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and Inverlochy, in recompense for which ne was created a marquis. In 1645, being defeated by Lesley, he left the kingdom, and remained abroad until 1650, when he went to Orkney, with a few followers; but, being taken, he was conveyed to Edinburgh, where he was hanged and quartered, May 21, 1650.
MONTROUGE; a village of France, near Paris at which is the entrance to the vast catacombs (q. v.), which extend under a part of Paris, and contain the bones of twenty generations. The remnants of the French army, after the battle of Waterloo, were rallied on the plains of Montrouge. MONTSERRAT; one of the Little Antilles, or Caribbee islands, belonging to England; lat. 16° 47' N.; lon. 62° 15′ W. It is about nine miles long, and nearly as wide, and contains 30,000 acres, of which two thirds are mountainous and barren. The exports are sugar, rum, cotton and indigo; the population, 8000, of which 6500 are slaves. Plymouth is the chief place. The island was discovered by Columbus, in 1493, and colonized by the English, in 1632.
MONTSERRAT (Monserrado); a mountain in Spain, in the province of Catalonia, 24 miles south-west of Barcelona, which has its name from its numerous peaks, resemnbling the teeth of a saw. It is famous for its ancient Benedictine monastery, which was partly destroyed, in 1812, by the French. The monastery is composed, in part, of thirteen hermitages, which are accessible only by steps hewn out of the steep rock. The youngest monks occupy the highest, at an elevation of 3000 or 4000 feet. They are supplied with provisions from the monastery, by mules trained for the purpose; they hear the sound of the bells, the music of the organ, and the singing of the choir, but assemble only on festival days to perform divine service in the monastic chapel. Many of these hermits have only room for a small hut; others have also a small garden. Some of their dwellings appear to be suspended in the air, and can be approached only by means of ladders and bridges, over terrible precipices. The inmates gradually descend as the tenants below them die off, until they inherit a place in the monastery which contains the tombs. The mountain is full of narrow passes, many of which are fortified. The image of the virgin, pretended to have been found in a cave in the ninth century, draws many pilgrims thither.
MONTUCCI, Antonio, one of the most learned Chinese scholars in Europe, born Sienna, in 1769, studied at the universi
ty there, devoting himself to the living languages with almost incredible application. In 1785, he was made professor of English at the college Tolmei, and, in 1789, accompanied Mr. Wedgwood to England as Italian teacher in his family. Here he became acquainted with four young Chinese, obtained from them a copy of the Chinese dictionary Tching Tseu Thoung, which was not before known in Europe, and soon formed the plan of preparing a new dictionary of the Chinese language. To meet the expense, he laid his prospectus before several princes and academies, but the king of Prussia was the only person who made him an answer. He set out for Prussia; but the expedition of Napoleon (1806) disappointed his expectations of aid from the Prussian court. He continued, however, to labor on his dictionary, supporting himself by giving lessons in English and Italian. In 1812, he went to Dresden, where he continued to teach, and lectured on the Chinese language and literature. In 1827, he returned to Italy, and died in 1829. His dictionary and a part of his Chinese library had been previously purchased by Leo XII, for the instruction of the missionaries in the Vatican. He was also the author of several compilations, &c., for the study of Italian, and edited the Poesie inedite of Lorenzo de' Medici, published at the expense of Roscoe (Liverpool, 1790).
MONTUCLA, John Stephen; an eminent French mathematician, born at Lyons, in 1725, studied in the college of the Jesuits, and completed his education at Toulouse, with a view to the legal profession. He then engaged in practice as a counsellor, but afterwards devoted himself to the cultivation of mathematical science. He published a treatise on the quadrature of the circle; and in 1758 appeared his Histoire des Mathématiques (2 vols., 4to.)-a work of great research and ability. He was appointed secretary to the intendant of Grenoble, and subsequently went to Cayenne, with the title of royal astronomer. The latter part of his life was devoted to the augmentation of his history, of which a new edition was published at Paris, in 4 vols., 4to., in 1799; reprinted in 1810. Montucla also published an enlarged edition of the Récréations Mathématiques et Physiques of Ozanam, an English translation of which, by doctor Charles Hutton, appeared in 1803 (4 vols., 8vo.). His death took place in 1799.
