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voin in 1720. She had an opportunity At the age of 13, he had finished his of prosecuting her studies under the di- studies at the college of Bordeaux, under rection of doctor Conyers Middleton, to Grouchy, Buchanan and Muret. His whom she was probably indebted for the father destined him for a judicial station, tincture of learning which so remarkably and married bim somewhat later to Franinfluenced her character and manners. çoise de la Chassaigne, daughter of a In 1742, she became the wife of Mr. Mon- counsellor of the parliament of Bordeaux, tagu, who left her mistress of a handsome Montaigne vas for some time a parliafortune, which enabled her to gratify her mentary counsellor, but his aversion to taste for study and literary society. In the duties of the station led him to retire 1769, she published an Essay on the from it. The study of man was his faWritings and Genius of Shakspeare. This vorite occupation. To extend his observawork raised Mrs. Montagu to the rank of an tions, and to restore his health, which had arbitress of public taste. She opened her been shattered by the attacks of a heredihouse, in Portman-square, to the Blue- tary disease (the stone), he travelled in Stocking Club—a society so denominated Germany, Switzerland and Italy, and was from a peculiarity in the dress of Mr. every where received with great distincBenjamin Stillingfleet, one of the mem- tion. At Rome, which he visited in 1581, bers; and carried on an epistolary corre- he received the title of a Roinan citizen. spondence with men of letters, published In 1582, he was chosen mayor of Borafter her death, August 25, 1800.
deaux, and the citizens of that place were MONTAIGNE, Michel de, one of the most so well satisfied with his administration, ingenious French writers, was born Feb. that they sent him to the court (in 1584), 28, 1533, at the castle of the same name, to attend to their interests there. Withbelonging to his family, in Perigord. His out doubt, the order of St. Michael was father, Pierre Eyghem, seigneur de Mon- conferred on him by Charles IX, at this taigne, an Englishman by birth, and a time, without any solicitation on his part, brave soldier, who had been chosen may- as has been reported. After making or of Bordeaux, bestowed the greatest several other journeys of business, he recare on the cultivation of young Michel's turned to his castle, and devoted himself promising talents, but adopted a peculiar entirely to philosophy. His quiet, howmode of education. In order to facili- ever, was disturbed by the troubles which tate his son's acquisition of the Latin lan- distracted France in consequence of the guage, which he had himself found diffi- cruel persecutions of the Huguenots; his cult, he employed a German tutor, entirely castle was plundered by the leaguers, and ignorant of French, but complete master he himself was ill treated by their adverof Latin, before the child had left the saries. To these causes of distress was nurse's arms; and as all the family were added the plague, which broke out in never permitted to speak any other lan- Guyenne, in 1586, and compelled him to guage in the presence of the child, he had leave his estate, with his family, and wanthe pleasure of seeing the infant so com- der through the country, which was then pletely matriculated into it as to be obliged the theatre of all kinds of atrocities. He to learn the French as a foreign tongue. then resided some time in Paris, but “We all Latinized,” says Montaigne, " at finally returned home, and died in 1592, the castle, in such a manner that several after much bodily suffering, with the Latin expressions came into use in the composure of a philosopher. Montaigne villages around, which exist to this time.” has described himself in his celebrated Greek he learned in the usual manner, Essais; but he confesses only the lighter after it had been attempted in vain to de- faults. He acknowledges himself indolude him into a knowledge of it. The lent and averse to restraint, and complains treatment of his father was peculiar in of the badness of his memory. He had some other respects; thus be caused him few of what are commonly callerl friends, to be waked in the morning by the sound but to his chosen intimates he was warmof musical instruments, lest the genius of ly attached. He loved to converse on the boy should be injured by his being familiar terms with educated men, whose roused too suddenly, he allowed him the observations were teints d'un jugement most unrestrained indulgence in his plays, mûr et constant, et mêlés de bonté, de franand endeavored to lead him to the faith-. chise, de gaieté et d'amitié. He was also ful performance of his duties solely by fond of the society of handsome and ininspiring him with a sense of right and telligent women, although he says one wrong. Montaigne always shows the should be on his guard against them greatest regard for his father's memory. The imagination he considered a fruittia
As a par
