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host of Amazonian Asuras, with whom the gods were afraid to engage in battle, from an apprehension of incurring the sin of feminicide. They in consequence applied to Siva, on whose solicitation Parvati produced from herself the form of Kali, bearing in her hands a trident and a skull. On beholding her, the affrighted gods ran away: Kali alone attacked Daruka and her hosts, and destroyed them.

Dasharata, king of Ayodhya, the father of Rama Chandra.

Day (A), of the gods or celestial beings is three hundred and sixty of the days of mortals; and a day of the Petris or Patriarch's, inhabiting the moon, is a month of earthly beings.

Daya (The), of Borneo, p. 346.

Deeruj, a tyrant destroyed by Parasu Rama, in the sixth avatar, p. 20.

Dev-Deo, or Deu, synonymous with Deva.

Deva, a title of a god, as Devi is of a goddess. Maha Deva, a name given to Siva by the Saivas, is the great or supreme god, as Maha Devi, a name of Bhavani or Parvati, is the supreme goddess.

Deva Dasi, women, or dancing girls, in attendance at the temples of the Hindu deities, who call themselves the servants or slaves of the gods. Next to the sacrificers, the most important persons about the temples, says the Abbé Dubois, are the dancing girls, who are known to the public by a much coarser name. “Their profession, indeed, requires of them to be open to the embraces of all castes; and, although originally they appear to have been intended for the gratification of the Brahmans only, they are now obliged to consider the mention of them as an affront. These performers are supported out of the revenues of the temple, of which they receive a considerable share. But their dissolute profession is still more productive. There are temples in some solitary places, where the divinity requires to be honoured with the most unbounded licentiousness. He promises children to the barren women who will lay aside the most inviolable rules of decency and shame, and in honour of him submit to indiscriminate embraces. An annual festival is held, in the month of January, at those infamous sinks of debauchery; where I need not say, great numbers of the libertines of both sexes assemble from all quarters. Besides barren wives, who come in quest of issue, by exposing their persons, some of them have bound themselves by a vow to grant their favours to numbers; many other dissolute women also attend to do honour to the infamous deity, by prostituting themselves, openly and without shame, before the gates of his temple.”—Dubois' India.

extend their favours to all who solicit them. Such are the loose females who are consecrated in a special manner to the worship of the gods of India. Every temple, according to its size, entertains a band of them, to the number of eight, twelve, or more. The service they perform consists of dancing and singing. The first they execute with grace, though with lascivious attitudes and motions. Their chaunting is generally confined to the obscene songs which relate to some circumstance or other of the licentious lives of their gods. They perform their religious duties at the temple to which they belong twice a day—morning and evening. They are also obliged to assist at all the public ceremonies, which they enliven with their dance and merry song. As soon as their public business is over, they open their cells of infamy, and convert the temple of worship into a den of licentiousness. “They are bred to this profligate life from their infancy. They are taken from any caste, and are frequently of respectable birth. pregnant women, in the belief that it will tend to their happy delivery, making a vow, with the consent of their husband, to devote the child then in the womb, if it should turn out a girl, to the service of the Pagoda. they are performing a meritorious duty. The infamous life to which the daughter is destined brings no disgrace on the family. These women are the only females in India who may learn to read, to sing, and to dance.

It is nothing uncommon to hear of

And in doing so, they imagine

Such accomplishments belong to them exclusively, and are, for that reason, held by the rest of the sex in such abhorrence, that every virtuous woman would

Devarshis, holy sages or saints.

Decatas or Dewtah, plural of Deva.

Deri-Kanail, a deity worshipped by the Bheels to obtain the ripening of their corn.

Depukee or Devaki, the mother of Krishna and the sister of Kansa or Cansa, king of Mathura. (See Krishna, p. 35.)

Dewal, a temple.

Dewali or Kali Puja, a festival in honour of Kali.

Dhamians (The), p. 310.

Dhanovantara, a physician; one of the gems produced at the churning of the ocean.

Dharma Thakoor, a name of Siva.

