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45, is its calf. 46, is Nawā, the ship supposed to refer to the ark of Noah. 47, is a Chourie, or tail of the ox or yak of Thibet. 48, is the blue lotus, or water-lily, which, when Buddha walked abroad, sprung up in all its expanded beauty and brilliancy of colouring to prevent his feet from touching the ground. 49, is the red lotus. 50, is the boa, or flower of the lotus class. 51, is the tail feathers of the peacock. Under this number Captain Low has made some very benevolent and judicious observations, which I regret not being able to insert; they will be found in page 109 of the first part of the third voloume of the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society. 52, is the Chank, or shell, or buccinum, with the involutions turned from left to right. It is prized according to its number of convolutions. 53, is Chattu Mukha, or the four-faced Brahma. 54, represents the Scarabeus, or beetle of the golden mountains. 55, is the golden tortoise. 56, is the Hanasa of Brahma. This is the Hanza or Henza of Ava. 57, is the Mangkaro (or mukara of the Hindus), an aquatic monster resembling a crocodile. 58, is the melodious bird of paradise. 59, is the Kinaro, a figure half-bird, half-human, the same as is (I presume) shewn in fig. 10, plate 39. 60, is Mayuro, a bird so called. 61, is another bird, inhabiting the Himalaya mountains. This bird is said to eat iron filings, and, in consequence, the finest tempered swords are made from its ordure. 62, 63, and 64, are other birds. 64, is supposed to be the Garuda of Vishnu, 65, is Hari or Siva. 66, is an alligator. 67, is the wooden fence which surrounded the house of Sonomokhodum. 68 and 69 are various. 70, are the representations of the toes of the foot of the Phrabat. I have used this explanation generally. By Captain Low they are called flowers representing the toes of his Phrabat. 71. Parechatta, a flower which grows only in heaven. 72. Precious stones. 73. The buffalo. 74. Certain hills. 75. Rama Sura. 76. Maha Rishi. 77. Dha Chang, or the bow of Rama. 78. Pato. 79. Khelasa Bhapp hato, the supposed mountain Kailasa. 80. Utsaťhi, a star. 81. Kangsatala. 82. Salawanang, or the diamond garden. 83. The golden goblet. 84. Pakhanang. 85. Paduka, the slippers. 86. The goddess of the clouds. 87. The golden deer. 88. A Siamese fowl. 89. The supposed constellation Rohini. 90. An ornamental part of a dress. 91. Saticha, or


spear. 92. A diamond ornament. 93. Another diamond garden. 94. A part of a princely wardrobe. 95, is a part of a head-dress, which falls down and covers a part of the nape of the neck. 96, is “ the inestimable jewel, the type of mental illumination of the Hindus, which shone refulgent to illumine the earth from the sacred breast of Narayana.”

The representations of the foot of Buddha, although, in substance, generally agreeing, vary, as I have before observed, in the positions of the symbols, &c., very materially. The representation given in fig. 4, plate 30, of this work is taken, by the permission of the trustees of the British Museum, from the carving in the hall of that establishment: but, as it will be obvious, from what I have before stated, that any description of one, as respects all the symbols and most of their positions in it, may not apply to another, the reader must exercise his best judgment in the application.


Buddha of Nepaul and Thibet.-Sacrificial Utensils.— The Jainas.- The Shikhs. -Choitunya.-

The Sauds.-Nir Narrain.— The Datyas.-Jalandara.—The Pandus.—Meru.-Osiris, Isis, and Orus.


The religion of Nepal is considered to be that of Buddha, but in external worship it approaches nearer to the Brahminical. The Nepalese acknowledge, unlike the Buddhas of Ava and Ceylon, a Creator, and like the Jainas, worship the deities of the Hindu Pantheon ; but consider them as very inferior to their own Buddhas, as the Jainas do to their Tirthankaras.

Adi Buddha is considered by the Nepalese as the supreme Being or the Creator of the world. He created by Dhyan (inward or spiritual contemplation) five divine Buddhas—Vairochanar Akshobhya, Ratna, Sambhava, Amitabha, and Amogha Siddha : each of whom produced from himself, in the same manner, his Bodhi-sitwa or son ; Samant Badra; Vajra Pani; Ratna Pani; Padma Pani; and Viswa Pani.

