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commission, and 89,000 men, scattered Will the Reform Parliament lay on over the world, to defend our posses- the house-tax-a tax on spirits—and a sions. By great exertions, and by the five per cent property-tax in order to terror of the immediate loss of our augroent the pay of the navy, and intransatlantic empire, we have added duce merchant seamen to enter into 7000 men to our army, and three ships it ? Will the ten-pounders re-enact of the line to our navy; and by the the tax on beer and spirits to save their last returns in October, 1838, we had country? There is the vital point of twenty-four ships of the line, including the case. We cannot get crews fur three guard-ships in commission, and the fleet without money, and we can. about ninety-six thousand regulars in not get money, even for the most vital arms, of whom, about twenty thousand purposes, from the class to whom we are in India, and twelve thousand on have chosen to surrender political the shores of the St Lawrence.

power. On the other hand, what have the Suppose the men got, and, by the Russians been doing? There are at greatest efforts, twenty ships of the Cronstadt, constantly equipped, manline fitted out for sea, what sort of a ned, and exercised at sea, 27 ships of jumble of crews will be assembled ! the line and 17_frigates; and at Se-Indomitable courage, indeed bastopol, in the Black sea, 15 ships of never be awanting to the Anglothe line, and 22 frigates, mostly of Saxon race; nautical skill cannot be 44 guns each. And these great unknown to those who have navigated fleets are not distracted by the neces- from Indus to the Pole; patriotic ar. sity of protecting distant colonial pos. dour will burst forth the moment that sessions, but are all massed together an enemy's fleet is seen approaching at two points, with their troops con- the British shores. But indomitable stantly on board, and daily exercised, valour will not give discipline to a in the Baltic, at least, under the per- man-of-war's crew. Nautical skill will sonal inspection of the Emperor him- not in battle supply the want of disciself, and capable of sailing in a body pline and the habit of acting together. at a week's notice, upon any warlike Patriotism will not, in the decisive expedition whatever.

hour, supply the want of preparation Lord Minto says that the navy was and organization. never in a more respectable condition, But Russia will not make this attack and that we could in a short time, if alone. Should Nicholas descend from occasion required it, fit out 20 ships of his icy throne to dare the British the line for defence of the British islands, he will not come without ade. shores. According to the best ac- quate support on both his flanks. He counts we have been able to receive, may come supported by Denmark, there are 75 ships of the line that could Prussia, Sweden and Holland. All be fitted out, after a long time, for sea, these powers are bound to him by inbesides 13 building—the poor remains terest, necessity, or the recent aggresof 244 ships of the line which crowded sions of England. Denmark has the our harbours thirty years ago. But double conflagration of 1800 and 1809 granting that there are 75 ships of the to revenge. Sweden may not be backline in the British harbours which ward to purchase the support of the could be fitted out in process of time, Czar by uniting to his arms. Prussia are there stores in the arsenal for their is united to Nicholas by ties both of equipment, or could MEN BE GOT TO national interest and private conMAN THEM? There is the vital point. nection. Holland thinks of the partition The Queen's stores notoriously never of the Netherlands, the cruel oppreswere at so low an ebb as at this mo- sion of England, the bombardment of ment; the Reform Administration Antwerp. Who

can say that in having, in order to make a show of France, at such a crisis, ancient reco!. economy, and an apparent reduction lections would not prevail over moin their navy estimates, sold off the dern partialities, and the memory of stores, or ceased to repair them when Trafalgar and Waterloo not rise up reduced, by the waste of time, to an in irresistible force to induce her to unprecedented degree. But suppos- throw her navy into the scale against ing the stores got where are the men ? us?


