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by the thumb ; while the snaffle-reins will be held above those of the curb, divided by the breadth of the other hand.

There are various ways prescribed for holding the reins in riding the trained horses, but I prefer the following method :

In the left hand : the curb-reins divided by the little finger; the snafilereins divided by the middle finger; the ends of both sets carried up through the hand and secured by the thumb, which should be uppermost and pointed to the ears of the horse. By bending the wrist to the right, so that the knuckles come uppermost, the head of the horse will be carried to the right and the change made in that direction.

By bending the wrist to the left, so that the finger-nails come uppermost, the horse will be turned to the left.

There should never be tension upon the two bits at the same time. The horse should be ridden upon the curb; the snufile will be used to fix the height of his head, and, occasionally to take the place of the curb to freshen the mouth.

The right hand will be carried upon the loose ends of the reins to assist the left.

HORSE GYMNASTICS. The following exercises will be found of great service in giving strength to the seat, in aiding the balance, in teaching the habit of regaining a lost position without disturbing the tension of the reins, and in giving ease and grace to all the motions of the rider.

When so indicated, these movements will be made from the position prescribed for the seat."

Exercises for the Seat.

In the seat, with the arm hanging motionless by his side, let the pupil take away one thigh from contact with the saddle and bring it back into its place, with the point of the knee turned in as much as possible, the movement being made by a rotation of the hip joint. This should then be done with the other leg.


From the seat, and the rest of the ·body in quiet, raise both knees to meet above the pommel of the saddle, and bring them back to the saddle, making the inner sides of the thighs take as many points of contact as possible.


In the seat, keeping the thighs close to the saddle, let the pupil lean back until his shoulders touch the rump of quietly recover

the horse ; then let him his erect position.

IV. In the seat, keeping the buttocks in the saddle and the thighs in place, let the pupil lean forward and slightly to one side until one of his shoulders touches the crest of the horse. Then let him slowly recover his position;


In the seat, let the body sway forward, to one side, to the rear, to the other side, and then into position ; then reverse the movement.

Lose the seat without aid from


to the right, and the hands bring the

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