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Goparum. Beautifully sculptured gateways attached to the large temples of the Hindus, into which the people are not permitted to enter. On days of festivals the figures of the deities are brought out of the temples through the Goparum, and placed in small open temples called Muntopas, to receive the adoration of the multitude.

Gopula, a form of Krishna in his childhood. (See fig. 3 and 4, plate 12.)

Gosaees. (See Choitunya, p.240.)

Govindhu Singhu, the last of the ten leaders of the Shikhs. (See Shikhs, p. 229.)

Grahas (The), planets of the Hindus; they are sometimes worshipped together, and at others separately. They consist of Surya or Ruvee, the sun; Soma or Chandra, the moon; Mungula, Budh, Vrihuspati, Sukra, Shuni or Sani, Rahu, and Ketu. (See Suryd, Chandra, Mungula, Budh, Vrihuspati, Sukra, Sani, Rahu, and Ketu,) p. 127 to 135.

Grunt'hee, a Shikh priest.

Grunt'hus, the sacred books of the Shikh Sect.

Gunga, p. 118.
Gunga Putra, Kartikeya.

Guru Muta, the great council of the Shikh Sect.

Gutachue. This extraordinary figure, seen commonly in the Hindu sculptures bent to the ground with outstretched legs and arms supporting another figure of greater magnitude, was, according to Colonel Tod, the son of the forest king Herimba, who bestowed his affections on Drupdevi, the wife of the five exiled brothers, the Pan

dus, (See Pandus, p. 248.) Bhima, one of them, determined to punish the insult which was thus offered to them. He, therefore, instructed Drupdevi to consent, and name the Temple as the place of assignation. Overjoyed at his success, Gutachue failed not in punctuality; but, as his audacious hand was raised to remove the veil from her face, the nervous arm of Bhima rent the supporting column of the temple. To save himself and the fair object of his passion from being crushed under the impending ruin, he strained his gigantic force, and supported the fabric on his shoulders till he was released by the attendant protectors of the fair. To perpetuate the infamy of the forester who thus violated the laws of sanctuary and hospitality, the architects have adopted this relation in all sacred edifices, where a diminutive and grotesque figure of Gutachue, with arms and legs extended under him, the head stooping, and face distorted, as from a sense of oppression, are seen.

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Hallam, a Bheel deity.
Halle Mata, worshipped by the Bheels, to

protect them in their predatory excursions.

Hanasa, the vahan or vehicle of Brahma; a swan or goose.

Hans, a Japanese deity, p. 340.
Hanuman, p. 57.
Hara, or Hari, a name of Siva.

Hara Rayu, one of the ten leaders of the
Shikhs. (See Shikhs.)

Hara-gawri, a name of Siva and Parvati.

Hari, a name of Parvati, the consort of Siva, as Hara or Hari.

Hatipowa, a deity presiding over agriculture, worshipped by the Bheels.

Hayagriva, the demon who stole the Vedas from Brahma, and was destroyed by Vishnu in the Matsya avatar, p. 14.

Heri, a name of Vishnu; also one of the Pandus.

Heri-Hari, the conjoint form of Vishnu and Siva, p. 101.

Himalaya, or Hirmaran, the mountain, the mythological father of Parvati. The chain of mountains separating India from


Himansu, a name of Chandra.

Hiranyacasipa, a demon, who vanquished the gods, but was afterwards overcome and destroyed by Vishnu. (See Fourth Avatar, p. 17.)

Hooly, or Hohli, a festival in honour of Krishna, which takes place in the month Phulgoon (February–March), at the commencement of the spring. The amusements on this joyous occasion consist in dancing, singing, and playing, in the most complete sense of the word (if the expression may be allowed) the fool. Their songs are kuveers, or extempore stanzas, principally in allusion to the charms of Krishna and his amours with the Gopias, and are consequently not marked by an excess of delicacy. One of the dances is the favorite tipree dance, or rasa-mandala, in which twenty, thirty, or more form a ring, each having a short stick in his hand, with which he strikes, alternately, those of the persons before and behind him, keeping time with it and his foot, while

the circle moves round, keeping time to a drum and shepherd's pipe, of three or four sweet and plaintive notes. (See p. 293.) In Major Moor's Hindu Pantheon is a beautiful plate on this subject, in which Krishna (with Radha) in the centre, is described as the sun, and the circle of Dancers as the heavenly bodies moving round him.' Playing the Hooly consists in throwing a red powder, sometimes mixed with powdered talc to make it glitter, in the eyes, mouth, and nose, or over the persons of those who are the objects of the sport, splashing them well at the same time with an orange-coloured water. The powder is sometimes thrown from a syringe, and sometimes put into small globules, which break as soon as they strike the object at which they are aimed. The Hindu females are as expert in throwing these as some of our singularly well-bred young ladies are in hitting the noses of their lovers or beaux with pellets of bread. Colonel Broughton relates an anecdote, in which the celebrated Mahratta chief, Scindiah acted a distinguished part. On inviting some English officers to partake of the amusement, he was told that they were determined to pelt and squirt at every one who pelted and squirted at them. He said he was ready for them, and that it would soon be seen who could manage the matter best. The officers speedily found, that although they had been accustomed to have the best of the battle with powder and ball, they were no match for Scindiah with powder and water, as the pipe of a large fire-engine, filled with yellow water, and worked by half a dozen men, was placed in his hand, with

which he contrived to deluge the whole company, causing shovelfuls of the powder to be thrown over them at the same time, so that, from the effects of the red powder and yellow water, the shouts, female screams, and noise of drums, trumpets, fiddles, and cymbals, the whole in a few minutes became a scene little better than a pandemonium. This festival is observed by all classes throughout Hindustan, and evil (or at least red powder) will commonly await the European, as well as native, who on these occasions has the misfortune to fall in with a wandering band of these joy

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Daksha. The latter brought forth a hundred weapons, missile and manual, for the use of Rama in the war of Lanka.

Jene, a Japanese deity, p. 341.

Jharejas a tribe of Rajpoots, p. 275.
Jhari, a vessel to hold lustral water.

Ila, the child of Manu, the son of Surya Wi

vaswari. This personage was born as a female, and was transformed into a male under the name of Sudyumna. He was again turned into a female on entering the charmed forest of Gawri (see Uma.) The planet Budh became enamoured of Sudyumna under this form. Siva afterwards restored Sudyumna to his sex, on condition that he should become, alternately,

a male one month, and a female another.

Images. The images worshipped by the Hindus are made of various materials; gold and silver; metals of inferior value; chrystal, stone,wood, clay, and compositions of different kinds. Some are of small size, and appropriated as household gods; others are progressively larger, and used for temple worship ; and others again are of colossal size, seventy, eighty, and more feet in height. A Linga at Benares requires six men to encircle it. The clay and composition images made in the vicinity of Calcutta for the annual festivals (some of which have a very splendid appearance, and are of large dimensions), are, after the ceremonies are over, cast into the river. The modern manufacturers of the deities are artisans in gold, silver, and other metals; stone-cutters and potters. Some of the modern casts are handsome ; but the modern sculptures are commonly contemptible. Some of the ancient Hindu sculptures are magnificent; and, in minute

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