Dhermaraja, a name of Yama in his beneficent form. He is the king of justice, whose countenance the virtuous only see : the wicked see him as the Pluto or king of the

(See Yama, p. 112.)

infernal regions. Dherna, p. 145.

Dhertrashta, a half-brother of the Pandus. (See Pandus, p. 248.)

Dhuna. The worship of a deity in which oblations are offered.

Diti, one of the wives of Kasyapa and the mother of the Daityas, or Asuras (demons and giants) as Aditi, another wife of Kasyapa, is of the gods and the Suras, by whom, after numerous sanguinary conflicts, the power of the Asuras or demons was destroyed. Indra was one of the sons of Aditi, whose kingdom, as will be seen in many parts of this work, the Asuras frequenly possessed themselves of, and sent him wandering about the earth like a beggar; but who at length was greatly instrumental in expelling the whole race of the children of Diti. Diti, it appears, had obtained a promise from Kasyapa, by the performances of austerities for a thousand years, that she should have a son who should destroy Indra. The god, aware of the threatened design, watched her motions, and when the time had nearly expired, caught her at a moment when her indiscretion gave him power over her, to destroy the foetus which was intended to He divided it into forty-nine parts, which, being scattered, became the same nnmber of Maruts, or regents of the wind. The impurity which gave the power alluded to, was a monstrous one; being

prove his own destruction.

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overcome according to some accounts by Vishnu in the ninth avatar, and according to others by the machinations of Siva. Under him the sect of the Buddhas was dispersed by the Brahmans. During his extraordinary reign of eight thousand years vice was wholly expelled from his dominions of Kashi, and so much virtue and happiness prevailed therein, that even Ganesha and some of the gods took up their abode in it, (p. 186.) Doorvasu, a Brahman who lengthened the day that he might finish his religious ceremonies. Drupdevi or Drauputty, the wife of the five Pandus, p. 249.) Durga, p. 83. Duryodhana. (See Pandus, p. 248.)

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Gahyaca, satyrs; forms half human, half bestial.

Gana, a band of inferior deities attendant upon a superior.

Ganaputty or Gunness, names of Ganesha.

Gandhavas, or Gundharvas, celestial choristers of beautiful forms and complexion, usually seen in Hindu sculptures attendant on the deities. Ganesha, p 103. Ganesha Junanee, p. 98. Gant'ha, abell used in holy ceremonies, which is rung at certain times to keep away evil spirits. These bells, as well as the Lustral spoons, are usually surmounted by the figure of the deity in whose worship they are used. See fig 6, plate 33. Garrows (The), p. 318. Garuda or Gurura, p. 55. Gautama or Gotama, one of the seven Rishis. Gawrie, (white or fair) a name of Parvati. Gayatri (The), a venerated text of the Veda, called by Sir W. Jones the mother of those sacred writings. See O’M. p. 136. Ghata, an earthern jar used in certain religious ceremonies, Ghoma, a deity worshipped by the Bheels against the small-pox.

Ghora Raja, worshipped by the Bheels against attacks and plundering.

Girisha, a name of Siva. Goands (The), p. 296.

Godaveri, one of the sacred rivers of the Hindus, which falls into the Bay of Bengal.

Gopa-nath, a form of Krishna, the worship of which was established by a follower of Choitunya. (See Choitunya, p. 240.)

Goparum. Beautifully sculptured gateways attached to the large temples of the Hindus, into which the people are not permitted to enter. On days of festivals the figures of the deities are brought out of the temples through the Goparum, and placed in small open temples called Muntopas, to receive the adoration of the multitude.

Gopula, a form of Krishna in his childhood. (See fig. 3 and 4, plate 12.)

Gosaees. (See Choitunya, p.240.)

Govindhu Singhu, the last of the ten leaders of the Shikhs. (See Shikhs, p. 229.)

Grahas (The), planets of the Hindus; they are sometimes worshipped together, and at others separately. They consist of Surya or Ruvee, the sun; Soma or Chandra, the moon; Mungula, Budh, Vrihuspati, Sukra, Shuni or Sani, Rahu, and Ketu. (See Suryd, Chandra, Mungula, Budh, Vrihuspati, Sukra, Sani, Rahu, and Ketu,) p. 127 to 135.