source of evil. He had many ideas on two English translations of the Essays, education which have been revived in our one by Charles Cotton, and an earlier one times, without his receiving the credit of by John Florio. them; he wished that children should MONTALEMBERT, Marc René, marquis enjoy both physical and moral freedom; de, boin at Angoulême, in 1714, entered swathing he considered as injurious, and the army in his 18th year, served in the was of opinion that habit would enable us campaign of 1733, and distinguished himto dispense with all clothing. His views self at the sieges of Kehl and Philipps on legislation and the administration of burg. As a reward for his services, the justice enlightened his own age and have company of the prince of Conti's guards been useful to ours. He endeavored to was given him. After the peace, he devotsimplify the laws and legal processes, and ed his leisure to the sciences, and entered very justly remarks that laws are often the academy in 1747, whose memoirs conrendered futile or injurious by their ex- tain some of his papers, no less remarkable cessive rigor. His moral system was in for the originality of their ideas than fortheir general indulgent, but on some points purity and elegance of style. During the strict. Speculative philosophy he reject- seven years' war, he was stationed with ed, devoting himself to the lessons of ex- the Russian and Swedish_armies, and, at perience. He studied human nature in later periods, was sent to Brittany and the children and illiterate peasants. Equally isle of Oleron, the latter of which he forremoved from a general skepticisin and tified on his new system. In 1779, he from dogmatism, he was accustomed to erected a wooden fort on the island of Aix, suggest possibilities instead of making which astonished scientific men by its assertions, and to throw light on his sub- strength and completeness. His extravaject from every point. His motto was gance obliged him, in 1790, to sell his esQue sais-je? His great work, his Essais tate in the Angoumois, for which he re(tirst published in 1580, and often repub. ceived payment in assignats, and passed lished and translated into many languages), the rest of his life in poverty. contains a treasure of wisdom. It may tisan of the revolution, he (1789) surstill be deemed one of the most popular rendered his pension, which had been books in the French language. The essays conferred on him on account of the loss embrace a great variety of topics, which of an eye.
eye. During the stormy period of ure touched upon in a lively, entertaining the revolution, he was imprisoned. He manner, with all the raciness of strong, died in 1800. Among his works are La native good sense, careless of system or Fortification perpendiculaire, ou Art désenregularity. Sentences and anecdotes from sif supérieur à l'Art offensif (11 vols., 4to.); the ancients are interspersed at random Mémoire sur les Affüts de la Marine ; Réwith his own remarks and opinions, and flexions sur le siége de Saint-Jean d'Arc ; with stories of himself, in a pleasant strain Mémoires ou Correspondance avec les Généof egotism, and with an occasional license, raux et les Ministres, from 1761 to 1791 ; to which severer casuists can with some with some comedies, tales and chansons. difficulty reconcile themselves. Their Montanus, in the middle of the second style, without being pure or correct, is century, bishop of Pepuza, in Phrygia, an simple, bold, lively and energetic, and, illiterate man, who gave himself out for according to La Harpe, he “impressed on the promised Comforter, who was to bring the French language an energy which it to perfect maturity the Christian system. did not before possess, and which has not In his doctrines, he deviates from the rebecome antiquated, because it is that of ceived opinions only in maintaining that sentiments and ideas, and not alien to its all true Christians receive the inspirations idiom. It is not a book we are reading, of the Holy Ghost. The chiliastic or milbut a conversation to which we are listen- lennarian nations, and his rigid adherence ing; and he persuades, because he does to the letter of the law, he had in common not teach.” The best edition is that of with the Judaizing Christians; and the Coste (3 vols., 4to., London, 1724). His moral peculiarities of his sect consisted style, though not always pure and correct, merely in a more strict observance of exuccurate and elevated, is original, simple, ternals, frequent fasts, the contempt of lively, bold and vigorous. Besides his heathenish learning and worldly conven Essays, his Voyages deserve mention, iences, abstinence from second marriage, although not intended for publication. and a willingness to submit to celibacy Montaigne also translated, at the request and martyrdom. His disciples called :t his father, a treatise on Natural Theol- themselves Pneumatici, from a belief in "gy, by Raymond Sebonde. There are their superior spiritual perfection; they
were also called Pepuzians and Phrygians, Vicenza, in Italy, 13 miles south-west of because their doctrines principally pre- Vicenza ; population 1500. Here was an vailed in Phrygia and Asia Minor in gen- engagement, in 1796, between the Austri eral. Tertullian, himself a Montanist, de- ans and French under marshal Lannes fends their monastic rigor. On the other (q.v.); hence his title of duke of Monte Bello. band, the Alexandrian school, which was MONTE CASINO; a celebrated benedicinclined to the Gnostic dogmas, opposed tine abbey in the kingdom of Naples, in their fanaticism till they became extinct, the province Terra di Lavoro, near the in the fourth century, with the exception small town of S. Germano, and about 45 of some remains which survived a short miles from the city of Naples, founded by time in Gaul, where the sect had been in- St. Benedict of Norcia, in 529. It is sittroduced by Phrygian colonists.
