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before the public with his Lettres Persanes, we feel that it emanates from a liberal which he had begun in the country, and heart, regarding the whole human race finished in the leisure hours that his busi- with affection. In consideration of these ness left him. This work, profound un- sentiments, Montesquieu may be forgiven der the appearance of levity, announced a for laboring to reduce every thing to a distinguished writer. It gives a most system; ascribing to climate and physical lively and correct picture of French man- causes too much influence over the morals; ners: with a light and bold pencil, he por- for the irregularity of bis work as a whole, trays absurdities, prejudices and vices, and and for having too often drawn general has the skill of imparting to all an original inferences from single cases. But it has character. All his letters are, however, not been justly complained that we find in of equal value: some contain paradoxes this chef d'æuvre many excessively long diand coarse satires against the reign of gressions respecting the feudal laws; also Louis XIV. These letters introduced the testimony of travellers of doubtful Montesquieu into the French academy, credit; paradoxes instead of truths, and although this society was by no means jests instead of reflections. He has therespared in them; and cardinal Fleury, justly fore been accused of indefiniteness, forced offended at the Persjan's mockery of the expressions, and want of connexion. It Christian religion, opposed bis reception. is, however, undeniable, that this book is The discourse which he delivered on the for the philosopher a storehouse of invesoccasion of his admission, in 1728, was tigations; and no one has ever reflected short, but energetic, and rich in ideas. In more profoundly than Montesquieu on the order to collect materials for his great nature, foundation, manners, climate, exwork, the Esprit des Lois, he resigned his tent, power, and peculiar character of office in Bordeaux, in 1726, and, after his states; on the effects of rewards and punreception into the academy, began to ishments; on religion, education and comtravel through Germany, Hungary, Italy, merce. To a criticism by the abbé BonSwitzerland, Holland and England. In naire, Montesquieu replied in his Défense the last country, he spent about two years, de l'Esprit des Lois. He died at Paris, and was made member of the royal socie- Feb. 10, 1755, at the age of sixty-six years. ty of sciences in London. The result of Although economical by nature, he could his observation was, that Germany was be generous, as in the well-known inthe place to travel in, Italy to reside in for stance of his bounty at Marseilles, where a time, England to think in, and France he gave his purse to a young boatman, to live in.* After his return to his château and secretly appropriated a considerable la Brède, he finished his work Sur les sum to release the father of the unhappy Causes de la Grandeur et de la Décadence man, who had fallen into the hands of des Romains, which first appeared in Barbary corsairs. It was not discovered 1734. His acute remarks and excellent till after Montesquieu's death that he was delineations gave to this trite subject the liberator of the captive. A note rethe interest of novelty. The lofty spirit specting the remittance of a sum of monwhich shines in this book is still more ey to a banker, found by his executors conspicuous in the Esprit des Lois, wbich among his papers, led to the discovery appeared in 1748. In this work, which of this act of liberality. It has given oc. exhibits the laws of states, in their broad casion to the drama Le Bienfait anonyme. connexion with their other elements of His mildness, good humor, and courteouspublic life, the author distinguishes three ness, were always equal ; his conversaforms of government,—the democratic, thotion easy, instructive and entertaining. murarchical, and the despotic, and shows After his death, a collection of his works that the laws must correspond to the was published at London, in 1759 (3 vols., principles of these forms. The distinction 4to.). In 1788, there appeared a good is of great importance, and leads the au- edition (in 5 vols.), to which must be addthor to a great variety of deductions. The ed a volume of Euvres Posthumes, that style, without always being correct, is en- appeared in 1798. The most complete crgetic. This work may be termed a code editions are those of Basle, of 1799, in 8 of national law, and its author may be vols., and of Paris, 1796, in 5 vols. They termed the legislator of the human family: contain several other works of Montes

quieu, such as the Temple de Gnide, a * He was often accustomed to say, jocosely, of kind of poem in prose. A history of bis own conduct in his travels, in France, I Louis XI, which he had composed, was was the friend of every body; in England, of nobody;

in Italy, I had to compliment every one, lost, being burned by the author by misand in Germany, drink every where."

