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fortune of war should decide. The Sultan recently concluded a treaty of comapplied to this country for aid. But this merce with Austria, and no one can application came in the form and at a time doubt that under this treaty of comwhen it was hardly possible for our Go. merce are veiled, or to it have been vernment to comply with it. For it was added, secret articles of a political chain October, when the late Parliament, racter. In truth, the earnest desire of though not yet defunct, had closed its la- Austria to take the lead in opposing the bours, and could not, with any decency, ceaseless usurpations of Russia on the have been re-assembled, and when there shores of the Black Sea, have long was no possibility for the new Parliament been known to all the diplomatic circles to meet till January. The Government, therefore, would have been rash and in in Europe; and it was nothing but the considerate, which, without the power of fatal revolt of the Barricades and the soon acquiring the sanction of Parliament accession of England to the revolushould have complied with a request that tionary cause in 1830, which prevented would instantly have incurred a very the formation of a powerful league large expense, and incurred the hazard of between England and Austria eight a general war. We had also other im- years ago, which would have effectuportant matters on our hands. Portugal ally arrested the progress of Russia in and Belgium demanded the strictest at- the east of Europe. Metternich latention, while our fleets occupied the boured incessantly at that period to mouths of the Scheldt and the Tagus."

form a league of the European powers Here, then, is the explanation of the to oppose the advance of Russia in extraordinary advantage gained, and that direction; and the Duke of Wel. monstrous usurpation then made by lington was cautiously, but firmly, Russia. We were so busy advancing proceeding in the attempt to organize ths cause of revolution in Belgium and such an alliance, when all these saluPortugal, and had our naval forces so tary plans were blown into the air by completely engrossed in blockading the sudden wheel which England then the Scheldt, and in enabling Antwerp made to the side of revolution. Deto display the tri-coloured flag for the cisive evidence is to be found among son-in-law of France, that we had not the State Papers, quoted in the Porta man or a gun to spare to prevent the folio, of the efforts of Prince MetterDardanelles from falling into the nich in this respect, and of the fact hands of Russia ; that is to say, we that it was the resistance of France were so much occupied in sacrificing alone, at that period, which prevented two old allies in our close vicinity, to the formation of a league for its acrevolutionary ambition, that we were complishment. In a secret despatch compelled to let a third old ally, from Count Pozzo di Borgo to the holding the keys of India in its hands, Russian Government, dated Paris, Dec. fall a sacrifice to the power which had 14, 1828, it is stated, “ The malevolent 80 long openly coveted our eastern intentions and the hostile preparations possessions.

of the Court of Vienna against Russia And what are we doing now, and are facts known to all Europe. The what is the circumstance that consti- Imperial Cabinet has penetrated them tutes the strength of the Russian and in their commencement and followed the weakness of the British arms at them in their progress, and the servants this moment? Why, we are labour- of the Emperor have signalized their ing to undo the work of our own existence and combated their effects.” hands ; striving to regain the power It was after having inundated the voluntarily offered to us, at that time, public with distorted or exaggerated by Turkey, and surrendered by us to statements of supposed reverses of Russia ; and endeavouring to regain the Russian army, and of the success that commanding position then pressed and superiority of the Turks, that upon us by our ancient ally, and Prince Metternich proposed to the Carefused by our

infatuated rulers. binet of London to act in concert with It is the treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi, him in order to form a league, into extorted by the Russians from the which France and Prussia would be Turks, as the price of the deliverance drawn, with the view of interfering beof Constantinople from the Egyptians, tween Russia and Turkey; and to im- . which is the barrier, and the only bar pose peace upon his Majesty the Emrier now which prevents us from as- peror. suming an impregnable position in You are aware, M. le Comte, that front of the B sphorus.

We have according to the plan of the Chancel.

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lor of the Court and the State, the pear, then, that these objects have ano Duke of Wellington was to undertake ther destination. The greater part of the task as regards France, and to the general officers have

been assembled guide her to his ends, while the former at Vienna for several weeks back, and was to be answerable for Prussia.” have had conferences. The same ting

And, after enumerating the various took place in 1809, before the opening steps taken by Metternich to achieve of the campaign. This shows the this object, Pozzo di Borgo concludes intention of taking some very import

“Such is, M. le Comte, a faithful re- ant military measures. gital of all that I have gathered upon

this

Every one knows what was the resul: new attempt of Prince Metternich, and of these demonstrations. Russia wasaupon the mode and the expressions. My rested in her career of conquest; and, opinion is, that, seeing the intimacy notwithstanding the passage of the Bal. which exists between the Cabinets of kan, real independence was preserved England and Vienna, Prince Ester- to Turkey by the peace of Adrianople

. hazy has concealed nothing from the What, then, placed the power of the Duke of Wellington and Lord Aber- Porte finally under the dominion of deen, but that both have felt the in- their northern enemy? Nothing but convenience and impossibility of car- the infatuation of the Whig Goverrying such a plan into practice when ment in 1834 led to the point-blank France has declared that she will not refusal of any assistance to the Grand concur in it.”

