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1. Introduction to the question, B. I., lines 27–31.
II. War against God.

A. Author, Satan, B. I., 34–44.
B. Cause, Satan's ambition, B. I., 36-44.

C. Result, B. I., 44-56.
III. Satan's wrath, B. I., 53–78.

A. Mental and physical pain, B. I., 53–56.
B. Increased by, -

1. Place, B. I., 56–78.
2. Conversation with Beëlzebub, B. I., 91-124.

3. Condition of his companions, B. I., 604–615. C. Leads to,

1. Desire for revenge, B. I., 105–124.

2. Trace, by citing passages, the mental processes by which Satan arrives at his plan for revenge.

3. Trace, by citing passages, the manner by which Satan imparts his desire for revenge.

4. Trace, by citing passages, the process by which Satan secures the aid of the other fallen angels.

5. Cite passages to show the nature and character istics of the “Sons of God," the fallen angels.

6. Cite passages to show the structure of the Uni verse.

7. Cite passages to show the structure of Chaos. 8. Cite passages to show the structure of Hell.

9. Cite passages to show the structure of Heaven.

10. Have pupils draw on the blackboard, the dia grams found in this book, demonstrating them by citations.

11. Assign to individual pupils studies of the characters of the fallen angels as shown by their speeches.

12. Assign to individual pupils studies of the arguments of the several speeches, briefs to be placed on the blackboard.

The pupil who has thoroughly prepared himself upon the poem will find a score of good questions in each book of the poem.


Literary appreciation is a thing of slow growth, and is not indigenous to the average pupil. The study of rhetoric, not necessarily in the order of the book, nor in memorizing the definitions of figures, but in the judicious correlation of the different parts of the rhetoric with the work in hand, is the best aid to the growth of literary appreciation. The teacher will, of course, when desirable, break away from the order of the text-book in rhetoric, and choose such parts or chapters as will aid the pupil in the study of the classic in hand. This study will help to bring in the

day when rhetoric shall no longer be studied as an end, a possession, but as a means to oral expression, written expression, and literary appreciation.

In studying rhetoric in connection with Paradise Lost, the following correlation may be made:

1. The chapters on Clearness, Force, Diction, and Form of Manuscript with oral and written expression.

2. The chapter on Meter with the verse of Paradise Lost.

3. The chapter on Harmony with Milton's language. 4. The chapter on Figures with Milton's figures.

In No. 4, the classification with regard to names amounts to little; while the validity, beauty, and strength of the comparisons made by the poet amount to a great deal, and will help materially in the development of the pupil's appreciative power.

The following examples will illustrate the study of figures with a purpose toward literary appreciation and judgment:

Choose a figure from the text of Paradise Lost, make a diagram of the comparisons made, and then try to image the smallness of the one part and the vastness of the other. The following will serve as an example:

Lines 304–313, B. I., P. L.

1. Red (Reed) Sea = Lake in Hell.

2. Waves of Red Sea = Sulphurous waves of the Lake of Hell.

3. Sedge (seaweed) or bodies of Egyptians = Fallen angels.

Contrast insignificance of left side with magnitude of right side by reading lines 195-210, B. I.


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1. Leviathan, B. I., 200–210. 2. Shield, B. I., 284– 291. 3. Spear, B. I., 292–297. 4. Locusts, B. I., 338-346.

Test these in the same manner, trying to conceive the vastness of the Miltonic conception.

The class will find scores of other figures. The chapter on Figures in the text-book will now begin to be interesting, definitions will be real, and names will be remembered.

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Garnett's Milton, Great Writers Series (Scribners) contains an extensive bibliography.

Clark's A Study of English Prose Writers (Scribners) contains an excellent bibliography, in which the pages are cited.

1. Editions of Milton's Works : A. Poetical Works, edited by Masson, 3 vols., $10.00.

(Macmillan.) B. Same, edited by Masson, 3 vols., $5.00. (Macmillan.) C. Same, edited by Masson, “Globe Edition,”. 1 vol.,

$1.75. (Macmillan.) D. Paradise Lost, edited by Himes, $1.20. (Harpers,

1898.) E. Prose Works, 5 vols., $1.00 each. (Bohn Libraries,

Macmillan.) F. English Prose Writings, Morley, $1.00. (Routledge.) II. Biographical :A. Brooke's Milton, Classical Writers Series, 60 cents.

(Appletons.) B. Encyc. Brit., article, Milton, by Masson. C. Garnett's Milton, Great Writers Series, $1.00.

(Scribners.) D. Pattison's Milton, English Men of Letters Series,

75 cents. (Harpers.)
E. Johnson's Milton, “Lives of the Poets," $1.00. (Bohn

Libraries, Macmillan.)
F. Masson's Milton, 6 vols. (Macmillan.) This is the

scholar's edition. III. Historical References: A. Green's Short History of the English People, ch. viii

and ix., $1.20. (Ainerican Book Co.) B. Gardiner's Puritan Revolution, $1.00. (Scribners.) IV. Works of General Reference: A. Mythological —

1. Guerber's Myths of Greece and Rome.

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