MONUMENT, in its widest sense, includes every thing by which the memory
his own expense, undertook the regulation and superintendence of the games. Each endeavored to surpass the other; the con queror received a tripod of brass as the prize, which was usually the work of a great artist, and was regarded as honor to his family. This prize was publicly placed on a small edifice or a single pillar, on which the name of the choragus and the date of the games were inscribed. A particular street in Athens was appropriated to these monuments, called the street of tripods. Some of these have been preserved to our time. The most splendid of all, and the most ornamented, is the choragic monument of Lysicrates, usually called the lantern of Demosthenes; next to this, the monument of Thrasyllus and Thrasycles, and some pillars. The Romans, who contended with the Greeks in the arts, were equally successful in monuments, of which one species is entirely theirs-the triumphal arch. (See Triumphal Arch.) The earliest tombs in Greece and Rome were either erected on the spot where the ashes of the deceased were deposited, or in some other place chosen at pleasure. These latter' were termed cenotaphs. Both kinds were found in the cities or their vicinity, and scattered along the roads, which they ornamented. The rude stone was by degrees transformed into a noble pillar; subsequently, on a foundation of stone, two small pillars were erected, covered with a pediment, and the intermediate space was destined for the images of the deceased, inscriptions and bass-reliefs. Small buildings in the form of temples followed, and these, in time, increased in magnificence. The greatest monument of this description was the (so called) mausoleum (see Artemisia), after which splendid sepulchres are still called mausoleums. Modern Europe presents monuments of both kinds. The public monuments commemorative of great events are principally in the capitals, and many of these are described and represented in Sturm's Architektonische Reiseanmerkungen. A tolerably good collection was given by the abbé de Lubersac, in his Discours sur les Monumens publics de tous les Ages et detous les Peuples (Paris, 1776, folio). Many of the monuments of France are represented in Millin's Antiquités Nationales. The royal Académie des In scriptions has contributed to turn the atten tion of the French artists to this subject.
of a person, period or event is perpetuated. Monuments of antiquity include writings as well as the productions of the fine and useful arts; for Homer's poems are equally a monument of his time, as the Pantheon or the domestic utensils found amongst the ruins of Pompeii. These monuments are of the greatest interest, leading us back into former ages, and presenting the manners, customs and institutions of the people. Some are valuable only in their character of memorials, that is, as preserving the memory of certain persons or events; others have an intrinsic value as works of the fine arts. (Sec Antiquity, Antique, &c.) The productions of sculpture and architecture, intended to transmit to posterity the memory of remarkable individuals or events, are most generally understood by the term monuments of Such as antiquity. ornament public places, gardens, &c., are chiefly in commemoration of great events. Among the monuments in honor of individuals are tombs and sepulchral edifices or columns. In all ages, and with every nation, we find this description of monument, from the first rude attempts of art to its greatest perfection. The most ancient known to us are the obelisks and pyramids of Egypt, and, perhaps, contemporary with these, the tombs of the Persian kings, which are still beheld with admiration in the ruins of Persepolis. These monuments command our awe by their grandeur and simplicity, in which they are, perhaps, superior to similar works of Grecian art, though the latter excel them in beauty. Hardly any country offered so great a number of monuments as Greece, where they were erected in honor of the victors in battle, and in the solemn games, and of other distinguished men, but were often also thrown away on the undeserving. The warrior had statues and trophies; the victor in the games had statues and pillars. On the isthmus of Corinth, near the temple of Neptune, were statues of the victors in the Isthmian games; in the holy grove of Altis, near Olympia, were those of the victors in the Olympic games. There were also many trophies. Buildings were frequently erected in commemoration of distinguished persons or events, which differed greatly in form and splendor. Thus, in Athens, the choragic monuments were erected in honor of those who had received the prizes as choragi in the theatrical and musical games. In these games it was customary for each of the ten guilds of Athens to select one choragus, who, at
MONZA; a city of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, seven miles from Milan, or the Lambro. Its beautiful edifices show that it was once a royal residence the
streets are regular and well paved, and there are several handsome palaces, among which that of Mirabello contains many fine paintings and works of sculpture. The cathedral erected by Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards, in the seventh century, is worthy of mention: among its curiosities is the iron crown of the Lombard kings, with the inscription Guai a chi tocca, which Napoleon placed upon his head in 1805, with the words Dieu me la donne; gare à qui la touche. The population is 10,500. It was formerly the residence of the kings of Lombardy.
