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OF THE

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

OF THE

STATE OF CALIFORNIA,

CONVENED AT THE CITY OF SACRAMENTO, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 28, 1878.

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REMARKS OF MR. HOWARD.

CHINESE IMMIGRATION.

.

cause a printed schedule of such rates and fares to be properly framed MR. SCHELL. It seems to me that the gentleman has a right to be and hung in a conspicuous place at every railroad depot and every rail-heard on a question of privilege. I move that he be allowed to go on. road station in the State.

Mr. O'DONNELL. It won't take two minutes. “Sec. 14. The Railroad Commissioners shall perform all duties in

MR. HUESTIS. If the house desires to hear it I have no objection. relation to the railroads, other than those prescribed in the last two sec

THE CHAIR. Doctor, go on. tions, as may be required of them by law."

MR. O'DONNELL. MR. WHITE. All that I wished to do was to show that I gave

them

Mr. O'DONNELL. Mr. President: I rise to a question of privilege absolute power; and that they were to arrange the fares and freights as in their judgment should be fair and just. Now, is it conmon sense for as a member of this body, and respectfully request my colleagues to give this scribbler to write down that Leland Stanford would be willing to knows that members of the State and National Legislature can be called

me their attention. Every man familiar with parliamentary rules put that power into the hands of any three men in this State ?

regard

to account for words spoken in debate. In other words, so long as they it as the silliest nonsense and the most malicious sort of lying that could

act in accordance with their sworn duty as members of the legislative be got up: MR. TUESTIS. I move that the Convention resolve itself into Com- In the discharge of my duty as a delegate I gave offense to the man

department of the government, they will be defended and protected. mittee of the Whole.

agers of a vulgar newspaper called the Chronicle. I differed from that

newspaper on the law of libel. I.voted for a measure which I deemed MR. HOWARD. Mr. President: I rise to a question of privilege.libelers. In this step I acted in concert with some of the most honored

essential to the protection of society from the attacks of professional This is a matter of no very great importance, perhaps, but I take two members of this body, and for the exercise of my right and privilege I exceptions to this publication. The first is, that it insinuates that the have been vilified by the paper which I confess ought to be nameless whole Committee on Corporations, in advocating this scheme, have been among honorable men. I shall at the proper time appeal to the Courts in the interest of the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Now, sir, it and endeavor to aid the authorities in their endeavors to bring these men seems to me that the daily denunciations of the press in the interest and to justice. I do not think them worthy of the notice of this body. I do pay of the corporations, notoriously so of the Central Pacific Railroad Coin pany, should have protected us from any such imputation. The dered ask the passage of any resolution, nor do they require any vindi

not think that any of the gentlemen whom this mongrel paper has slanprincipal organ here has denounced us as Communists, and has given

cation. virus to it by saying that we are Communists as bad as Jesus Christ and this body that the charges published against me in this nameless sheet

All I ask now is the privilege of assuring every member of the Supreme Court of the United States. (Laughter.] Well, now, it seems to me that that should have been sufficient to have demonstrated due time I will cram the libel down the throats of the infernal libelers.

are utterly false and without foundation, and I pledge myself that in to the writer of this article that none of us had been stowed away in the

I thank you kindly for your attention. pigeon-holes of the Central Pacific Railroad Company.

Again, sir, the writer is entirely mistaken when he assumes to say that the magnates of the Central Pacific Railroad Company desire this Com. MR. HUESTIS. Mr. President: Now, if there is no other gentleman mission, because they believe they can control it. Now, sir, that is a mis- who wishes to rise to a question of privilege, I move that the Convention take, because they made an experiment on three Commissioners which resolve itself into Committee of the whole, Mr. Larkin in the chair, on proved disastrous. I have it from authority which I believe, that a the question of the report of the Committee on Chinese. certain railroad agent, or assumed railroad agent, approached one of the Carried. former three Commissioners with a proposition. He happened to be a

IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE. man of honor, who had borne his country's flag on many a field. He was indignant to an extent amounting to a towering passion, and he

THE CHAIRMAN. The Secretary will read the first section.