What is become of satire—the throwing off from it the pestilences that good old legitimate satire, for which brood in the atmosphere of the evil our language is so fit? Is the task of world. The wicked know this well, and lashing the follies and vices of the will suppress the honest feeling with world delivered solely into the hand every art. They threaten one with brute of the caricaturist and the divine ? Or force, and endeavour to cajole another are all other vices allowed to take with lessons of pretended meekness; their course, as of little importance in and are open-mouthed against the their effects upon society, in compari- whole clergy, with texts of Holy Writ, son with our great political sins, which suggested by their master, if one in defy the slowness of the structure of the duty of his sacred calling cry verse, and are within the province pe- aloud and spare not. The low villains, culiar of the daily press? We cer- that would set all things wrong that tainly cannot take another position, they may gain by the plunder, withthat we live in a most virtuous age; put religion or morality, have long we know there is a canting spirit going known that the superior education, about with this daring assumption ; knowledge, and morals of the clergy and sometimes bold, and sometimes must make them powerful adversaries; soft and insinuating, are the tones by to get them out of the field, therefore, is which an acquiescence in our general a great object. What would not the virtue is demanded. But it is sheer malignant press say should a priest wickedness and hypocrisy. Pretence publish a powerful satire—yet who so and pretension, nearly allied, indeed, qualified ! The clergy dare not open are the great sins of the day, infecting their mouths on politics ; they must be all grades, all professions, and are the excluded from every thing but their great masters in all the arts and calling, as if their calling was not in sciences. We are, all of a sudden, be- every thing. For what human action come the wisest people the world ever is there that should not be conducted knew; so knowing, that all who have on religious principles ? And who gone before us are fools; and so good, ought so well to search into, and know that we can afford, seemingly, to cast the hearts of men—and to mix where. off every principle in turn to play ever duty, civil or political, calls with, and it will fly back to us, as if the them? They are not to be disfran. very centripetal force, or the attrac- chised. It is neither just to them nor tion of virtue was in our own selves, good for society. Then the wicked self-engendered, self-nourished, and think, and truly, that if the clergy are self-promoting The ages past are put aside from expressing strong opinothing to us : and we should equally nions, so all those under their influence, treat with contempt the ages to come, too, are got rid of-all who would be did we not look upon them as to be il- thought, as well as all that are, reliluminated by ourselves, and but a con- gious—and where, then, are the advertinuation to perfection of our own ex- saries to attack vice in the strongholds cellence. And yet satire, the good and in high places? It is insisted upon old satire, is nearly dumb. And very that it is unchristian to use harsh properly dumb, say the sly knaves, names, and downright weakness and that would have their own way with compliance is demanded, under the out disturbance. Satan takes the names of gentleness, forbearance, shape of Demure Propriety, and walks meekness, and charity. We are to about with pitch-plasters for every forget that our Lord, who to us is an one's mouth that would utter words example in all things, called men hythat wither and burn. There is pocrites, and whited sepulchres full of strength in real goodness; there is in- dead men's bones and all uncleanness. dignation, the very birthright of vigor. It would follow that St Paul was un. ous nature, salutary to the soul, and christian when he uttered the words

* Published by Edward Moxon, Dover Street, London : 1838.

to the smiter, “ thou whited wall ;" or of that we have none. Prose has its when he quoted the Greek poet, and more limited scope, and however forci. called the Cretans “ liars, evil beasts, ble against an individual, or an inslow bellies.” But the scoundrel part dividual case, admits not of general of mankind have greatly succeeded in views, nor free play of illustration, this respect, and have driven off the and the complete summing up by artfield, by their outcry, many a one cap- ful arrangement. There is so much able of wielding the very battle-axe of of the real spirit of satire occasionally legitimate satire ; and hence it is that in Burke, that we could almost beliete every iniquity under the sun has the that he wrote great parts of his letter more play. Prose satires, indeed, we to the Duke of Bedford, with his porhave, of a new kind, in our Reviews, trait of the Leviathan of Royal favour, but they are too general, and want and parts of his French Revolution, that solemn burst of indignation of the particularly the display of the insoold verse, and the bold positions and lence of the personified Regicide, in representations of poetry. They are verse, and originally intended it for ver. rather appeals to reason than feeling, sified satire. We are not disposed to and are therefore subjected to a longer grant this spirit to Junius. His letprocess of thought. They may abash ters want imagery-bold, assuming, fools-and almost knaves—for a time, they tell wonderfully ; but are rather but they rise up again and reply. Vil invective than satire. It is the adjunct lany should lie prostrate, scathed, an of poetry that is wanting. It makes awful warning, with the mark of the the dullest reader feel the spark. "Si single stroke upon its forehead. It is natura negat facit indignation versus;" an evil sign when the solemn and in- who reads it, thinks he could similar. dignant satirist gives place to the ca- ly pour out his indignation—he adopts ricaturist. There is something un- it ; it is his own, and he repeats it;a: 1 manly in the viewing lightly what oh! what a noble feeling is indigna. seriously affects our interests. It is tion! it is the lordly feeling of manan evil sign to laugh at a lack of prin- hood against all that is mean, low, ciple, to be amused with selfishness, to contemptible. It is that which a very smile at errors which bring empires vile person never felt, and which a into peril. It has been said that we foolish one could never express. We are a nation of caricaturists. It is no are not afraid of being thought paracompliment. It were better that we doxical in asserting that it is an amia. had the bolder virtue than the simper- ble feeling. That the gentlest, the ing accomplishment But even in mildest natures, the wisest, the best, this we are nowadays the tamest of have it-dormant, indeed, until the tame. We have H.B. the master thy occasion calls it forth, and then of the sports ; and, while it might make out it bursts like inspired virtue. We angels weep to see the antics men are would assert, that there never was a playing, the grilled world is invited to true poet without it. All poets are be merry over the most timid drolleries. in mind and genius essentially satir. There is not the touch of strength in his ists—they only want the occasion. hand. How different, how very differ. Even the amiable Cowper could not ent, were the productions of Gillray! resist the impulse, and in his gentlest His was a masterly hand, and dignified subjects, where a minor poet would caricature—his was a power to be re- be all elegance and softness, he throws spected and feared. We should have about his satiric lash with a vehement thought Cruickshank had possessed the power. We confess, that when we caricaturist's mind and genius. Does read satire ourselves, we feel the bethe think it beneath him ? If so, he ter man—it flogs at once out of the greatly mistakes, while he dedicates mind all petty things, and bids energy his pencil too exclusively to the vul- and resolution do their best within garities of low London life. But why us.

