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Atri, one of the seven Rishis, also called one of the seven Brahmadicas. (See Brahmadicas and Rishis.)

Avatara or Avatar, a descent upon earth of a deity in a human or some other shape. (See the ten avatars of Vishnu, p. 14 to 45, and those of others of the gods under their several heads.)

Austerities and Punishments, p. 112, 165.


Badra Bae, a deity worshipped by the Bheels to obtain rain. (See Bheels, p. 270.)

Badra Kali. (See Kali.) Bajranga, a name of Bhairava. Bala Rama, p. 48. Baldiva, the Hindu Hercules. (See Pandus, p. 248.) Bali or Maha Bali, an irreligious monarch, destroyed by Vishnu in the fifth avatar, p. 18, Balinese, p. 348. Ballaji, an avatar of Vishnu, in honour of whom the splendid temple at Jejury was erected. For further particulars of this building and of its deity, seeTemples, p.158.

Banga or Banca Deva, worshipped by the Goands, p. 296.

Bataks, p. 362.

Bauts, Hindu bards produced, to amuse Parvati, from the drops of sweat on Siva's brow; but they sang the praises of Siva only, which so offended Parvati that she turned them out of heaven, and condemned them to lead a wandering life upon earth, to sing there the martial deeds of heroes and the praises of the gods. Among the Bheels and some of the hill tribes, priests and bards.

Bazeegurs, p. 312.

Bedas, p. 368.

Behyu Baji, a deity worshipped by the Bheels to obtain rain.

Bhagisree, a name of Bhavani in western India. Bhagiswar, a name of Mahadeo or Siva. Bhagwan, Parswanatha. Bhairava, p. 73. Bhallae, an instrument of the spade kind used in sacrifice, Bhanu, one of the Ahityas, a name of the sun. Bharadwaji, one of the Rishees. Bhavani or Bowanee, the consort of Siva, a name of Parvati, p. 96. Bheels, (The) p. 261. Bhillet, a hill god, worshipped by the Bheels, p. 270. Bhyru, p. 73. Bhyrus, colossal figures seen at the entrances of temples. Bikh Poison. One of the things produced at the churning of the ocean, which Siva is said to have drank. The Saivas allege that he did so to save the gods, and that, in consequence, his throat was turned blue ; hence his name of Nilakantha (or bluethroated); but the Vishnaivas assert that it was from jealousy in consequence of Vishnu possessing Lakshmi. Bilva, a flower sacred to Siva. Chaplets of them are worn by him, and are also used in sacrifices. Binlang. Stones found in the Narmada, which are worshipped as emblems of Siva. Birth, second (or twice born). These are

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the purpose of driving away flies, mus-
quitoes, and other insects.
ally seen in the hands of the attendants
of the gods,

Chamconda Mata, the goddess of harvest, worshipped by the Bheels. The first of every grain is sacred to her.

They are usu

Chandica, one of the Sactis, sprung from the body of Devi. (See Sactis, p. 121.)

Chandra, or Soma, p. 131.

Chandra Hasa, a kind of axe used in sacrifice.

Chank, the buccinum or wreathed shell, one of the emblems of Vishnu. It is much prized throughout India. When the convolutions are many, it is highly estimated. In fig. 2, pl. 5, an animal resembling a fox is issuing from one; and in fig. 7, pl. 38, illustrative of one of the Japanese idols, the form of a youth appears rising from a shell; this is probably the shell-king of

the Siamese. Charga, an axe used in sacrifice. Charons, Rajpoot priests, p. 277.

Chawrie. (See Chamara.)

Chaya (shade), the consort of Surya. (See

Pradha and Surya, p. 129.) Chila, or Chela, a pupil or disciple of a saint or guru. Chinnu Mustuka, p. 94. Choitunya, p. 240. Chundee, a vindictive form of Durga or Par(See Parvati.)

Cinnaras, forms half human, half equine, having the latter sometimes the upper, and sometimes the lower part of the figure.

Cochin Chinese, p. 369.


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host of Amazonian Asuras, with whom the gods were afraid to engage in battle, from an apprehension of incurring the sin of feminicide. They in consequence applied to Siva, on whose solicitation Parvati produced from herself the form of Kali, bearing in her hands a trident and a skull. On beholding her, the affrighted gods ran away: Kali alone attacked Daruka and her hosts, and destroyed them.

Dasharata, king of Ayodhya, the father of Rama Chandra.

Day (A), of the gods or celestial beings is three hundred and sixty of the days of mortals; and a day of the Petris or Patriarch's, inhabiting the moon, is a month of earthly beings.