THE SECRETARY read: made an appeal to the code-not to the Civil Code, not to the Penal Code, not to the code that obtains among railroads—but to the code which

SECTION 1. The Legislature shall have and shall exercise the power did obtain among gentlemen once. The officers of the railroad at once

to enact all needful laws, and prescribe necessary regulations for the declared that the party who had approached this gentleman had done it protection of the State, and the counties, cities, and towns thereof, from without their authority, and they disowned him. Of course that stopped the burdens and evils arising from the presence of aliens, who are or it. But the railroad took its revenge. When the Legislature met, who may become vagrants, paupers, mendicants, criminals, or invalids through its conduit pipe it run into the Legislature the "Ilart bill. It afflicted with contagious or infectious diseases, and aliens otherwise repealed the law under which the then existing Commission had been dangerous or detrimental to the well-being or peace of the State, and to carried on, and of course wiped out the Commission. And they substi- impose conditions upon which such persons may reside in the State, and tuted for it, and carried through the Legislature, by means which I need to provide the means and mode of their removal from the State upon not reiterate, a proposition to have one Commissioner. It seems that failure or refusal to comply with such conditions ; provided, that noththey came to the conclusion that while they could not manage three, ing contained in the foregoing shall be construed to impair or limit the that one, as the Irishmen say, might be very convenient, and, therefore, power of the Legislature to pass such other police laws or regulations as they displaced the three Commissioners and took the one. It was given

it may deem necessary. out that the Governor would veto the Hart bill, and it was believed by

MR. BROWN. I move its adoption.

MR. AYERS. Mr. Chairman : believe it was understood that the a great many people, but when he came to act on the matter his patriotisin got the better of hin, and he signed it. That was the end of that debate should exhaust itself. The debate has taken the range of the

entire article.

THE CHAIRMAN. If there be no objection to section oneSo, then, I say that the Central Pacific Railroad Company does desire three Commissioners; that they desire either one, or the Legisla- | don't see as there are any speakers here. The section is good enough.

Mr. GRACE. It seems to me that the debate has exhausted itself. I That is what they want; and the accomplished author of this

THE CHAIRMAN. If there are no amendments to section one the letter is laboring under a delusion. Nor is that all. Even if it were possible for them to buy up the three Commissioners-which they have Secretary will read section two. not been able to do yet--or experiment, the people could fall back and elect three others who have been under fire and come out unscathed;

MR. BLACKMER. Mr. Chairman: I wish to point out what in my so I do not think we are in so much danger as the writer seems to think, judgment is a little error in the first section, and I was in hopes that the of the three Commissioners. There is another thing in this matter--I Chairman of the committee would be here this evening, as I had a short and I say here, that if the writer of this letter was not above suspicion-conversation with him upon that point. It is in the fifth and sixth would believe that he had been stowed, and that this attack was a weak lines of the first section of the report, and I hope that this will not be device of the enemy. There is another matter in connection with this, passed so that it cannot be taken up again. I am not ready to offer an since they have seen proper to provoke this attack upon us, which I may amendment, but I suggest that the words, “invalids afllicted with conas well mention. Two or three years ago, the North American Review tagious or infectious diseases,” means altogether too much. It means published an article which stated that the railroads no longer purchased more, I believe, than the committee themselves intended to convey, votes in detail, but that when they wanted a Senator, they elected him because they may mean such diseases as are contagious or infectious, but advanced cash enough to elect him-and that then they owned him may inflict any people, and they certainly do not wish to have the during his term. The Central Pacific Railroad Company seems to have police power of this state invoked for the purpose of excluding them profited by that suggestion. They seem of late to have elected the simply upon that ground. Now, the section should certainly be modSenator, and to have put a collar on him, with “Central Pacific Rail-ified so as to reach only the point aimed at. It is not intended that if a road Company” written upon it, so that if he got lost, or strayed, he person have the smallpox, or anything of that kind that may be concould be recaptured and returned to his lawful owner. I , by members of the last Legislature, that when the Hart bill was before tagious, that for that reason we would send them out of the State. Yet

this is broad enough to cover that. Now, the section should be the Legislature, he reappeared here and did his best to carry the Hart amended so that it would mean exactly what the committee, I think, bill through. Therefore, it is, I say, that the learned author of this had in their minds when the section was framed. I hope that there letter is barking up the wrong tree. He does not understand his business will be no action taken, but that it can still be amended. There is fully, and whatever may have been his purpose, he is mistaken alto- discussion to be had, and it should be had now, but allow the Chairman, gether in his facts--if he has any facts-or in his conjectures; and he does not pretend that they are anything more than conjectures. It desires. I would move that we do not pass any section to-night in any

as I know it is in his mind, an opportunity to perfect the section as he seems to me, in fact, that he had been dreaming, and it was nothing way so that it cannot be called up again in the regular way. more than a feat of somnambulism which dictated this letter.