uated on a mountain, from which it deMONTASSAR. (See Caliph, vol. 2, page rives its name, near the ruins of the an 410.)
cient Casinum, and is approached by a MONTAUBAN; a city of France, in the well-paved and winding road, the ascent department Tarn and Garonne, see of a of which occupies about two hours. The bishop, with some public offices and 26,466 abbey, after having suffered repeated reiphabitants. It is finely situated and well verses, finally became considerable for its built. The cathedral, the episcopal pal- privileges and its wealth, and in the 11th ace, the hôtel de ville, and the bridge over and 12th centuries was the seat of science, the Tarn, are particularly worthy of being particularly of medicine, the celebrated seen. Lat. 44° 0'55' N.; lon. 1° 21' E.; school of Salerno having been founded by 140 leagues south of Paris. During the the monks of Monte Casino. The church religious wars in France, Montauban was is
very magnificent, although overloaded a stronghold of the Huguenots, and was with ornament, and contains the tomb of besieged in 1580 by Montluc, and in 1621 the founder; the library is valuable, and by the troops of Louis XIII, without suc- there are many valuable pictures belong.
It suffered severely from the drag- ing to the abbey, particularly in the room onnades, under Louis XIV.
and tower which St. Benedict is said to Montauk Point; the eastern extremni- have inhabited. The monastery has servty of Long Island, New York, in East- ed as a place of refuge to several sove. hampton; lon. 720 W.; lat. 41° 4' N.; with reigns and pontiffs, and was formerly a light-house.
much visited by pilgrims and travellers, MONTBELLIARD_(in German, Mümpel- who were entertained free of expense. gard); a city of France, in the depart- A hospitium, with four monks, was also ment of the Doubs, in a fertile plain, supported at S. Germano, where travel. commanded by an old castle, formerly the lers were received and provided with residence of the princes of Montbelliard ; mules for continuing their journey to the 4600 inhabitants. It was formerly strong- abbey. At present, the road on which ly fortified, but Louis XIV captured it, it lies is little frequented; the neighborand demolished the works, in 1674. It hood is infested with robbers, and the old was ceded to France, with the territory abbey has few visitors. (See Benedict, St., forming a county of the same name, in and Benedictines.) 1796. Lon. 6° 44' E.; lat. 47° 31' N. MONTE CIRCELLO (anciently Circæum
MONTCALM DE SAINT-Veran, Louis Jo- promontoriuin, or jugum); a mountainous seph, marquis of, lieutenant-general in the cape of Italy, near the sea, and by the anFrench service, was born near Nimes, in cients called an island, and celebrated as 1712; after receiving a careful education, the habitation of Circe, the sorceress, who entered the military service in his 15th used to transform her lovers into brute anyear, and distinguished himself on seve- imals. On this promontory once stood a ral occasions. In 1756, be was sent to town called Circeum; here was a chapel Canada, as commander-in-chief of the dedicated to Circe, and an altar to MinerFrench American colonies; and, although va. Fifty miles south-east of Rome; lon. exposed, with a feeble army, to the rigors 12° 57' E.; lat. 41° 17' N. of a severe climate, and neglected by the Montecucculi, or, _more correctly, mother country, he obtained repeated ad- MontECUCCOLI, prince Raymond, one of vantages over lord Loudon in the first the greatest military commanders of modcampaign, gained a complete victory over ern times, born in the Modenese, in 1608, Abercromby in the second, and fell, under bore arms at first in the capacity of a the walls of Quebec, in 1759, in the battle common soldier, under bis uncle, and rose with Wolfe.
successively through all the ranks. His Monte RELLO; an Austrian town in first brilliant exploit was in 1639 wben.