take. Under the name of Charles d'Outre





pont, Montesquieu has unveiled the soul visiting the emperor in his capital, Monteof a tyrant, in a conversation between zuma sent him a rich present, but forbade Sulla and Eucrates. Of Lis Lettres fami- his farther advance. Cortes, however lières, which appeared in 1767, several are heeded not this prohibition, and the eminteresting. In his twenty-sixth year, peror, intimidated, began vainly to negoMontesquieu married, and the fruits of this tiate for the departure of the Spaniards. marriage were one son and two daughters. His despotic government having made The first published a romance, in 1783, him many enemies, who willingly joined Arsace and Ismene, which was probably Cortes, and assisted him in his progress to written by Montesquieu, in his younger Mexico, he was obliged to consent to the years, and, perhaps, intended originally, as advance of the Spaniards, to whom he Grimm suggests, to form an episode in assigned quarters in the town of Cholula, the Lettres Persanes. To his grandson, where he plotted their destruction. His the baron Montesquieu, who died without plot being discovered, a massacre of the children, at London, July 27, 1824, Napo- Cholulans followed, and Cortes proceeded leon, from respect to the author of the to the gates of the capital, before MonteEsprit des Lois, restored the property of zuma was determined how to receive him. his grandfather, which had been confis- His timidity prevailed, and, meeting the cated during the revolution.

Spanislı leader in great state, he conducted MONTE VIDEO, or CISPLATINO ; a re- him with much respect to the quarters public of South America, between Brazil allotted to him. The mask was, however, on the east and north, Paraguay on the soon rernoved : Cortes seized Montezuma north-west, and Buenos Ayres on the in the heart of his capital, and kept him as west, washed by the Uruguay, the Rio de a hostage at the Spanish quarters. (See la Plata, and the Atlantic. It was declar- Cortes.) He was at first treated with reed an independent republic, by a treaty spect, which was soon changed into insult, between Buenos Ayres and Brazil, in and fetters were put on his legs. He was 1828. (See Banda Oriental.)

at length obliged to acknowledge his vasMONTE Video, or S. FELIPE; capital salage to the king of Spain, but he could of the republic of Monte Video, on the not be brought to change bis religion. He northern bank of the Rio de la Plata, near was constantly planning how to deliver its mouth ; lat. 34° 54' S.; lon.56° 14' W.; himself and his countrymen; and when 120 miles north-east of Buenos Ayres. Cortes, with great part of his forces, was Near the port rises the mountain from obliged to march out to oppose Narvaez, which it derives its name, and on which the Mexicans rose up and furiously attackthere is a light-house. The city is built on ed the Spaniards who remained. The a gentle ascent, and is fortified; the streets return of their commander alone saved the are wide, straight, and well-paved ; the latter from destruction, and hostilities houses generally of one story, with flat roofs. were going forward, when Montezuma, The principal building is the cathedral. still the prisoner of the Spaniards, was The climate is moist; storms are frequent induced to advance to the battlements of in summer, and the cold is severe in the the Spanish fortress, in his royal robes, winter months, June, July and August. and attempt to pacify his subjects. His The port is the best on the Plata. The address only excited indignation, and, beexports are tallow, hides, and salt beef; ing struck on the temple with a stone, he imports, manufactured goods, coffee, su- fell to the ground. Every attention was gar, &c.; population 10,000. Monte Vic paid to him by Cortes, from motives of deo was built by a Spanish colony from policy; but, rejecting all nourishment, he Buenos Ayres, and was a long time an tore off his bandages, and soon after exobject of ambition to Portugal. When pired, spurning every attempt at converthe former shook off the Spanish yoke, sion. This event took place in the sum. the Brazilian court seized the opportunitymer of 1520. He left two sons and three of taking possession of it. It was recov- daughters, who were converted to the ered, after a long siege, in 1814, and re- Catholic faith.—Charles V gave a grant taken by the Brazilians in 1821. By the of lands, and the title of count of Montezutreaty of 1828 it became the capital of a man to one of the sons, who was the republic of the same name. (See Banda founder of a noble family in Spain. (See Oriental.)