Seignior, and to the consequent pros, Austria, however, was not discou- tration of Turkey into the arms of raged ; and it was entirely in conse. her immortal enemy. quence of the formidable military pre And what was the boasted enterparations of that power, joined to the prise in which we were engaged at the energetic remonstrances of England time when Turkey was thus reduced under the Duke of Wellington's Admi- to extremities, which prevented us nistration, that the conquest of Con- from sending a single frigate to extristantinople by the Russians was pre- cate Constantinople from the grasp oi vented after they had crossed the Bal- the Russians? It was the blockading kan. It appears by a note presented the Scheldt when Antwerp was be by Count Krasinsky, the French En- sieged by Marshal Gerard. And obvoy, to Metternich, dated 6th June, serve what was said of Antwerp, as a 1829, that the military preparations of point of hostility against Great Britain

, Austria at that period were of the by the person in the world who knew most formidable description. He best how it should be attacked. * Na. stated :

poleon,” says Las Cases, “ atlachas « The Landwehr is revived, the ihe utmost importance to the possessica number of individuals exempted from of Antwerp. He had formed for it this service restricted, and that it is the most gigantic projects; he was assembled during two months in au- accustomed to say that Antwerp alone tumn. In the course of last year each was worth a province, a little kingregiment of cavalry has received from dom. He was attached to it as me 250 to 400 additional horses ; this year of the most important of his creations. orders have been given to purchase He had done much for Antwer, horses for artillery and waggons. but nothing to what he intended Even in the capital, workmen of every to have done. By sea he piste kind are rigorously enlisted, in order to to have made it a point of moal complete equipments and saddlery for attack against England; by land to the military magazines. In the arse. have made it a point d'appui in case of nals, and in the manufactories for arms, disaster; a refuge for an army, whexe reigns an extraordinary activity. Ar- it might withstand a year of opet tillery and ammunition are continually trenches. Such was his attachmer being sent by the Danube into Hun- to it, that he repeatedly declared, atd. gary; they are always embarked by Helena, that Antwerp was one of the night. Since last year, when these suc- chief causes of his being there; for cessive transmissions commenced, the that if he could have prevailed un fortresses of Hungary must be amply himself to part with it he might bare provided with necessaries. It would ap- obtained peace at Chatillon."* Tis

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England, under the Whig Administra- France and England, we are told, are tion, was unable to save Constantinople, now united in the bonds of interest as the key of India, from the grasp of Rus- well as affection; theirs and theirs only sia ; because she was completely engross- is the cause of representative govern. ed in restoring Antwerp, the great out. ments ; of regulated freedom against Asiwork of Napoleon against the independ- atic despotism; and in the common dan. ence of England, to France.

gers of both from the tyrants of the earth, All these consequences, which are

is laid a permanent foundation for their

future alliance. Are we so very sure, now developing themselves with such then, that France is to remain true to the rapidity, and are staring us in the face colours which she originally hoisted ? Is in every quarter of the globe, were, at Louis Philippe so very desirous to stand that very period, distinctly foretold in by the principles of the barricades ? Has this Journal; and we may point, with his conduct to his republican allies, who no small satisfaction, to the article on seated him on the throne, been so very Foreign Affairs, in October, 1834, for tender and merciful ? Are the dungeons a complete prediction of the conse. of St. Michael filled exclusively with the quences of the conduct of England, and supporters of legitimacy? Was it with of the Russian seizure of Constantino- these that he maintained the dreadful ple. The alliance with France was fight in Paris, in June, 1832, and in Ly. the great specific relied upon at that ons, in November, 1831, and April,1834 ? period, as a sure preservative against of the barricades disavowing his origin,

Are there no appearances of the monarch all dangers from any quarter whatso- and seeking to govern by centralised in.