MR. STUART. I second the motion. MR. HUESTIS. I renew my motion.

THE CHAIRMAN. It is moved and seconded that the section be Mr. O'DONNELL. I rise to a question of privilege. I rise to a temporarily passed. question of privilege. I have a right here on this floor.

MR. FREUD. Mr. Chairman: I hope no such proceeding will be THE CHAIR. Does the gentleman withdraw his motion ?

adopted. The Chairman will have an opportunity, when it comes up MR. HUESTIS. No, I will take the ruling of the Chair.

in Convention, to amend it as he may deem fit. I think we can go on THE CHAIR. You are not in order, Mr. O'Donnell.

with our usual business with propriety.

matter.

ture.

REMARKS OF MR. BLACK MER.

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MR. AYERS. I send up an amendment to section one.

been made among the nations. That power lies in the government. THE SECRETARY read:

There have been steamboats between here and China subsidized, and “Strike out all after the word “shall,' in the first line, to and includ- there have been other connections made and railroads built since. The ing the word “and,' in the second line.”

Chinese have been the laborers of this coast for almost twenty years. MR. AYERS. The object of that amendment is to make the enact- White men we have plenty of here; and, sir, I will go further. If I ment of such laws and the exercise of such powers mandatory.

member of a Constitutional Convention of the United States, I Mr. STUART. I suppose the whole article is open to discussion. would raise my voice and put in an article there to repeal the natTHE CHAIRMAN. It is all under consideration.

uralization laws. We have over forty million of inhabitants now, of

Americans—foreign and native born. We have too many. We have SPEECH OF MR. STUART.

thousands and tens of thousands of white men traveling this State and MR. STUART. I have been a patient listener in this Convention, and the United States, voluntary idlers—not involuntary. We have a class have not been on the floor since its first organization--over two months of so-called white laborers that never have worked, never intend to ago. I have heard what was said with a great deal of instruction, work, and never will work. I do not desire to go into details on that sornetimes; and sometimes with disgust and disappointment. I have subject now. I desire more especially to have this article passed over been, during my life, in California nearly thirty years During the until the Chairman of the commitiee comes in here so that he can thirty years that I have been here I have been a cultivator of the soil. explain them to me. Looking at it as a juror, it looks like a perfect I have made my living, raised and educated a large family through the hotch potch-nothing in it. There is not a section in the report that cultivation of the soil. I have employed hundreds and hundreds of should be put into any school book, let alone the Constitution of the

I have never been in the political arena; it is distasteful to me, State. It is all very pretty to talk about, and the speech of my friend, and consequently I know little of the political movements, and of the the Colonel from Los Angeles, Colonel Ayers, was all very beautiful, management, and the plans that are used in the State for self-preference. handsomely arranged, beautifully delivered, and it almost, as Agrippa I do not know whether I shall get through to-night with what I want said to Paul, converted me. Also, my young friend to the right, Mr. to say, or not. I am somewhat unprepared and unaccustomed to public Freud, just from his college days. He was eloquent, but there was no speaking. I will only make a few remarks, and then prepare myself pith in it. It was a little as if we were upon a jury and some lawyer for some future day on this article a little better.