Daya (The), of Borneo, p. 346.

Deeruj, a tyrant destroyed by Parasu Rama, in the sixth avatar, p. 20.

Dev-Deo, or Deu, synonymous with Deva.

Deva, a title of a god, as Devi is of a goddess. Maha Deva, a name given to Siva by the Saivas, is the great or supreme god, as Maha Devi, a name of Bhavani or Parvati, is the supreme goddess.

Deva Dasi, women, or dancing girls, in attendance at the temples of the Hindu deities, who call themselves the servants or slaves of the gods. Next to the sacrificers, the most important persons about the temples, says the Abbé Dubois, are the dancing girls, who are known to the public by a much coarser name. “Their profession, indeed, requires of them to be open to the embraces of all castes; and, although originally they appear to have been intended for the gratification of the Brahmans only, they are now obliged to

extend their favours to all who solicit them. Such are the loose females who are consecrated in a special manner to the worship of the gods of India. Every temple, according to its size, entertains a band of them, to the number of eight, twelve, or more. The service they perform consists of dancing and singing. The first they execute with grace, though with lascivious attitudes and motions. Their chaunting is generally confined to the obscene songs which relate to some circumstance or other of the licentious lives of their gods. They perform their religious duties at the temple to which they belong twice a day—morning and evening. They are also obliged to assist at all the public ceremonies, which they enliven with their dance and merry song. As soon as their public business is over, they open their cells of infamy, and convert the temple of worship into a den of licentiousness. “They are bred to this profigate life from their infancy. They are taken from any caste, and are frequently of respectable birth. It is nothing uncommon to hear of pregnant women, in the belief that it will tend to their happy delivery, making a vow, with the consent of their husband, to devote the child then in the womb, if it should turn out a girl, to the service of the Pagoda. they are performing a meritorious duty. The infamous life to which the daughter is destined brings no disgrace on the family. These women are the only females in India

And in doing so, they imagine

who may learn to read, to sing, and to dance. Such accomplishments belong to them exclusively, and are, for that reason, held by the rest of the sex in such ab

horrence, that every virtuous woman would

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There are temples in some solitary places, where the divinity requires to be honoured with the most unbounded licentiousness. He promises children to the barren women who will lay aside the most inviolable rules of decency and shame, and in honour of him submit to indiscriminate embraces. An annual festival is held, in the month of January, at those infamous sinks of debauchery; where I need not say, great numbers of the libertines of both sexes assemble from all quarters. Besides barren wives, who come in quest of issue, by exposing their persons, some of them have bound themselves by a vow to grant their favours to numbers; many other dissolute women also attend to do honour to the infamous deity, by prostituting themselves, openly and without shame, before the gates of his temple.”—Dubois' India.

Devarshis, holy sages or saints.

Devatas or Dewtah, plural of Deva.

Devi-Kanail, a deity worshipped by the Bheels to obtain the ripening of their corn.

Depukee or Devaki, the mother of Krishna and the sister of Kansa or Cansa, king of Mathura. (See Krishna, p. 35.)

Dewal, a temple.

Dewali or Kali Puja, a festival in honour of Kali.

Dhamians (The), p. 310.

Dhanovantara, a physician; one of the gems produced at the churning of the ocean.

Dharma Thakoor, a name of Siva.

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Dherna, p. 145.

Dhertrashta, a half-brother of the Pandus. (See Pandus, p. 248.)

Dhuna. The worship of a deity in which oblations are offered.

Diti, one of the wives of Kasyapa and the mother of the Daityas, or Asuras (demons and giants) as Aditi, another wife of Kasyapa, is of the gods and the Suras, by whom, after numerous sanguinary conflicts, the power of the Asuras or demons was destroyed. Indra was one of the sons of Aditi, whose kingdom, as will be seen in many parts of this work, the Asuras frequenly possessed themselves of, and sent him wandering about the earth like a beggar; but who at length was greatly instrumental in expelling the whole race of the children of Diti. Diti, it appears, had obtained a promise from Kasyapa, by the performances of austerities for a thousand years, that she should have a son who should destroy Indra. The god, aware of the threatened design, watched her motions, and when the time had nearly expired, caught her at a moment when her indiscretion gave him power over her, to destroy the foetus which was intended to He divided it into forty-nine parts, which, being scattered, became the same nnmber of Maruts, or regents of the wind.

prove his own destruction.

The impurity which gave the power alluded to, was a monstrous one; being

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