Are we now so perfectly sure Auence and military force, and quietly that we can rely upon that power ?-, taking his seat, amidst the ignorant and Have the revolutionary transports of senseless applause of our journals, among France and England cemented an alli, the despotic monarchs of Europe ? Is ance which is destined to be of eternal not this the natural and inevitable result duration ? Are we quite sure that of a revolution which has destroyed all France would join us in the event of a the property and religious feeling of the war with Russia ? Is there no foun- influential classes, and left a state com. dation for the whisperings of a secret posed only of military despots, civil em. treaty recently concluded between the ployes, peasant proprietors, and calculat. courts of the Tuileries and and St. Pe- ing shopkeepers ? Is there no danger tersburgh? Is Admiral Stopford sup

that this, our only powerful ally, will ported by the French as well as the speedily leave us, and join the northern Turkish fleets at the mouth of the Dar. potentates in a crusade to destroy our danelles ? Whatever may be the issue look for assistance among the plunder

maritime power ? And if so, are we to of these combinations, we point to the

ers of Brussels, the murderers of Madrid, following passage in the article above

or the church robbers of Portugal ? Or alluded to in this Journal, in Octo- are we to be • left alone with our glory ?!” ber, 1834, for decisive evidence that We, at least, did not share in the general infatuation, but distinctly fore- stride made by Russia, when by the

In truth, however, the prodigious saw the occurrence of the period now in the course of accomplishment, when treaty of Unkiar.Skelessi, she imposed this country would be compelled to no ships of war to pass the Dardanelles

upon Turkey the condition of allowing endeavour to regain, in the face of the most serious disadvantages, the Turkish flag, could never have been

except those bearing the Russian and place which she had lost in the scale of submitted to by the rest of Europe, if nations.

the balancing power, and the policy of “For a few years, indeed, when the nations, had not been entirely subvert. throne of Louis Philippe is as yet un. ed by the ruinous effects of the accessteady, and it is material for him to have sion of En yland to the movements of the broad shield of England thrown over the revolutionary party in Europe, unhis head, he may court our alliance and der the influence of the Reform Adminflatter our Ministers; but with the cessa- istration. The long established jealousy tion of such dangers, with the advent of of Russia, which, ever since 1815, had times, when he can give a free vent to formed the leading principle of the cabthe real inclinations and wishes of his inet of Vienna, gave way to the more people, can there be a doubt that he will fall in with the inextinguishable French pressing alarms of revolutionary attack hatred and jealousy of this country? But

from France and England. This fact

is universelly known; and if it were like two enormous battering-rams, less notorious than it is, it would be began shaking every state in their completely established by the publica- vicinity with revolutionary doctrines tion of various State Papers in the and mercenary attacks, the dangers Portfolio, the authenticity of which has of French propagandism were revis. never yet been called in question.— ed, with this additional circumstance Among the rest, in a memoir of the of terror and aggravation, that Eng. state and projects of the Germanic Con- land, which formerly stood foremost federation, drawn up in 1834, under in the confederacy for the defence the direction of a Minister at St. Pe- of European liberty, now was the tersburg, it is stated, “ the principles leader in the attempt to partition and upon which every state reposes-the convulse all the lesser states in her relations of friendship and political alli- vicinity. She first, under the influence ancehave experienced in our day a of the liberal mania with which Mr. remarkable change. France and Eng- Canning was so powerfully affected, land, naturally at enmity, are now in insidiously encouraged, and then openalliance with each other. England ly protected, the revolt of the South quits her most ancient and most faith- American colonies against the mother ful ally, Holland. Austria abandons state—" calling," as he said, “ a new Switzerland, and Prussia becomes the world into existence to redress the baally of Russia. Wonderful political lance of the old.” She next took the phenomena! Since, on this account, Greek provinces under her special the States no longer follow the policy protection, and, in conjunction with which their geographical position and Russia at the battle of Navaring, de. natural interests point out, but are in- stroyed that very Turkish navy which fluenced, in their alliances, by princi- we are now using our utmost efforts ples of theory, the political balance to restore and improve, and that, too, upon which the European system has without any declaration of war or for so long reposed has become sen cause of hostility against the Turkish sibly weakened, and in its place there Government. But, strongly as the has arisen a system of political coun. hostile acts militated against existing terpoise in that which concerns the treaties and the faith of nations, they principles of state. By these means had at least the apology of being dicthe predominance af one great power tated by a generous spirit, and directhas been considerably facilitated.—“To ed, to appearance at least, to the emanthis may be added, that whilst Prus. cipation of suffering families of the sia has gained Russia as her new al- human race. But for those which fol. ly, and France has gained England, lowed and which were directed under Austria has lost her natural ally in the influence of the Whig AdminisEngland ; and, in order not to stand tration, no such apology is to be found. entirely alone, has been herself com. We first aided in the partition of the pelled to join the Russo. Prussian alli- kingdom of the Netherlands, which ance. By this, however, the outward we were bound by the treaty of Vienna, political position of Austria has become in 1815, to support, by immediately reone of extreme discomfort, and this of cognising the insurgent authority itself might call forth the first difference Belgium, the people of which had not between Austria and Prussia. For in even a pretext for their rebellion, the same manner that England will and then prevented the king of the feel the unnatural policy of Lord Grey Netherlands from regaining his doininin all its disadvantageous consequences, ion over his faithless subjects, by inter. so deeply as to tear to pieces the coil fering, along with France, to stop the of Talleyrand, and will again separate advance of the Dutch troops, after they herself from France; so Austria will had defeated the “brave Belgians assuredly abandon the Russo-Prus- in two pitched battles, and he was sian alliance, and reunite herself to already at the gates of Brussels to put England. Notwithstanding this, the down the revolt, and recover his just greater profit will still accrue to Russia, rights in the next ten days. We then since Austria will be more easily co- joined our troops to the arms of Louis erced by Russia than Prussia by Eng. Philippe to besiege the citadel of Aniland.”