Yet does it make us humble, are we to look to the pleasantries of seeing that we are of a nature that caricature, when there is such a de- needs so much correction, and so mand for the utmost severity of sa- much aid to rescue us from things tire? Good, strong, nervous, and in which in our better moments we abdignant versification is the only satis- hor. And it makes us better towards factory, the only complete satire, and men. It is the safety-valve—it is the



storm that clears the atmosphere of fearless expression, there is ever the our minds, with one grand thunder- gentler love, the affection better worth burst dispersing the ill-humours, and the cherishing. We have at this moleaving the mind's sight clearer, and ment the tenderer feelings, and have the heart purer and more tranquil

. the more enjoyed a volume of much The rage of indignation has been ex- sweet poetry, because we have been pended, pity has followed, and then led to it through good wholesome saforbearance, and then love. Never tire, and would recommend to all who let have fellowship, much less would be thus rendered amiable, a vofriendship, with men who walk in the lume of good poetry, the better part world's ways without ever feeling one of which, we think, is satire, “by touch of indignation, for their tame John Kenyon, formerly of St. Peter's souls can never rise to any ecstasy of College, Cambridge." The first piece affection ; and their benevolence is is “ Moonlight”-and beautiful moonhalf affected, a simpering quiescence, light it is as ever illuminated lands of to cover the little bilious bitternesses dream and vision. But pass it by aof disposition that lurk and make while; let the moon rise, and you will them uncomfortable within, and press see the divine orb in her glory above upon and narrow the heart so that it the world, when you have seen a litcannot expand to any manliness of act tle what the world is, over which she or feeling. Better to hear the war- would benevolently spread her veil, whoop of a generous enemy than en- half of silver light, and half of darkcounter the smiles of an universal ness. Read first, “ Pretence, a Satire,” quietist. To smother indignation is and then, when honest Virtue has had to stifle virtue, and if we quell it en- full sway, and has discharged the pectirely in young minds, we smother cant humours of your disposition, be you virtue in the very cradle as she is amiable as you may-you will be enaawaking from her sweet sleep into bled to rise in dream and vision of poehealthy and active existence. How try, and meet half-way angels of the beautiful is it in youthful hearts, where moon, and visit either world together in as yet there is uncorrupted honesty ; love and purity.. The process of the and through feeling they acquire preparatory fib is not unpleasant-80 knowledge, and the wise nurse's wish enter we on “Prince Ercles' Vein.” is accomplished for her child—“Sa- Our author makes a nice and happy pere et fari quæ sentiat.” And then, distinction between Pretence and Prewhere there is the bold, the open, the tension.

6. To seem,

not be, our ever-anxious aim,
Such is our vice, beneath a double name;
In turn by Folly nursed, and crafty Sense,
And now Pretension called, and now Pretence.
This seeks a vain display; this sceks to hide ;
And one from Interest springs, and one from Pride;
Sometimes apart; more oft, in holy tether,
Like sovereigns leagued, they rule and rob together.