by a forced march, at the head of 2000 news of Turenne's death. The prince of horse, he surprised a body of 10,000 Condé could alone dispute the superiority Swedes, and captured all their artillery wbich that event gave him. The prince and baggage. Baner (q. v.), however, was at first worsted, but finally succeeded hastened to attack the victor, and made in making head against the imperial comhim prisoner. Montecuccoli now passed mander, who considered this campaign as two years of captivity in the assiduous the most glorious of his life-not because study of the military art. In 1646, he he conquered, but because he was not gained a victory over general Wrangel, at conquered. Montecuccoli passed the reTriebel. After the peace of Westphalia inainder of his life at the imperial court, (1648), he visited Sweden, and then re- the patron of learning, and promoted the turned to Modena, where, at a carrousel in establishment of an academy for natural honor of the marriage of the duke, he had science. He died at Lintz, in 1680. His the misfortune to kill his friend, the count memoirs, written in Italian, are distinManzani. In 1657, the emperor of Ger- guished for conciseness, clearness, and many sent him to the aid of John Casimir, profound and scientific views. king of Poland, against Ragotsky and the MONTE FIASCONE ; a papal town in Swedes. Montecuccoli defeated the Ti the Patrimonio, 5 miles south of Bolsena, sylvanians, and drove the Swedish forces 10 north-west of Viterbo; lon. 11° 56' E.; from Cracow. Charles Gustavus, king of lat. 42° 33' N.; population 3000; see of a Sweden, then attacked Denmark; but bishop. This is by some said to be the Montecuccoli hastened to its defence, and ancient Falerium, or Falerii, capital of the relieved Copenhagen by land before the Falisci. It is now remarkable only for its Dutch could introduce reinforcements by situation, and for the hills surrounding it,
The peace which followed this suc- which produce great quantities of excelcess did not leave him long in retirement: lent wine, particularly Muscadel. the conqueror of Ragotsky was now em- MONTEM; a singular celebration which ployed to protect that prince against the takes place every three years at Eton Turks. He compelled them to withdraw school, England. (See Eton.) from Transylvania, and, by a wise system MONTEMAYOR, Jorge de • a celebrated of delay, baffled all the attempts of their poet, born about 1520, in the small town formidable force, until the arrival of the of Montemayor, or Montemor, not far French, by whose aid he gained the great from Coimbra, in Portugal. lle was victory of St. Gothard (1664). This vic- much less indebted to study than to his tory led to a peace, and Montecuccoli was natural genius, but he understood several made president of the imperial military living languages, and his translations from council. On the breaking out of the war them are characterized by ease and faithbetween the empire and France, he was fulness. In his youth, he entered the placed at the head of the imperial troops, military career, although his inclination and checked the progress of Louis XIV, attracted him to music and poetry. He by the capture of Bonn, and by forming a afterwards went to Castile, and, being desjunction with the prince of Orange, in titute of other means of subsistence, joined spite of Turenne and Condé. The next the chapel of Philip II as a singer, and year, the chief command was taken from accompanied that prince to Germany, Ithim, but was restored in 1675, that he aly and the Low Countries. After his remight make head against Turenne, on the turn, he appears to have lived in Leon, Rhine. Montecuccoli was the only ad- where he wrote bis celebrated Diana, which versary worthy of that great commander. constitutes him the founder of the Spanish They spent four months in following and pastoral romance. Queen Catharine, sister observing each other, each conjecturing of Charles V, and regent of the kingdom, the movements of his opponent by what called the poet to her court, and conferred would be his own in the same circum- on him an honorable post. By an elegy of stances, and they were never deceived. Francisco Marcos Dorantes, which is conThey were on the point of risking a bat- tained in all the editions of the Diana, it apcle, when the French general was killed pears that he died as early as 1562. Alby a cannon ball. (See Turenne.) In though a Portuguese by birth, he is considthe letter of Montecuccoli to the emperor, ered as belonging to Spanish literature, as in which he speaks of the death of his he wrote in Castilian. Cervantes calls the great rival, he says that he cannot help Diana the finest model of the pastoral roregretting the loss of a man who was an
Besides that work, which is unHonor to human nature: these words he finished, we have a Cancionero, or collechad repeated several times on hearing the tion of his poems.
