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then in voltes or circles in which the croup follows an inner path and the fore-hand an outer path: the pirouette results when the horse will make the volte without moving his hind-legs away from the pivoting ground.



If the reader has mastered all that has appeared in these pages to this point, he should be able to make his horse perform everything that is possible to the animal. It only remains for me to point out the best manner for obtaining the best effects in the more important movements.

In traversing, or passing sideways to the right and to the left, the horse

should be placed at such an angle, with the line upon which the movement is directed, the shoulders in advance of the croup, that his legs may move freely, and his carriage be light and unconfined. Suppose the horse is standing perpendicularly to the line of the movement, and it is intended to traverse to the right, the rider will make the croup pass one step to the left, which will bring him into the proper position for traversing in the opposite direction. The resistance of the shoulders will be overcome by the right rein, and the left leg will cause the horse to step off to the right, the two aids demanding the position and the movement, the right leg being ready to assist in keeping the horse up

in his place, and to prevent the croup coming too far to that side. He must be kept in equilibrium and at the proper angle to the line of march, or the movement will be awkward and uneven. He will be made to traverse, at a speed not faster than a walk, in direct lines and in circles, to the right, and to the left, taking care that in the circles the body of the horse keeps the proper angle at every point in the circumferences.

He may then be brought to perform the traverse at the passage, which is the high step that is produced by restraining the advance of the horse, and at the same time demanding from him increased action and exertion. The horse being at the trot in a direct line,

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the rider will induce the action of the passage by the pressure of the legs, alternately as the horse raises. the opposite fore-leg, and by restraining with the hand any increase of speed; then with the direct rein and opposite leg the horse will be made to traverse, the high step of the passage being retained in the movement by accentuating the pressure of the opposite spur as the horse raises the fore-leg on the side to which he is passing. The heel of the rider on the side to which the movement tends will be used to keep the horse up to the line, and to prevent the croup going over too far. The result should be a regularly cadenced action, in which the horse dwells at each step, the effect of the increased


pressure of the rider's leg being to keep the legs of the horse suspended for the moment. But the croup must not be driven over too far, and the equilibrium must be observed. In traversing at the passage the weight of the horse is, at each cadence, sustained upon two legs diagonally opposed, while the other two are carried beyond them in the direction of the movement—the shoulders slightly in advance upon one path, the croup in simultaneous actions following another parallel path. At each step the horse leaves the ground, and is for the moment in the air.

The traverse in the gallop may be obtained by similar means. The horse being put into the gallop on the direct line, and leading with the legs of the

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