Robertson's History of America.) MONTEZUMA; emperor of Mexico, at MONTFAUCON, Bernard de, a French the time of the Spanish invasion. In Benedictine, of the congregation of St. 1519, when Cortez arrived on the coast of Maur, celebrated as a critic and antiquary Mexico, and expressed his intention of was of noble descent, and was born at the


castle of Soulage, in Languedoc, in 1655. inhabitants sent a deputation to the king, When young, he engaged in military ser- declaring that they would renounce their vice, which he quitted, and, in 1675, took allegiance if Montfort was not removed the monastic vows. In 1688, he publish- He was accordingly recalled, and, accorded, conjointly with fathers Lopin and ing to some accounts, examined before Pouget, a volume entitled Analecta Græca, the lords, but acquitted. A violent persive varia Opuscula. One of his great sodal altercation between the king and undertakings was an edition of the works the baughty earl ensued, in which the of Athanasius, which appeared in 1698 former applied the opprobrious epithet of (iu 3 vols., folio). He then visited Rome, traitor to his subject, and the latter gave where he exercised the functions of agent- his sovereign the lie. A reconciliation general of the congregation; and, on his was, however, effected, and De Montfort return from Rome, published an account was employed on several occasions, in a of his observations, under the title of diplomatic and military capacity. As the Diarium Italicum; and, in 1706, a collec- dissatisfaction of the barons with the gov tion of the works of the ancient Greek ernment assumed a more decided tone, fathers, with a Latin translation, notes the name of this nobleman is more freand remarks. In 1708 appeared_his quently mentioned. He concerted, with Palæographia Græca, sive de Ortu et Pro- the principal barons, a plan of reform, gressu Literarum Græcarum. Among his and, in 1258, they appeared in parliament subsequent labors are the Hexapla of Ori- armed, and demanded that the adminisgen (1713, 2 vols., folio); an edition of the tration should be put in the hands of 24 works of Chrysostom (13 vols., folio); and barons, who were empowered to Les Monuments de la Monarchie Française. dress grievances, and to reform the state. His works in folio alone form 44 volumes. These concessions were called the provisThe most important of bis productions is ions of Oxford, the parliament having the treasure of classical archæology, en- been holden at that place. The administitled L’Antiquité expliquée et representée en tration of the 24 guardians, at the head Figures, with the supplement, 15 volumes, of whom was Leicester, continued for folio, containing 1200 plates. His death several years. In 1962, Henry made an took place at the abbey of St. Germain- attempt to escape from their authority, but des-Prés, 1741. English translations have was constrained to submit, by the vigor been published of the Diarium Italicum and activity of Leicester, and agreed that and Antiquité expliquée.

their power should be continued during MONTFERRAT (Monteferrato); formerly the reign of his successor. This stipulaa duchy of Italy, bounded by Piedmont, tion soon led to new troubles, and both Genoa and the Milanese ; the capital was parties finally consented to refer the subCasale. It now belongs to the Sardinian ject to the arbitration of St. Louis. The territories. Mention is made of a marquis barons refused to abide by his decision, of Montferrat in 980. It was erected into and hostilities again commenced, whichi a duchy by Maximilian, in 1573. In 1631, resulted in the triumph of Leicester, at the a part of it was ceded to Savoy, by the battle of Lewes. His arrogance and raduke of Mantua, to whose ancestors pacity seem to have raised a powerful party Charles V had granted it in 1536. In against him among the barons, and, accord1703, the remainder was annexed to the ing to some, this was the motive which same duchy, by the emperor. Since that induced him to summon knights of shires period, it has shared the fate of Savoy. and burgesses to the parliament which (See Savoy.)

convened in 1265. Whatever may have Montfort, Simon de, earl of Leicester, been his motives, however, he thus beson of Simon de Montfort, who distin- came the founder of the English house guished himself by his activity, zeal and of commons. In the same year he fell, at severity in the crusade against the Albi- the battle of Evesham, in which the royal genses, was born in France, and, in 1231, forces were led by prince Edward. (See retired to England, on account of some Edward I.) In attempting to rally his dispute with queen Blanche. Henry III troops, by rushing into the midst of the received him very kindly, bestowed upon enemy, he was surrounded and slain. him the earldom of Leicester, which had His body, after being mutilated in the Tormerly , belonged to his ancestors, and most barbarous and indecent manner, was gave him his sister, the countess dowager laid before lady Mortimer, the wife of his of Pembroke, in marriage. Henry soon implacable enemy. His inemory was after appointed him seneschal of Gascony, long revered by the people, as that of one where he ruled so despotically that the who died a martyr to the liberties of the


