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hand a club, in the left a scorpion ; under each foot a human body lies bleeding.

“5. A human figure, face half concealed by a mask, with a glory round his head; he is in a sitting posture, drinking blood from a skull.

“ 6. Similar to No. 1. 7. Two figures, male and female; a legion of nondescript animals around. 8. A serpent with a face, body full of eyes, coiled over a human body.

9. An equestrian figure with three eyes; heads depend from the saddlebow; it is armed with a bow and arrows; the horse has a dragon's head.

“ 10. A dog with a human face, with a female human being.

“11. A black demon; across his lap is a human body, upon whose entrails he is feeding.

“ 12. An equestrian figure with a boar's head, jaws bloody, armed with sword and shield; a dragon is sitting on the shoulders of the figure.

“ 13. An equestrian female figure of a white demon with three eyes, breasts exposed, sitting upon a horse, with a human skin, the head and hands of which are remaining, for a saddle cloth, the reins of the bridle passing through two skulls ; in her mouth is an infant. Under the horse a human figure is seen with her stomach ripped open.

“ Eight other figures follow, similar to No. 7.”—Asiatic Journal.

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This article should properly have appeared in a preceding page; but as the plates have been otherwise arranged, it will be necessary to introduce it here, in explanation of plate 32, and a part of plate 33.

Figs. I and 2, I am not sufficiently acquainted with the use of, to say more than that I believe them to be depositaries for articles of some kind, used in worship. Fig. I is a handsome cast, and from the elephants on each side of the idol, evidently sacred to Devi. Like some of my sculptures it was completely crusted with the sin-expelling ordure of the cow. Fig. 2 appears to be a throne for the reception of a small idol. It is surmounted by a peacock. Figs. 3 and 4 are lamps, also used in worship.

Fig. 5 is a boat-shaped vessel, called Argha Patra, used in religious ceremonies to contain the argha, or offering, made of tila (or sesamum indicum), cusa grass, perfumes, flowers, durva grass, and water. Fig. 6 is a handsomely engraved box in two compartments (having in the inside a small mirror) containing colours for staining the eye-lashes, &c. Fig. 7 is a pierced shell for containing incense. Figs. 8, 9, and 10, are lustral spoons sacred to Vishnu, Krishna, &c. Fig. Il is the Hindu vina (or lute) commonly seen in the hands of Nareda and Surawati.

Figs. 4 and 5, plate 33, are compressed vessels used for religious purposes, to contain the water of the Ganges. Fig. 6 is ganta, or a bell, used at various periods of worship: and fig. 7 is a paun daun, in seven compartments, for containing paun, chewed by the Hindus, consisting of betel, chunan, spices, &c. Fig. 8 is a Fakeer's crutch, with a concealed dagger; over it hangs a rosary or string of beads.


The Jainas, or Svarakas, or Swarkas, have been considered a division of the sect of Buddha; but the principal tenet of their faith is in direct opposition to the belief of that sect. The latter deny the existence of a supreme Being; the former admit of one, but deny his power and interference in the regulation of the universe. Like the Buddhas, they believe that there is a plurality of heavens and hells; that our rewards and punishments in them depend upon our merit or demerit: and that the future births of men are regulated by their goodness or wickedness in every state of animal life. On these points the reader need only refer to the article “ Buddha” to find a full description, which it would be unnecessary to recapitulate. Thus, like the Brahmans, the Jainas acknowledge a supreme Being, but pay their devotion to divine objects of their own creation, with this difference, that the Brahmans represent their deities to be of heavenly descent, whereas, the Jaina objects of worship, like, but at the same time distinct from, those of the Buddhas, are mortals of alleged transcendent virtue, raised to beatitude by their piety, benevolence, and goodness. Equally with the Buddhas

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Fig 1.2.3. Lingams. 4.5. Comprefed Vessels for holding the sacred water of the Ganges. 6 Gantu or Bella

P. O Faker's Crutch with a concealed Dagger da Rosary or Beads.

Published by Parbury, allen d ozondon 1832

they deny the divine authority of the Vedas, yet they admit the images of the gods of the Vedantic religion into their temples, and, it is said, to a certain extent worship them; but consider them to be inferior to their own Tir'thankaras. They, therefore, appear to blend, in practice, portions of the two faiths, advocating doctrines scarcely less irrational than those of atheists, and no less wild than the heterogeneous polytheism of the Brahmans.

The founder of the Jaina sect was Rishabadeva, who was incarnate thirteen times. After him twenty-three other sages or holy men became the Tir'thankaras or Gurus of the sect, the last of whom was incarnate twentyseven times. Gautama, the present Buddha, was his disciple. The Buddhas state that twenty-two Buddhas appeared on earth before Gautama. The Jainas describe twenty-four of their Tir'thankaras. The Jainas derive their name from the word Jinu (ji, to conquer). A Jaina must overcome the eight great crimes, viz. eating at night, or eating of the fruit of trees that give milk; slaying an animal; tasting honey or flesh; taking the wealth of others, or taking, by force, a married woman; eating flour, butter, or cheese; and worshipping the gods of other religions. *

The Jainas extend the doctrine of benevolence toward sentient animals to a greater degree than the Buddhas, with whom they agree in their belief

migration. A Jaina yati or priest carries with him a broom made of cotton threads to sweep the ground before him as he passes along, or as he sits down, lest he should tread or sit upon and injure any thing that has life. A strict yati will not, consequently, go out on a rainy day, nor, for the same reason, speak without first covering his mouth. He will neither drink water which has not been boiled; wash his clothes ; bathe or cleanse any part of his body, from the apprehension that he should, by so doing, inadvertently destroy any living animal.t

* This last injunction strongly militates against what I have just before stated.

+ A strong instance of their strict adherence to this article of their religion is related in Major Seeley's work, the Wonders of Ellora. “ An ascetic at Benares was, like the rest of the sect, extremely apprehensive of causing the death of an animal. Some mischievous European gave him a microscope to look at the water he drank. On seeing the animalculi he threw down and

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