“ But oh! what type may paint each varying form,
Shadow or light, the zephyr or the storm ?
Prompt as aerial clouds that drift and wreathe ;
Changeful of hue, as seas that roll beneath;
They take all colours, turn at every call;
Shift through a thousand shapes, and cheat in all.”

Yes, one lesson does hold to the left but a sense of melancholy. On end, the great lesson, too early taught, Whit Monday the large and populous to seem, and not to be. These lines city of_-, was from one end to the bring to mind a scene, or rather two other a pattern or picture of goodness. scenes in the farce of Humbug, which There was not a street in which there we ourselves saw this year, eighteen was not a school procession, with their hundred and thirty-eight, of our ad. banners and colours. The Sabbathvancement to perfection.--Had it not School of this district, the Sundaybeen for the ridiculous mixed up with School of that—the School of the them, the lamentable folly would have Meeting, the Tabernacle, the Church.

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The children, all schooled to look like good as to possess a virtue. But what
cherubs, the masters, ushers, assist- should we say, if we did but see the
ants, patrons, and patronesses, all like machinery that set all this goodness
saints—men at the head trying with going? The rehearsal of look, and
all their might to walk decently slow, walk, and speech—the littlenesses,
whom business had habituated only the contrivances, the practising the
to the trot—the black, clerical-affect- putting-on that which was to be looked
ed dress and demeanour of men who at, and the general putting-off of all
had never taken orders but in their simplicity of heart and manners,
trades the constrained and demure did we see all this, we might well
looks—the assumption of benevo- long for a lash and liberty to use it, to
lent and love-smiles——the general flog the getters-up of it into their holes
acting,; the more apt of the young, again. Oh, that we could at least res-
little well-taught hypocrites, aping the cue the young from all this Pretence
sanctimonious airs of the elders. «See and Pretension."
how good we are,” was legible in Their after sole concern
every forehead. It was one holiday To live a lie, and all our lore unlearn."
of gentleness and sweetness. “ Daub
yourself with honey," says the proverb, Even charity gets nothing now-a.
“and you will never want flies.” The days without her setting up in a Vanity
maxim was known-acted upon, and Fair, and being made to put on the
the flies caught—and many a one that look of wo and penury, meekness and
day, to use another homely proverb, suffering; and simpering, or sympa-
that “stole the goose, gave away the thetic flower-girls, unblushingly dress
giblets in alms." So crowded were up her nakedness with tawdry trinkets
the streets, you could not move a fin- ticketed by cheats, to be stript off
ger without touching a saint. It was again by dupes. Olet not daughter
à general proclamation of virtue, of mine so drop her modesty at the
“See how good we are.". There was door of a Bazaar, as, under pretence of
not a rogue or knave to be seen, ex any charity whatever, to personate the
cepting by shrewd observers. There shop--girl, to cheat the legitimate
was universal Pretension, was there traders in trifles, and to win the purses
Pretence ? All walked in sunshine, of fops; they pay not for the articles,
and were pure.- What said the night! but for the stare, and familiarity.-
It did its best to cast a charitable veil “ But the purpose," quoth the Lady Pa.
over this world of wickedness, but troness ! “Would you do evil that good
“ Murder will out.” We walked the may come, my Lady Display, then
same streets, as well as the general sell your modesty and yourselves out.
turbulence would allow, the very next right—as too often, by your tricked
morning The police were busy in up sales, and flimsy home-manufac-
every direction taking up the delin- tures, you drive to starving despera-
quents of the past night and the pre. tion the virtuous destitute, whom the
sent day. Away they went to the regular traders in fancy.works were
magistrate and to the prison in every wont to employ ; and now by your
street. How legible, then, was the charity their virtuous maintenance is
proclamation, “See how bad we are,” gone." O Pretence and Pretension-
_"and pray, Mr. Simperer, which ye are everywhere. But to our sa.
was the worst day, Whit-Monday or tirist ; and here we find a passage, con-
Whit-Tuesday ?"" That day many firming and strengthening our poor
were taught lessons of hypocrisy- prose.
and that to make a display is quite as

“Vexed by hypocrisies, or chafed by pride,
What walls shall guard us, or what shades shall hide'
Where'er we turn, for ever-ever nigh,
Publicity pursues us as we fly;
At every hour, in each remotest place,
Prescribes the phrase, or modifies the face ;
Of pettiest hamlet, pettiest deed notes down,
And makes the country fastuous as the town.
So now, when rural squires would meet to dine,
The county press must vaunt the vast design ;

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