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realm. During the succeeding reign, this Paris, but succeeded in saving himself by
feeling was discouraged, but, in the next flight, and went to England. In 1573, he
generation, he was called St. Simon the brought a powerful fleet, partly fitted out
Righteous. Miracles were ascribed to at his own expense, to the relief of Ro-
him, and the people murmured that canon- chelle, which was besieged by the Catho-
ization was withheld from him. Though lics, but did not effect any thing, and,
Simon de Montfort was slain, his lifeless returning to Normandy, connected him-
rernains outraged, and his acts branded as self with the Protestant noblesse of that
those of a usurper, yet, in spite of author- province. After several battles, he was
ity and prejudice, his bold and fortunate obliged to throw himself into the castle
innovation survived. He disclosed to the of Domfront, where, in spite of a vigorous
world (whether conscious or not of the resistance, he was at length overpowered
importance of his measure), the great (May 27, 1574), and made prisoner, by the
principle of popular representation, which royalist general Matignon. By the ccm-
has drawn forth liberty from the walls of mand of Catharine of Medici, Matignon
single cities, has removed all barriers to transferred his captive to Paris, where he
the extent of popular governments, and was beheaded, June 26 of the same year,
has given them a regularity, order displaying the most heroic courage on the
vigor which put to shame the boasted scaffold.
energy of despotism.

MONTGOMERY, Richard, a major-genMONTGOLFIER, Jacques Etienne, the eral in the army of the U. States, was inventor of the balloon, the son of a paper- , born in 1737, in the north of Ireland. He maker, was born at Vidalon-lès-Annonai, embraced the profession of arms, and in 1745, and, with his elder brother, Jo- served under Wolfe, at Quebec, in 1759; seph Michael (born 1740, died 1810), de- but, on his return to England, he left bis voted himself to the study of mathematics, regiment, although his prospects of promechanics, physics and chemistry. They motion were fair. He then removed to carried on the manufactory of their father America, for which country he entertogether, and were the first who made tained a deep affection, purchased an vellum paper. Joseph was also the in- estate in New York, about 100 miles from ventor of the water-ram, which raises the city, and married a daughter of judge water to the height of 60 feet. His broth- Livingston. His feelings in favor of Amerer died in 1799. (See Aeronautics.) ica were so well known, that, on the com

MONTGOMERY, Gabriel, count de ; a mercement of the revolutionary struggle, French knight, celebrated for his valor he was intrusted with the command of and his fate. In his youth, he was the the continental forces in the northern deinnocent cause of the death of Henry II. partment, in conjunction with general. That prince had already broken several Schuyler. The latter, however, tell sick, lances, at a tournament held in 1559, in and the chief command, in consequence, honor of the marriage of his daughter devolved upon Montgomery, who, after Elizabeth with Philip, king of Spain, when various successes (the reduction of Fort he desired to run a tilt with ihe young Chamblee, the capture of St. John's, and Montgomery, then a lieutenant in the of Montreal), proceeded to the siege of Scotch guards. The latter consented Quebec. This he commenced Dec. 1, with great reluctance, but finally yielded, 1775, after having formed a junction with when he saw that llenry was displeased colonel Arnold, at Point-aux-Trembles ; with his refusal. In the encounter, his but, as his artillery was not of sufficient lance struck with such violence on the calibre to make the requisite in pression, visor of the king, as to raise it, and puss he determined upon attempting the capthrough his head, just above the right ture of the place by storm. He made all eye. The prince died 11 days after, com- bis arrangements, and advanced, at the manding that Montgomery should not be head of the New York troops, along the proceeded against on account of the acci- St. Lawrence. He assisted, with his own dent. The latter retired to his estate in hands, in pulling up the pickets, that obNormandy, which he left, for a time, to structed his approach to the second bar travel, and returned to France at the time rier, which he was resolved to force, when of the first civil war, in which he acted as the only gun fired from the battery of the a leader of the Protestants. He defended enemy killed him and his two aid-de Rouen, with great bravery, against the camps. The three fell at the same time royal army, in 1562, and, on the capture and rolled upon the ice formed upon of the city, made his escape to Favre. On the river. The next day his body was the night of St. Bartholomew's, he was at brought into Quebec, and buried withom