werp, the key of the Scheldt; and reIn truth, as Chateaubriand has well stored that great stronghold, erected by observed, when France and England Napoleon for our subjugation, to the

rule of France and the sway of the tri- principles and more faithful to her colour flag. We next showed our ad- engagements than any other nation, herence to the principles of non-inter- suddenly taking up the cause of Reference, on which the Liberal party volution, and giving the example of professed they took office, by supports a total disregard of former engageing, to the utmost of our power, the ments, and a total neglect even of cause of revolution in Portugal; nou- her own ultimate interest. Every rishing for two years, a devouring one now sees that Russia never could civil war in the provinces of that king. have extorted the treaty of Unkiardom; and, at length, by the open in- Skelessi from Turkey, and haughtily terference of Admiral Napier, with a dictated the exclusion of the British fleet manned with English sailors, beat fag from the waters of the Euxine, down the power of our ally, and ulti- had it not been that England at the mately established a revolutionary time, after the battle of Konieh, was queen on the throne, without any other engaged in bombarding Antwerp to support but the revolutionary mania in restore it to the French, and Austria some towns, and foreign bayonets. had been driven into the Russian alWe were guilty along with France, liance in terror of the propagandism of the offence of rousing the unhappy of this country.

In those disastrous Poles to an uncalled for and ruinous days of barricade transports and Reform resistance to Russia, and thereby at enthusiasm, the Russian, influence once quadrupled the sufferings of the was by our acts and deeds brought vanquished people, and led to the in- down to the Rhine. No state could corporation of Poland with the king- tell where the Revolutionary wedge dom of Russia, and cut off the last was next to be inserted, or a devourremnants of Sarmatian independence. ing civil war excited, in order to find Lastly, we openly supported the cause a vent for French Liberalism, or emof revolution in Spain, against the ployment for the turbulent enthusiasm will of four-fifths of the inhabitants of of Great Britain. It is to this feeling the country, bathed the kingdom for that we owe the Prussian-Germanic five years in blood, and all the unut- league, which has struck so deadly a terable atrocities of a civil war; and, wound into the commercial interests finally, landed ten thousand English- of Great Britain, and the closing of men, armed with Tower guns, on the the Dardanelles against the British coast of Spain, and concluded this flag, and delivery of the key of Asia scene of interference and aggression to Muscovite ambition. While we by exhibiting to astonished Europe the were blindly following the phantom spectacle of English soldiers routed of Revolutionary movements in the under the walls of St Sebastian, and west of Europe, Russia was steadily in the gorges of the Pyrenees, by bat. pursuing her real interest in the east, talions of free-born Biscayans, strong and while we were surrendering Antonly from

werp to Louis Philippe, and were “ The might that slumbers in a peasant's of Constitutional monarchies, Nicho

dreaming of an endless liberal alliance arm."

las was stretching his hand towards During the progress of these hate. Constantinople, Alexandria, and Ispaful and perfidious aggressions, we, in han. this Miscellany, strove repeatedly to Contemporaneous with our inces. rouse the public mind to a sense of their sant attacks upon the peace and tranconsequences, and to impress upon the quility of other states was our reduce people of this country the inevitable tion in the military and naval establishresults which must ensue to them- ment of the country. From the naval selves, or their descendants, from the and military return of 1810, it apadoption of a policy, alike unprinci- pears that Great Britain had then pled in itself, adverse to the best 202 ships of the line, in ordinary and interests of the state, and ruinous to commission, besides 42 building, aud the national character in the estima- 1000 vessels of war at sea, while our tion of foreign nations. We repeat- land forces amounted to 300,000 reguedly pointed out the extraordinary lars and militia, besides an equal numimpressions that would be produced ber of local militia in the British isles. by the spectacle of England, which When the Canadian revolt broke out had hitherto been more steady in her we had just twenty ships of the line in VOL. XLIV.

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