Grunt'hee, a Shikh priest.

Grunt'hus, the sacred books of the Shikh

sect. Gunga, p. 118. Gunga Putra, Kartikeya. Guru Muta, the great council of the Shikh


Gutachue. This extraordinary figure, seen commonly in the Hindu sculptures bent to the ground with outstretched legs and arms supporting another figure of greater magnitude, was, according to Colonel Tod, the son of the forest king Herimba, who bestowed his affections on Drupdevi, the wife of the five exiled brothers, the Pan

dus, (See Pandus, p. 248.) Bhima, one of them, determined to punish the insult which was thus offered to them. He, therefore, instructed Drupdevi to consent, and name the Temple as the place of assignation. Overjoyed at his success, Gutachue failed not in punctuality; but, as his audacious hand was raised to remove the veil from her face, the nervous arm of Bhima rent the supporting column of the temple. To save himself and the fair object of his passion from being crushed under the impending ruin, he strained his gigantic force, and supported the fabric on his shoulders till he was released by the attendant protectors of the fair. To perpetuate the infamy of the forester who thus violated the laws of sanctuary and hospitality, the architects have adopted this relation in all sacred edifices, where a diminutive and grotesque figure of Gutachue, with arms and legs extended under him, the head stooping, and face distorted, as from a sense of oppression, are seen.

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Hari, a name of Parvati, the consort of Siva, as Hara or Hari.

Hatipowa, a deity presiding over agriculture, worshipped by the Bheels.

Hayagriva, the demon who stole the Vedas from Brahma, and was destroyed by Vishnu in the Matsya avatar, p. 14.

Heri, a name of Vishnu; also one of the Pandus.

Heri-Hari, the conjoint form of Vishnu and Siva, p. 101.

Himalaya, or Hirmaran, the mountain, the mythological father of Parvati. The chain of mountains separating India from


Himansu, a name of Chandra.

Hiranyacasipa, a demon, who vanquished the gods, but was afterwards overcome and destroyed by Vishnu. (See Fourth Avatar, p. 17.)

Hooly, or Hohli, a festival in honour of Krishna, which takes place in the month Phulgoon (February–March), at the commencement of the spring. The amusements on this joyous occasion consist in dancing, singing, and playing, in the most complete sense of the word (if the expression may be allowed) the fool. Their songs are kuveers, or extempore stanzas, principally in allusion to the charms of Krishna and his amours with the Gopias, and are consequently not marked by an excess of delicacy. One of the dances is the favorite tipree dance, or rasa-mandala, in which twenty, thirty, or more form a ring, each having a short stick in his hand, with which he strikes, alternately, those of the persons before and behind him, keeping time with it and his foot, while

the circle moves round, keeping time to a drum and shepherd's pipe, of three or four sweet and plaintive notes. (See p.293.) In Major Moor's Hindu Pantheon is a beautiful plate on this subject, in which Krishna (with Radha) in the centre, is described as the sun, and the circle of Dancers as the heavenly bodies moving round him. Playing the Hooly consists in throwing a red powder, sometimes mixed with powdered talc to make it glitter, in the eyes, mouth, and nose, or over the persons of those who are the objects of the sport, splashing them well at the same time with an orange-coloured water. The powder is sometimes thrown from a syringe, and sometimes put into small globules, which break as soon as they strike the object at which they are aimed. The Hindu females are as expert in throwing these as some of our singularly well-bred young ladies are in hitting the noses of their lovers or beaux with pellets of bread. Colonel Broughton relates an anecdote, in which the celebrated Mahratta chief, Scindiah acted a distinguished part. On inviting some English officers to partake of the amusement, he was told that they were determined to pelt and squirt at every one who pelted and squirted at them. He said he was ready for them, and that it would soon be seen who could manage the matter best. The officers speedily found, that although they had been accustomed to have the best of the battle with powder and ball, they were no match for Scindiah with powder and water, as the pipe of a large fire-engine, filled with yellow water, and worked by half a dozen men, was placed in his hand, with

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