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their shores, and confined within their own limits a people, who had before served as mercenaries throughout all Polynesia, and traded with all nations —themselves adventurous navigators. “ Unlike the Chinese, the women here are by no means secluded: they associate among themselves like the ladies of Europe. During the residence of Dr. Ainslie, frequent invitations and entertainments were given : on these occasions, and at one in particular, a lady from the coast of Jeddo is represented to have done the honours of the table, with an ease, elegance, and address that would have graced a Parisian. The usual dress of a Japanese woman of middle rank costs perhaps as much as would supply the wardrobe of an European lady for twenty years. “The Japanese are open to strangers, and, abating the restrictions of their political institutions, a people who seem inclined to throw themselves into the hands of any nation of superior intelligence. They have at the same time a great contempt and disregard of any thing below their own standard of morals and habits, as instanced in the case of the Chinese. “The mistaken idea of the illiberality of the Japanese in religious matters, seems to have been fully proved. On visiting the great temple on the hills of Nangasaki, the English commissioner was received with marked regard and respect by the venerable patriarch of the northern provinces, eighty years of age, who entertained him most sumptuously. On shewing him round the courts of the temple, one of the English officers present heedlessly exclaimed in surprise, Jasus Christus ! The patriarch turning half round, with a placid smile, bowed significantly expressive of “We know you are Jasus Christus ! well, don't obtrude him upon us in our temples, and we remain friends;' and so, with a hearty shake of the hands, these two opposites parted.” We now come to a later writer, whose work, from the high character of its author, is also entitled to the first consideration and respect. M. Klaproth is well known as a Chinese scholar, and professes to have drawn his information respecting Japan from Japanese books at his command; the best authority we can possess, in the absence of actual observation. We may, however, hope to derive, ere long, a still better knowledge of this extraordinary people, from the pen of Dr. Siebold; who, like Captain Galownin, was for some time a prisoner among them. In the mean time we can only depend on the information which we now have. M. Klaproth states— “There are three principle religions in Japan: that denominated Sinto, or Sinsion, is the most ancient, and the primitive faith of the empire. It is founded on the worship of spirits, or divinities presiding over all things visible and invisible, and who are called Sin, or Kami. The Dairi, whose family is regarded as descended from the divinities that anciently reigned in the empire, was originally the head of this religion, which holds in higher reverence than any other divine being the goddess Ten-sio-dae-sin (great spirit of celestial light), from whom the family of the Dairis is derived, and whose chief temple, called Nae-koo (interior temple), or Dae-sinkoo, is situated near Oozi, in the district of Watarabeh, province of Izeh. It was founded by the eleventh Dairi. It is a very plain edifice, surrounded by seven other temples dedicated to various deities and genii. In its vicinity are twenty-four other altars, or chapels, where sacrifices are offered to different tutelary spirits. The Ghekoo (exterior temple), or Ghe-daisin-koo, is in the same district, at Takawara, on Mount Nuki-noku Yama. Here is invoked the god Toyo-ke-o-dae-sin, who is regarded as the creator of heaven and earth, and who is at the same time the tutelary divinity of the Dairi; wherefore, this is the temple in which the reigning Dairi offers sacrifice and performs his devotions. “The date of the Ghekoo, like that of the other temple, is B. C. 4; it is encircled with four other temples, amongst which are those of the earth, the wind, and the moon. Sixteen altars and chapels belonging to different deities are near it, and eight others further off. Generally speaking, the whole province of Izeh is filled with temples and places of sacrifices, and it is regarded as a holy place. The brother of the goddess Ten-siodae-sin was Fatsman, commonly called Oosa Fatsman, from his chief temple being at Oosa, in the province of Bunzen: its date is A. D. 570. Fatsman is the Japanese god of war, and the deity who takes most interest in the fate of the empire: hence the emperors often send embassies to consult him in important matters. The Japanese regard Ten-sio-dae-sin as the founder of their empire, and she is on that account the object of their most profound veneration; in fact, the pure Sinto worship recognizes no being superior to her. The Dáiris who descend from this goddess, bear, for that reason, the epithet of Ten-si, or “son of heaven.” The stock of this celestial family is imperishable, for the people believe that when a Dáiri has no child, heaven procures him one. At the present day, when an emperor of Japan has no heir, he finds one beneath a tree, near his palace: this is a child secretly selected by himself from an illustrious family, and placed there. The souls of the Dáiris, as well as those of other men, are considered immortal; for the Sintos acknowledge a state of existence after death. All souls are judged by heavenly judges; those of virtuous men are admitted into paradise Taka-ama-kawara, or exalted platform of heaven, where they become Kamis, or beneficent genii: whilst those of the wicked depart for the hell Ne-no-kooni, or kingdom of roots. In honour of the Kamis, meas or wooden temples are raised to them: in the midst of them is placed the symbol of the divinity, which