was prosecuting a Chinaman for some act he had done. Unfortunately Sir, I am opposed to all these sections from number one to number our friend from Los Angeles quoted all his authorities from the minority eight. They are not proper to be placed in any Constitution of the report of the different Judges. United States, let alone ours. It is in direct conflict with the Constitu- MR. AYERS. Not all of them. tion of the United States and the treaty-making power. It is a boyish MR. STUART. Well, most of them, I took notice. He also quoted action for us to admit either one or the whole of these articles to be very lengthily from Roger Taney. I remember when Taney made engrafted in our organic law. It would be the laughing-stock of the another decision. Do you know what became of it? I remember his world, a disgrace to the State, a movement toward secession, and a disre- Dred Scott decision. I think that was the first political case that was gard of the constitutional laws of the United States. I am not pre-ever decided in the United States, and I remember what that led to, pared to be one of the advocates of, or one of the silent listeners here and I think you do. I want to steer clear of all that kind of Constiand have it pass. I believe, sir, it is in conflict with article six of the tution making here; I want none of those things to be thrown up to us Constitution of the United States, which says:

when we are out, by the Courts, or by the United States Courts and “ This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be these attorneys-that we are a set of school boys, here as a debating made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be society, getting in things not competent to a Constitution, and things made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme that would not be fit to put into a common school book. I will say, for law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, one on this floor, that I am in favor of holding America for Americans, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary not that Americans shall rule America. I have no confidence in this wave withstanding.”

of discontent, as you call it; I have no confidence in anything that may That is sufficient for me, sir. That is sufficient for any intelligent be thrown on top. It is only intellect that will tell in the United States; gentleman in this body to reflect upon before he will take up a hotch nothing else. I will say, sir, that I believe, taking the farmers in this potch, you may call it, or a set of articles of that character, that is Convention-and I tried to find out how many there were--probably neither one act or another, that belongs to a Constitution. It looks to me twenty--(what I mean by farmers is, men that have cuitivated the like the act of a ward political meeting, for the purpose of catching votes, land for years, men connected with farming pursuits, men who live or like some of the acts of this Convention in that behalf. I do not upon farms and support themselves and families there)I believe that desire to reflect upon any gentleman, or the course of any gentleman's a vote among them to-night, sir, would throw that report into the waste procedure here; neither do I desire to make an unparliamentary remark. basket. They would say: “We want labor; let the Chinamen alone."

Mr. O'DONNELL. You say you have employed hundreds of men; Let the Government of the United States control the matter; place it have you not employed hundreds of Chinamen?

in the bands where it belongs, and have none of this senseless tinkering MR. STUART. I have, sir, thousands of them, and hundreds of white here, as you would tinker an old tin kettle if it was leaking. I have men and thousands of white men, too.

not inflicted you before, and I do not intend to now. I am somewhat Mr. O'DONNELL. I thought so.

unaccustomed to this kind of business, consequently I am going to leave MR. STUART. That is what I am coming to pow. There is not a that to others who are better posted than mysell--after a while. Chiman in California in my profession, that of farming, but what employs, nese immigration is injurious to the country, is it? Chinese immigradirectly or indirectly, the Chinaman. The Chinuman becomes your tion to the country has made it what it is. (Derisive laughter.) Labor cook, the Chinaman becomes your servant, he becomes your hewer of has made it what it is! The labor that has been done for the last fifteen wood and drawer of water, even in the City of San Francisco. The years has been the progressive labor of the State of California. It has Chinaman has been, for the last twelve or fourteen years, a hobby horse been labor that has cleared up farms, that has planted fruit trees, that for all political parties to pass their resolutions on and make their plat- has built cities, that has done every thing except the mining, and even forms. Before that, it was the honest contraband in the fence. The then, the tailings we always used to rent to Chinamen in early days. honest contraband and the Democratic party came hand and hand into Everything has been done by this labor. There is only one class of men every campaign until, finally, the question was ended in blood and war. you can get for servants--I mean servants that will do what they are The honest contraband now is never heard of, but the Chinaman is in wanted to do. I believe one white man is worth two Chinamen; that the fence in his stead. The Chinaman is now used by both parties, or one Chinaman is worth two negroes, and that one negro is worth two by all the parties, if there be more than two-I believe there are three tramps [laughter and hisses)—that is, for labor. It is a well known parties now. One party, which is probably like other eruptions of that fact that in all nature, both animate and inanimate, both animal and character, may throw something upon the surface that may remain every other kind, that the weak fall under the march of the strong. there. There are a good many elected by this Workingmen's party, That is a well settled fact in all governmental philosophy--that the young men that I delight to know, men of talent, of character, of weak fall under the strong. The black man has faded away, and the responsibility, and I hope they will succeed as politicians, I hope they Chinaman takes his place as a laborer. He is for a day, and gone. The will succeed as men, but I hope they will not lay themselves up in this idea of the Chinainan, or the Chinese Empire, overthrowing the AngloConvention for the purpose of future promotion, for future renown. Saxon race is preposterous. A hundred thousand a month scattered Here is the place to make it without regard to their political party, through the United States would not affect it in a hundred years. The without regard to who will be Governor, or who will be the Judges, or growth of the United States is something, and their energy is a great who will be the next representatives in our Legislature and in our Con- deal; and it has surprised me that the laboring portion of the people of gress. These things, sir, are what I am astonished at. This thing is California have not captured all this floating capital of labor and rented what I have listened to for months with a great deal of calmness and a it out to us at increased rates. That is what has been astonishing to me. great deal of interest. These are matters which the gentlemen who are No, it has not been astonishing. Almost every gentleman that ever got foremost in their aspirations probably know better than I do what their up, has been perfectly astonished at something. I have never been motives are. I do not intend to impugn them.