MOON is the name given to the satellites which revolve round the primary planets and illuminate them with light reflected from the sun. In common language, we mean by moon the particular satellite of our earth. Like the other heavenly bodies, it daily alters its apparent position among the fixed stars, and, in the course of a month, appears to make acomplete revolution round the heavens, from west to east, while, at the same time, it has, like the fixed stars, an apparent daily motion from east to west. Among all the heavenly bodies, the moon is the nearest to us. Its mean distance is estimated at about thirty tines the diameter of the terrestrial equator, or 237,000 miles. The point at which it approaches nearest the earth is called its perigee; the point of its greatest distance is called the apogee. It passes through both these points in each revolution. According as it is nearer to, or farther from the earth, its diameter, as seen from the earth, appears larger or smaller. At its mean distance, this amounts to 31 minutes and 9 seconds. Astronomers make the moon's actual diameter 3 times smaller than that of the earth; therefore the superficies of the moon equals but of the earth's, and its solid contents equals but. In the moon's revolution great inequalities are remarked. These arise mostly from the strong at traction of the sun in the various positions which it assumes relatively to the earth. This was first understood after Newton's discovery of the universality of the law of gravity. Tobias Mayer published the first accurate lunar tables. As the moon completes her revolution about the earth in 27 days, 8 hours, or, more accurately, in 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 5 seconds, it passes daily, on an average, through 13° 10 35" of its course. Besides the double motion of the moon round our earth, and with the earth round the sun, it also revolves on its own axis. It completes a revolution on its own axis in the same time
with its revolution round the earth, as ap pears from its always presenting the same side to the earth. In consequence of this remarkable coincidence, the earth must appear to a spectator on the moon to be always in the zenith. One side of the moon, moreover, never receives the reflection of the sun's rays from the earth, while the other is constantly illuminated by it; both sides, however, are equally illumined by the direct rays of the sun. Some little irregularity has been perceived in the surface of the moon presented to the earth. its spots sometimes appearing more to the north, at others more to the south; a similar variation is perceived east and west. This phenomenon is denominated the libration of the moon in latitude and longitude. The causes of both have been discovered. (See Libration.) Of all the heavenly bodies, the moon, from its comparative proximity to the earth, is the one of which most is known. That it is an opaque body, receiving its light from the sun, is evident from the phenomena of solar and lunar eclipses, but more particularly from the various phases which it presents. Even the naked eye discovers, on the illuminated surface of the moon, several spots, more or less bright; and a good telescope shows us, in the bright parts on the limits of illumination, prominences and depressions, which are regarded as mountains and valleys. The numerous observations of Herschel and Schröter, through a number of years, have put the existence of these beyond dispute: Schröter has even undertaken to determine the elevation of mountains in the moon. The two heights on the southern limb, which he called Leibnitz and Dorfel, he measured by means of the shade which they cast, knowing, at the same time, the sun's elevation with regard to them, and found them to be 26,650 feet high; therefore almost as high as the most elevated summits of the Himalaya. dark spots appear, when intersected by the frontier line of illumination, always even and without prominences. Hence they are supposed to be plains, consisting of a substance which has comparatively little power of reflecting the sun's rays. That they are seas, is not probable, since Huyghens observed great depressions in them, and Schröter, in several of these depressions, discovered evident traces of various horizontal strata, lying one upon the other, and forming a wall around them. Schröter, who measured several of these depressions, found their diameter