consists of strips of paper” attached to sticks of the wood of the finoki (thurya Japonica); these symbols, termed gofei, are found in all Japanese houses, where they are kept in little meas. “Every day, or at certain periods, prayers and sacrifices are offered to the founder of the empire, to good emperors, and to other persons who have deserved well of their country, and whose souls have become Kamis. Festivals are also celebrated in their name, termed Matsuri. No person, however, can address himself directly to Ten-sio-dae-sin : he must transmit his prayers to her through the medium of the Sin-go-zins, or tutelary and guardian deities. “The sacrifices offered to the Kamis and tutelary divinities, chiefly at the beginning and end of the month, consist of various articles of food, such as rice, cakes, fish, deer, &c. In ancient times human sacrifices were offered to the tutelary deities; for instance, to Kosu-rio, or the dragon with nine heads, of Mount To-kakoosi, in the province of Sinano, and other Kamis in Yamato. The object was to conciliate these malevolent deities, who were regarded as servants of the gods, and the dearest members of the family were sacrificed to them, commonly damsels of great beauty. “The votaries of the Sinto religion are not forbidden to kill living beings; the priests suffer their hair to grow, like the laity, and may marry. The dead are buried in a bier (kwan or fitsuki), like a mea in shape. Anciently, when a great personage died, a number of his servants and friends were buried alive with him, In later times, these persons on such occasions ripped up their bellies. This custom was prohibited by the thirty-third Dáiri, A. D. 3, but it was still continued till the time of Taeko, towards the close of the sixteenth century; instead of living men, however, statues of clay were substituted, which are still frequently found buried in the earth. “The second religion, and that which is now most prevalent in Japan, since it has become the popular creed, is Buddhism. This religion which, previous to the commencement of our era, had spread from India to central Asia, penetrated soon after into China, and at a later period into Corea. “This exotic doctrine not only maintained its footing in the palaces of the great, but made considerable progress among the vulgar, who were captivated by the pomp of its ceremonies, so much more imposing and splendid than the pure and simple worship of the ancient religion of the country. From this period Buddhist priests flocked into Japan from Corea and China; and, as the latter country was regarded as the second birthplace of Buddhism in eastern Asia, a vast number of Japanese, who dedicated themselves to the ecclesiastical profession, proceeded thither, in order to perfect themselves in the study of the law in Chinese convents. Even the Dáiris, who had been previously regarded as the heads of the Sinto religion, often deserted it to follow the precepts of Buddhism, and many princes of the imperial family, whose reputed descent was from the ancient gods of the country, shaved their heads, and became priests in the convents of the new faith. A.D. 805, the fiftieth Dáiri caused images of the Buddhist divinities to be even placed in the imperial palace, and the sacred books procured from India to be read and explained; and he received the Kivantsio of Buddhist baptism.” Buddhism in Japan was always on the increase until the period when it was declared, by the Japanese government, the religion of the state; a circumstance which has occasioned the ancient worship of Sinto, although differing essentially from Buddhism, to be almost completely identified with it, at least amongst the vulgar; for the learned are perfectly well aware of the distinction between the two doctrines. This fusion of the two religions is now carried so far, that the Sinto divinities are often worshipped in the Buddist temples, and vice versä. “Japan is every where crowded with Buddhist temples, called Zi. One of the chief is the Tö-kó-zi, in the south-east quarter of Keo or Meyako. Its enclosure contains several religious edifices, the most considerable of which is the Dae-Boots-den, or saloon of the great Buddha, surnamed Roosiana, a term corrupted from the Sanscrit roshana or ‘the resplendent.’ The image was first set up in the year 1576, by the military emperor Takeo, or Fide-yosi. The saloon in which it is placed was destroyed in 1596, by a terrible earthquake. Fide-yeo, son of Taeko, rebuilt it in 1602. But the colossus, which was of brass gilt, having been materially injured by another earthquake, in 1662, the statue was melted down, and the metal used in coining copper money, and a substitute of wood covered with gilt paper was completed in 1667. This is still in existence; it represents Buddha seated in the Indian mode, upon a lotus flower; the body of the god is 77 feet 54 inches high, Rhenish measure; and the entire statue with the lotus 89 feet 8+ inches. The head of the collossus protrudes through the roof of the saloon. At a little distance from hence is a chapel called Mimitsuka, or ‘tomb of ears,’ in which are buried the ears and noses of the Coreans who fell in their battles with Taeko. He had them salted and conveyed to Japan in barrels. The grand portico of the external wall of the temple is called Ni-wo-mon, or ‘gate of the two kings.’ On entering this vast portico, which is 83% feet high, on each side appears a collossal figure 22 feet in height, representing the two celestial kings, Ardoon and Inyo, who are the usual parties at the Buddhic temples. Another edifice, placed before the apartment of the great Buddha, contains the largest bell known in the world. It is 17 feet 2% inches high,

* These strips of paper accord with Finlayson's account of the Cochin Chinese.

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