astonished. Nothing astonishes me. But let me go back a little further. In eighteen hundred and fifty, I One of the gentlemen from San Francisco said money never made the believe it was, in San Francisco, there was a celebration of the admission man. Well, that might be so, but I would like to see the man that ever of California into the Union. I think it was October fourteenth ; the made money and became very wealthy but what is a big man. I would State was admitted on September ninth. At that time, sir, if I am not like to see the nation that has large amounts of money and has become mistaken, the Chinamen, few as they were, were admitted to a post of very rich, but has been great. That is a mistake. It fills in very well honor, and they followed the officers of the State and city in the parade. in speech ; it is beautiful to the ear, and it is very well for those who From that time down to the war, every movement of our government are satisfied with declamation only. I will not say anything more and every movement of our State, was to induce the Chinaman to come about it now ; some other time-to-morrow, may be, I will refer to it here and to capture the oriental trade. There were treaties made, first again. I would like to hear from the farmers here; the men who by force, by Porter, for he went with the navy, next by peace, and next live by the cultivation of the soil; the producers; that class of men who by Mr. Burlingame, who was at one time in the Congress of the United form one half of the population of the United States over twenty millStates. The Burlingame treaty admitted, and has since admitted, the ions of men who feed the world. Two years of the stopping of farmChinaman to our country as free probably as any other treaty that has ling-yes, one year-would starve one half of the nation to death. The

REMARKS OF MR. NOEL.

farmers have made the country wealthy; the farmers and the producers difference in the wages. That is the tendency among the farmers as to have covered every sea with the white sails of our commerce, and have being rid of these Chinamen. Let the white men come; the men that gridironed the land with railroads. They have controlled the lightning will bring their families and deal with the stores and give the storeand sent it over the world. The farmers and cultivators have done keepers some sort of show. The storekeepers and ranchers are joining this. Not the consumers that my young friend thinks so necessary. in this cry against the Chinese, because they do not get any traile from They are necessary if they will labor; but the consumer should eat the them. They have no wives and children. They live, upon a little rice, bread from the sweat of his brow, like all of us have done who lived and they go to their own little stores to get that. Now that is the state of here long, like myself. For three score years I have worked all the this case. time; I have been laborious all my life; I have done hard manual Can a country possibly prosper under the doctrine of Mr. Stuart? labor; I have succeeded in doing that which I laid out to do, and con- Here is a large laboring class. They can scarcely do anything else but sequently I have no regrets if I am not called a workingman. But I labor for others. They are all thrown out of employment and looked tell you that I am not speaking for any party. I do not belong to any upon with contempt, and a gentleman says a negro or Indian is worth party. I was elected by a nondescript party, Non-partisan. You can two of them. If these Chinese were out of the country, these men call me Independent, Republican, Union, American man. What I was would have a chance of working; they would settle down; they would speaking about was not my own nomination. What I say in regard to take a few acres of ground. I wish I had at least five or six families repealing the laws of naturalization I do not wish to be understood as of that kind settled on my place; let them have a few acres of land, saying for any party. It is my own doctrine; it is not the doctrine of and have them work for me in the harvest and in the Spring, and they any party I ain acting with. I have got my own ideas upon the subject, live on the few acres of land in the meantime. We are trying to get and I have got them from reading the monthly review, not from my rid of the Chinese in any possible way we can. We do not mistreat neighbors, and not from any political friends. Now, I would like to them. I cannot have any sympathy with the ideas expressed by my hear some gentleman from among the farmers say something in regard fellow farmer, because I know and see that the country is held back to this question.

by these people.