MONTENEGRINS ; the inhabitants of Mortemart, and, in 1663, was married to Montenegro, a country in the western the marquis de Montespan. To the most part of Turkey in Europe, in the province fascinating beauty she added a natural of Albania, between lat. 42° 8' and 43° 5' - liveliness and wit, and a highly cultivated N., and lon. 18° 38' and 19° 35 E. In the mind. Her conversation was gay, natural language of the natives, the country is and piquante. On her first appearance at called Tschernagora, and received the court, as the queen's dame du palais, Mlle. name of Montenegro (Black Mountain), de la Vallière possessed the favor of the from the dark color of the forests which monarch; but the grace, beauty and wil cover its mountains. The inhabitants are of the lovely marchioness soon made au Sclavonians, and are described as bold, impression on him (1668), and it was not warlike and hospitable, but inclined to - long concealed from the courtiers—alrobbery. They are estimated at about though the pious queen was slow to credit 60,000, of whom 15,000 are capable of it—that, while that voluptuous prince albearing arms. The superficial area of the ready had one mistress at court, he was country is 1000 square miles. This dis- living in double adultery with another. trict was never reduced by the Turks, and, Her husband had been ordered to retire to in 1797, the inhabitants threw off all de- his estates, and Mme. de la Vallière withpendence on Turkey, and formed an inde- drew in 1674. The first child of this pendent state, under the protection of adulterous connexion was born in 1672, Russia. Their ruler is called wladika, and and the birth was carefully concealed. is the spiritual and temporal bead of af- The education of the children was comfairs. Their language is Illyrico-Sclavo- mitted to Mme. Scarron, afterwards De pian. They belong to the Greek church, Maintenon, under the strictest injunctions but have their own patriarch. The prin- of secrecy; but this exterior of decency cipal town is Atigne. In 1767, an adven- was soon laid aside, and they were openly turer by the name of Steffano Piccolo, avowed. The influence of the favorite made his appearance among them, who mistress was often exercised in public afgave himself out for the Russian emperor fairs, and ber advice was often formally Peter III, and excited an insurrection, asked and followed. Several transient which was not pacified without much passions of the king still left her her power, bloodshed.—See Sommières, Voyage His- until age and long possession, remorse, and torique et Politique de Montenegro (2 vols., a growing attachment to Mme. de Mainte1820).
non(q. v.), finally overcame his passion, and MONTE NOTTE; a mountain in Italy, on the frequent quarrels of the two ladies the borders of the state of Genoa and the finally estranged his affections from Mme. duchy of Monferrat, 7 miles north of Sa- de Montespan. She rarely appeared at vona, 12 south of Acqui. On the 11th of court after 1685, and, in 1691, she entirely April
, 1796, the Austrians, commanded by quitted it. Her last years were devoted general Beaulieu, were defeated by the to religious exercises, acts of benevolence French under Bonaparte ; the imperialists and penitence. She died in 1707. lost 2000 men killed, and as many prison- MONTESQUIEU (Charles de Secondat,
baron de la Brède et de,) was descended Monte Nuovo; a mountain in Naples, from a noble family of Guienne, and was thrown up by an earthquake, in the 16th born Jan. 18, 1689, at the castle of Brède, century, in the valley of Averno. In 48 near Bordeaux. When only twenty years hours it attained the height of 2100 feet. old, this philosophical genius collected Some part of it is cultivated. Near the materials for his Esprit des Lois. An unfoot of the mountain the sand is very hot cle, who was president of the parliament from subterraneous fire.
of Bordeaux, left him his property and MONTEREAU. (See Chatillon.)
office. In this sphere of action, MontesMONTE SANTO. (See Athos.)
quieu tried to be useful in various ways. MONTEREY, a seaport or bay in New In the academy which was formed at California. Lon. 121° 51' W. Lat. 36° 36 Bordeaux, he delivered many excellent N. The bay is spacious, and is situated lectures on history, sought to attract atten between Point Pinos, and Point Anno tion to the natural sciences, in his time Nuovo. The climate is healthy, but sub- almost entirely neglected, and, for har ject to thick fogs.
purpose, projected the plan of a Histoire MONTESPAN, Françoise-Athénaïs de physique de la Terre ancienne et moderne, Rochechouart de Mortemart, marchioness (which, however, as his cfforts were afterde, mistress of Louis XIV, born in 1641, wards turned in other directions, was was the second daughter of the duke of never finished), &c. In 1721 he (amo