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to be from thirty feet to more than half a mile; the diameter of one, in fact, was over sixteen miles, and its depth 30,000 fathoms. The number of spots on the moon was formerly considered to be 244. Schröter has increased their number to 6000, and accurately observed and described many of them. There is no appearance of water in the moon. The depressions, with their walls and surrounding mountains, Schröter regards as craters. The large gray spots appear to him regions which have suffered less, and in which, perhaps, some vegetation exists. He has also observed other changes on the moon's surface, which he considered to be of volcanic origin. From all appearances, it would seem that the surface of the moon is still subjected to great revolutions. Perhaps it is still torn open or thrown up in prominences by violent volcanoes and earthquakes in the interior, as may have once been the case with our earth also. Such revolutions have been supposed to afford a means of accounting for the fall of meteoric stones on the surface of our earth, the power of a volcano in the moon being supposed sufficiently great to throw such masses out of the sphere of the moon's attraction into that of the earth. (See Meteoric Stones.) The shepherd Endymion, according to Pliny, first observed the course of the moon and its changes. Hence the story of Endymion (q. v.) and Diana. Even the Chaldeans considered the moon as the smallest among the heavenly bodies and the nearest to the earth; they knew that her light was borrowed, fixed her periodical phases with much accuracy, and attributed her eclipses to the shadow of the earth. That the moon was inhabited, was conjectured by Orpheus, or rather by the author of the verses which exist under his name; and Pherecydes of Scyros, a contemporary of Servius Tullius, is said to have determined the time of her revolution. The Pythagoreans affirmed that the moon contained mountains, cities, plants, animals and men. Anaximander knew the size of the moon, its distance from the earth, and that its light was borrowed from the sun. The spots on its surface Clearchus considered to be seas. In modern times, this planet has occupied much of the attention of astronomers. The question whether the moon has an atmosphere has been settled by Schröter in the affirmative.-See the article on the moon's atmosphere, in the first volume of Gehler's Physikal. Wörterbuch (Leipsic, 1825).-Doctor Francis von Paula Gruit
huisen, professor of astronomy at Munich, has, of late years, paid great attention to the moon, and his discoveries and bypotheses, though wanting confirmation, have excited much interest. In his opinion, the straight lines, often of considerable length and a parallel direction, which have been observed on its surface, and which are made up of objects resembling, in shape, a star, an inverted Z, &c., are, in fact, roads, with cities, temples, dwellings, &c. At present, however, these conjectures can hardly be regarded as more than the creations of a lively imagination. The Topographie der sichtbaren Mondoberfläche, by W. G. Lohrmann (Leipsic, 1824, 4to.), represents the eleva tions and colors of the moon's surface with fidelity, and in such a manner as not to be affected by the libration or the different degrees of illumination.-See also Drobisch's De vera Luna Figura, and his Symbolæ ad Selenographiam_mathematicam (Leipsic, 1826). The various appearances which the moon periodically presents in the different parts of its revolution, are termed phases, and arise from the different positions which its opaque mass assumes in relation to the sun and the earth. Every one knows that, at a certain period of the moon's revolution, it is invisible; at other times, it appears of a sickle shape, then semicircular, and finally presents a complete circular disk. When the moon is between the sun and the earth (in which case the sun and moon are said to be in conjunction), it presents its unillumined side to us, and we can see nothing of it. In this state it is called the new moon. Soon after, it recedes from the sun, and a small part of its illumined surface becomes visible in the evening horizon. Four days after the time of new moon, it has receded 45° from the sun; and now a portion of its illumined surface is seen in the shape of a sickle, with the horns towards the sun. The moon now departs every day farther from the sun, moving in a direction from west to east, and therefore appears every evening nearer the eastern horizon, and the sickle-shaped figure grows daily broader. After about eight days from the time of new moon, it has departed 90° from the sun, and now shows a bright semicircular disk. In this state the almanacs say the moon is in its first quarter. Departing continually farther, the illumined portion continually increases, and assumes more and more of a circular figure, until about fifteen days after the time of new moon, when it stands directly opposite the suu
