu exlibits ease, and some powers of de- to England, when his death took place at scription; but she is negligent and incor- Padua, in Italy, in 1776. He was the rect. The principal of her performances author of an Examination into the Causes in this class is her Town Eclogues, a sa- of Earthquakes, and some papers in the tirical parüdy of the common pastoral, Philosophical Transactions. upplied to fashionable life and manners. MONTAGU, Elizabeth, a lady of literary As a letter-writer, her fame stands very celebrity, was the daughter of Matthew high ; her letters were collected and Robinson, of the Rokeby family, and was

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