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any mark of distinction. Congress di- During his confinement, he wrote a vol. rected a monument, with an inscription, ume of poems, which he published in to be erected to his memory, and placed 1797, under the title of Prison Amusein front of St. Paul's church, in New ments. In the following year, he gave to York, and, July 8, 1818,his remains were the press a volume of essays, called the brought from Quebec, in consequence of Whisperer. His Battle of Alexandria, a resolve of the state of New York, and and other poems, in the first volume of interred near the monument. General the Poetical Register, were extensively Montgomery was gifted with fine abilities, admired. Encouraged by the applause and had received an excellent education. which was bestowed on his contributions, His military talents, especially, were great; he ventured, in 1806, to give to the world his measures were taken with judgment, the Wanderer of Switzerland, and other and executed with vigor. The sorrow for Poems, and, in spite of a severe criticism 'his loss was heightened by the esteem in the Edinburgh Review, they rose into which his amiable character had gained popularity, and established his reputation. him. At the period of his death, he was His subsequent works are, the West Inonly 38 years of age.

dies, a Poem, and other Poems (1810); MONTGOMERY, James, a living English the World before the Flood, (1813); Verses poet, born at Irvine, in Ayrshire, in 1771, to the Memory of Richard Reynolds, is the eldest son of a Moravian minister, (1816); Thoughts on Wheels, a Poem and was educated at the Moravian semi- (1817); Greenland, and other Poems nary at Fulneck, near Leeds, in Yorkshire. (1819); Polyhymnid, Songs to Foreign After this period, he never saw his parents. Music (182]); Songs of Zion, (1822); PelThey were sent to the West Indies, to ican Island (1827); Voyages of Tyerman preach to the Negroes, and fell the victims and Bennet(missionary agents) in the South of disease. Montgomery continued ten Seas, China, &c. (1831). He is not to be years at Fulneck, during which he ac- confounded with Robert Montgomery, auquired Greek, Latin, French and German. thor of several poems—Omnipresence of To poetry he was early devoted, for he the Deity (1828); Universal Prayer; began to write verses when he was only Death ; a Vision of Hell; a Vision of 10 years old, had filled three volumes by Heaven (1829); Satan (1830); which have the time that he was 12, and, before he passed through several editions, and had was 14, had composed a mock heroic an extensive circulation in England. poem, of more than a thousand lines. In Month; the 12th part of the year, and Înis 15th year, he projected an epic poem so called from the moon, by whose moon the war's of Alfred. His tutors en- tions it was regulated, being properly the deavored, in vain, to wean him from that time in which the moon runs through the love of the muse which they believed to zodiac. (For the civil division of months, be incompatible with his intended calling see the articles Calendar, and Epoch.) of a minister of the gospel; and, at length, The lunar month is either illuminative, they consented that he should turn his at- periodical, or synodical. Nluminative tention to lay pursuits. He was placed month is the interval between the first with a person who kept a shop at Mirfield, appearance of one new moon and that of but this situation he soon quitted for the next following. As the moon appears another of the same kind; and, finally, sometimes sooner after one change than with a volume of his poems, he travelled after another, the quantity of the illumipato London, and, for some time, was in tive month is not always the same.

The the shop of a Mr. Harrison, in that city. Turks and Arabs reckon by this month. In 1792, Montgomery settled at Sheffield, Lunar periodical month is the time in and engaged with Mr. Gales, the publisher which the moon runs through the zodiac, of the Sheffield Register. Mr. Gales, be- or returus to the same point again, the ing threatened with a prosecution, was quantity of which is 27 days, 7 hours, obliged to leave England, in 1794, and, 43 minutes, 8 seconds. Lunar synodicau by the assistance of a friend, Montgomery month, called also a lunation, is the time was enabled to become the proprietor of between two conjunctions of the moon ine paper, the name of which he changed with the sun, or between two new moons, 10 that of the Iris. Two prosecutions the quantity of which is 29 days, 12 hours, were successively instituted against him; 44 minutes, 3 seconds, 11". The ancient on the first of which he was sentenced to Romans used lunar months, and made a fine of £20 and to three months' im- them alternately of 29 and 30 days. They prisonment, and, on the second, to a fine marked the days of each month by of £30 and an incarceration of six months. three terms, viz., calends, nones, and ides.

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