it presents a complete circular disk. In this state we call it the full moon. At this time, it rises when the sun sets, and shines the whole night through. From new moon to full moon, it is said to wax (increase). From the day of full moon, it decreases, with each successive day, on the side most distant from the sun, as it is now approaching the sun at the same rate as it before departed. In the course of seven or eight days, it has again arrived within 90° of the sun, and now shows but half its disk on the left side, and is said to be in its last quarter. At this time, it rises at midnight. It now shows less and less of its illumined surface, and finally assumes the sickle shape, with the horns, however, turned from the sun; rises later and later, and at the end of about 29 days. from the time of new moon again comes into conjunction with the sun, disappears, and commences a new revolution. From full moon to new moon, it is said to wane. The moon, when new and full, is said to be in its syzygies, and its appearances at the different quarters are called changes. As well before as after new moon, the naked eye can discern a pale light on the portion of the disk not illumined by the sun. This is reflected from the earth; for, at the time when it is most perceptible, the sun has not yet set, in the afternoon, and in the forenoon has been up for some time. The inhabitants of the moon, therefore, at such times, see our earth as an illumined disk in the heavens, fourteen times larger than the moon appears to us. -Age of the moon is the number of days since the new moon, which is found by the following rule: To the epact add the number and day of the month, which will be the age required, if less than thirty; and if it exceed thirty, subtract this number from it, and the remainder will be the age. (See Epact.)--Harvest moon is a remarkable phenomenon relating to the rising of this luminary in the harvest season. During the time she is full, and for a few days before and after, in all, about a week, there is less difference in the time of her rising between any two successive nights than when she is full in any other month of the year. By this means she affords an immediate supply of light after sunset, which is very beneficial in gathering in the fruits of the earth; and hence it is, that this lunation has been termed the harvest moon. In order to conceive this phenomenon, it must first be considered, that the moon is always opposite to the sun when she is full that she is full in the signs Pisces and
Aries in our harvest months, these being the signs opposite to Virgo and Libra, the signs occupied by the sun about the same season; and because those parts of the ecliptic rise in a shorter space of time than others, (as may easily be shown and illustrated by the celestial globe,) the moon when she is about her full in harvest, rises with less difference of time, or more immediately after sunset, than when she is full at other seasons of the year.-Moon dial is a dial which shows the hours of the night by the light of the moon.
MOON, MOUNTAINS OF THE, or DONGA MOUNTAINS; a chain of mountains in the central part of Africa, S. E. of Nigritia, which it divides from unknown regions. It is supposed, with much probability, to be connected with the Abyssinian mountains, and was formerly thought to stretch across the continent, and form a junction with the mountains of Kong; but the Niger is now known to flow between them. Travellers have reported that the summits were covered with perpetual snow, which, in that latitude (about 7 or 8° N.), would require an elevation of 14,500 feet. range was known to the ancients, and is mentioned by Ptolemy, under the name of mountains of the moon, which has been retained by the moderns.
MOOR, TO; to confine or secure a ship in a particular station by chains or cables, which are either fastened to the adjacent shore, or to anchors in the bottom. A ship is never said to be moored when she rides by a single anchor.
MOORE, sir John, was born at Glasgow, November 13, 1761, and, at the age of 15, entered the army as ensign. În 1790, he was made a lieutenant-colonel, and he afterwards served in Corsica, when he was wounded at the siege of Calvi. In 1796, he accompanied sir Ralph Abercrombie to the West Indies as brigadiergeneral, assisted in the capture of St. Lucia, and was appointed governor of that island. The following year, he was employed against the insurgents in Ireland, when he was promoted to the rank of major-general. In 1799, he was sent to Holland, and was subsequently engaged in the expedition to Egypt, and was made a knight of the Bath after his return to England. In October, 1808, he landed in Spain, at the head of an English army, to aid the people in their resistance to the ambitious projects of Napoleon. After advancing some distance into the interior, and meeting with little support from the Spaniards, he was obliged to retreat, and