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extended travel were limited only by my duties. Nothing Japanese was foreign to me, from palace to beggar's hut. I lived in Dai Nippon during four of the most pregnant years of the nation's history. Nearly one year was spent alone in a daimio's capital far in the interior, away from Western influence, when feudalism was in its full bloom, and the old life in vogue. In the national capital, in the time well called “the flowering of the nation,” as one of the instructors in the Imperial University, having picked students from all parts of the empire, I was a witness of the marvelous development, reforms, dangers, pageants, and changes of the epochal years 1872, 1873, and 1874. With pride I may say truly that I have felt the pulse and heart of New Japan.

I have studied economy in the matter of Japanese names and titles, risking the charge of monotony for the sake of clearness. The scholar will, I trust, pardon me for apparent anachronisms and omissions. For lack of space or literary skill, I have had, in some cases, to condense with a brevity painful to a lover of fairness and candor. The title justifies the emphasis of one idea that pervades the book.

In the department of illustrations, I claim no originality, except in their selection. Many are from photographs taken for me by natives in Japan. Those of my artist - friend, Ozawa, were nearly all made from life at my suggestion. I have borrowed many fine sketches from native books, through Aimé Humbert, whose marvelously beautiful and painstaking work, “Japon •Illustré,” is a mine of illustration. Few artists have excelled in spirit and truth Mr. A. Wirgman, the artist of The London Ilustrated News, a painter of real genius, whose works in oil now adorn many home parlors of ex-residents in Japan, and whose gems, fine gold, and dross fill the sprightly pages of The Japan Punch. Many of his sketches adorn Sir Rutherford Alcock's book on the vicissitudes of diplomatists, commonly called "The Capital of the Tycoon," or "Three Years in Japan." I am indebted both to this gentleman and to Mr. Laurence Oliphant, who wrote the charming volume, “ Lord Elgin's Mission to China and Japan," for many illustrations, chiefly from native sketches. Through the liberality of my publishers, I am permitted to use these from their stores of plates. I believe I have in no case reproduced old cuts without new or correct information that will assist the general reader or those who wish to study the various styles of the native artists, five of which are berein presented. Hokusai, the Dickens, and Kamo, the Audubon of Japanese art, are well represented. The photographs of the living and of the renowned dead, from temples, statues, or old pictures, from the collections of daimios and nobles, are chiefly by Uchida, a native photographer of rare ability, skill, and enthusiasm, who unfortunately died in 1875. Four vignettes are copied from the steel-plate engravings on the greenbacks printed in New York for the Ono National Banking Company of Tokio, by the Continental Bank-note Company of New York.

I gratefully acknowledge the assistance derived from native scholars in Fukui and Tokio, especially Messrs. Iwabuchi, Takakashi, and Idéura, my readers and helpers. To the members of the Mei Roku Sha, who have honored me with membership in their honorable body, I return my best thanks. This club of authors and reformers includes such men as Fukuzawa, Arinori Möri, Nakamura Masanawo, Kato Hiroyuki, Nishi Shiu, the Mitsukuri brothers, Shuihei and Rinsho, Uchida Masawo, Hatakéyama Yoshinari, and others, all names of fame and honor, and earnest workers in the regeneration of their country. To my former students now in New York, who have kindly assisted me in proof-reading, and last and first of all to Mr. Tosui Imadaté, my friend and constant companion during the last six years, I return my thanks and obligations. I omit in this place the names of high officers in the Japanese Government, because the responsibility for any opinion advanced in this work rests on no native of Japan. That is all my own. To my sister, the companion, during two years, of several of my journeys and visits in the homes of the island empire, I owe many an idea and inspiration to research. To the publishers of the North American Review, Appletons' Journal, and The Independent my thanks are due for permission to print part of certain chapters first published in these periodicals.

I trust the tone of the work will not seem dogmatic. I submit with modesty what I have written on the Ainos. I am inclined to believe that India is their original home; that the basic stock of the Japanese people is Aino; and that in this fact lies the root of the marvelous difference in the psychology of the Japanese and their neighbors, the Chinese.

“Can a nation be born at once ?" “ With God all things are possible.”

W. E. G. New York, May 10th, 1876.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

120

Map of Dai Nippon (the Empire of Japan)..

faces page 17 1. Nichiren and the Hojo Executioner. (Humbert, from a temple painting)..... Frontispiece. 2. High and Low Type of Face. (Hokusai school)..

30 3. An Aino Chief from Yezo. (Photograph by Uchida).

32 1 His linperial Majesty, Mutsuhito. (Photograph by Uchida).

37 5. Passage in the Inland Sea. (Alcock)....

57 6. Mikado's Method of Travel in very Ancient Times. (Native drawing).

62 7. Imperial or Government Seal. (Native drawing)...

66 & Imperial Crest, or Mikado's Seal. (Native drawing)..

67 9. Japan, as known to the Ancient Mikados. (From the series of historical maps in the

*** Nihon Riyaku Shi") 10. Jank in the Bay of Yedo. (Native drawing)...

71 11. Her Imperial Majesty Haruko. (Photograph by Uchida).

81 12. Shinto Wayside Shrine. (Alcock)..

89 13. The Peasant of To-day. (Hokusai).

91 14. A Court Noble in Ancient Japan. (Native drawing).

93 15. The Mikado on his Throne. (Native drawing).

102 16. A Samurai in Winter Traveling-dress. (Alcock)..

106 17. A Japanese Farmer. (Hokusai).

107 18. View in the Inland Sea. (Alcock).

118 19. View near Hiógo. (Alcock)... 20. Tamétomo defying the Taira Men. (Bank-note vignette).

121 21. The Mountains and Lake of Hakoné. (Alcock)..

129 n. War-junk of the Twelfth Century. (Bank-note vignette)

136 B. Kojima writing on the Cherry-tree. (Bank-note vignette)

153 24. Nitta Yoshisada casting the Sword into the Sea. (Bank-note vignette).

155 35. Kobó Daishi. (Photograph from a temple statue)

162 26. The Mother's Memorial. (Nankoku Özawa)...

168 27. Belfry of a Buddhist Temple. (Alcock, from a photograph)

172 28, Repulse of the Mongol Tartars. (Native painter)....

180 29. Ashikaga Takauji. (Photograph from a temple statue).

185 30. Temple-bell from Kioto. (Humbert) 31. Chasing Floral Designs on Copper. (Humbert).

203 32. Picnic Booth. (Humbert)

205 33. Court Lady in Kioto. (Humbert).

209 34. Kusunoki Masatsura. (Native drawing). 35. The Challenge. (Hokusai)...

223 36. Archer on Castle Rampart. (Humbert).

226 37. Symbols of the Carpenter's Guild. (Humbert).

227 38. View of the Castle of Ozaka. (Alcock).....

234 39. Nobunaga's Victims : Priest and Monk. (Alcock).

235 40. A Familiar Country Scene. (Hokusai school).

236 41. Camp of Hideyoshi, before Fukui. (Humbert)

239 12. Image of Deified Hero. (Native drawing)..

241 43. Ear Monument in Kioto. (Photograph)..

245 4. “The Tarpeian Rock of Japan." (Oliphant)

288 45. Hollander on Déshima. (Alcock) 46. Crest of the Tokugawa Family. (Native drawing).

271

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