Four of these Bodhi-sitwas were ingrossed in worship, and nothing more is known of them (says Mr. Hodgson, from whose sketch of Buddhism in Nepal I have taken this abstract), than their names; but Padma Pani, by the command of Adi Buddha, created Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, to perform the operations which have been assigned to them in Hindu mythology. Brahma, in his turn, created for the devas (gods) heaven: for the daityas (demons) patala or hell: and the four other kinds of beings (aeriel spirits and mortals it may be presumed) he placed between these two regions and the earth.

Vishnu and Siva appear to have been introduced into the system rather to exalt the power of Adi Buddha than for any practical purpose whatever.

The mystic syllable O'M (or A,U,M) is equally reverenced by the Buddhas

of Nepal, as by the Brahmans. A, they say, is the Vija Mantra of the male Buddha, the symbol of generative power: U, of the female Dharma, the type of productive power : and M, of Sanga, the union of the essences of both. These form the Buddhist triad.

The Buddhas of Nepal acknowledge to have adopted the favourite Brahminical deities. Nature is symbolized by the Yoni, and personified as a female divinity, called Adi Prajni and Adi Dharma.

The Dhyani Buddhas are quiescent and inactive, as are also their several sactis. Besides the divine Buddhas, are seven human or earth-born Buddhas, Vipasya, Sikhi, Viswa Bhu, Karkutchand, Kanakamuni, Kasyapa and Sakya Sinha, who have obtained Nivani. The idea of the Ethiopic origin of Buddha, in consequence of his curled locks, about which so much has been written, is distinctly disclaimed. The Nepalese consider that fashion to be merely a point of beauty.

Adi Buddha was never seen nor ever made a descent upon earth. He is merely light, and is perfectly quiescent, as are the Dhyani Buddhas : but the seven mortal Buddhas, who taught the doctrines of Buddhism, ascended in consequence of their virtue and piety to heaven, and obtained Nivani or union with him; which is the expected final reward of good actions. Like other followers of Buddha the Nepalese believe that man is destined to numerous births, according to his merits or demerits, till he be perfectly virtuous, to enable him to obtain Nivani. On being asked if they will answer in the world to come to Adi Buddha, and what rewards and punishments they expect for good or bad actions, they reply, “ How can the wicked arrive at Buddha ? bad men will go to the infernal regions: the good ascend to heaven. Those who commit both good and evil actions will have numerous births, the account of which is kept by Yama.”

The Buddha is an adept in the wisdom of Buddhism, which it is his duty to teach to others: the Bodhisitwas are willing learners of it till they obtain sufficient knowledge to become a Buddha, an omniscient being.

The abode of Adi Buddha is the higher Bhuvana or heavenly mansion : below this are thirteen others called Bodhi Satwi Bhuvanas; to which the faithful followers of Buddha are translated after death : below these are eighteen others belonging to Brahma, for the abode of his worshippers hereafter : below these again are nine others, six for the followers of Vishnu, and three for those of Siva or Mahadeo. Still lower are Bhuvanas for Indra, Surya, Yama, Chandra, Agni, and various others of the Hindu deities.

The opinion of the Nepalese respecting the origin of mankind is no bad counterpart of the flying inhabitants of another world in “Peter Wilkins.” Our first parents they imagine inhabited Abha’swara, one of the Bhuvanas of Brahma, and occasionally visited the earth. These paradisiacal beings, although of different sexes, knew it not, till coming once to the earth Adi Buddha created in them a desire to eat; and they did eat of almonds, which deprived them of the power of flying back to Abha'swara. They then ate of other fruits and associated together, and grew wiser; and then human kind very naturally increased. It does not appear how beings of other kinds became also inhabitants of the earth. They say that there have been and will be four yogas ; in the first of which men lived for 80,000 years ; in the second 10,000; in the third 1,000; and that the fourth is divided into four periods, in the first of which men will live 100 years ; in the second fifty; in the third twenty-five, and in the fourth, towards the close of the kali yug, only seven years, when they will be no higher than the thumb.

Matte (the body), which is subject to changes, perishes : but spirit (the soul), which is unchangeable, perisheth not. Animal existence, subject to transmigration, is pravritti. Spiritual bliss, eternal rest, or an union with the deity, is called nirvritti.

The Bandyas are the followers of the Buddha doctrines, and as such are brethren in faith, and equal. They were formerly divided into five classes, differing from each other only in certain practices. Two of these, the Bhikshu (or monastic order), and the Vijra Archarya or secular priests, now remain. The Bhikshus are principally found among the Bhoteas, a race subject to Nepal on the borders of Thibet, or exercising the inferior ministry in Nepal; the superior ministry being in the hands of the Vaijra Acharya. The vihars, or conventual residences of the priests, with which Nepal is covered,

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