Mr. Chairman, I did not intend to speak on this question at all, but MR. NOEL. Mr. Chairman

Mr. Stuart appealed to the farmers, and I was astonished at the doctrine

entirely in favor of these men running over the country. A short Mr. LARUE. I would ask the gentleman if he is a farmer? MR. NOEL. Mr. Chairman: I do not desire to make a speech on

time ago some men proposed to buy four or five ranches down towards the Chinese. I simply wish to express my satisfaction with section one, out to put a couple of hundred Chinamen on there with cattle. They

Santa Barbara or Los Angeles somewhere. They had it all planned and my entire dissatisfaction with all the remainder of this report. I had it all planned out on paper, and it made a splendid speculation. am prepared to go in this matter, that is, to rid the State of the curse of They were getting a large capital subscribed in San Francisco, and they the Chinese, just as far as we can go consistently, and I am not willing

were going to do this until, upon consulting with some friends, they to go any farther. (Cries of " louder."]

were told : “ Do not do it; the people will go down there and clean it My lungs are weak. This section one seems to me to be justified, if I out, if it costs every one of them their lives. They will rise up.” And understand it, by the exercise of the police power of the State.

through very fear these men did not do this thing. Now, if we are to MR. BEERSTECHER. I believe the gentleman is an attorney at preach that kind of doctrine, there would be no fear, and California

would be absorbed by these men. law. I would ask him whether section one confers any new powers at kind of vassals can come here and do not drive men out of the country.

It is all nonsense to say that that all; whether there is anything in section one, as presented to us for There was no difficulty in getting white hired girls some ten years ago. adoption, that confers any additional powers upon the Legislature, or in These men in San Francisco tell us that white girls do not come here at any way changes or alters the condition of things as they exist to-day. all now because they know that these Chinamen are in every house. In other words, whether section one amounts to anything at all? MR. NOEL. I will answer the gentleinan. I believe it confers no here and finally became the wives of good men. Now they do not

Is this a wholesome state of affairs? These laboring girls used to come additional power on the Legislature. I believe to-day that the Legisla-come here at all; they go west, or somewhere where there are no ture has this power. But it seems to be deemed necessary that the Con- Chinamen. I trust that there are very few farmers that hold the views vention should give expression to something upon this subject, and it of Mr. Stuart. I hope so, for the honor of that glorious profession of seemed to me to be about as harmless an expression as we can have, farming, which I have always gloried in. When I left it for a time, I therefore I shall support it. [Laughter.] There is one other section, Mr. could not keep away from it, and there I am still. [Applause.] Chairman, that I do not know but I might support-section three.

THE CHAIRMAN. Order! Order!
MR. BEERSTECHER. That secures the unanimous support of the
Independent party.

Mr. STUART. Mr. Chairman: A year ago last Summer about twenty MR. NOEL. Yes. The Independent party is entirely sound upon to employ them. I wanted fifteen, I think ; another wanted ten or

or thirty white men came up near my place. I went down with others the Chinese question. Section three provides: “ No alien ineligible to twelve, and so on; and we took them all. After a little they inquired : become a citizen of the United States shall ever be employed on any

“How much will you give ?" "A dollar a day and board.” They State, county, municipal, or other public work in this State after the wanted a dollar and a half. We gave them until Monday morning to adoption of this Constitution.” I see no objection to that, so far as I am make up their minds, otherwise we would get other help. Nobody concerned. I will support that and section one, but no more of this came. They did not want work. They would sooner go to San Franreport.

cisco afoot; sooner go back to their beer. It is always my rule to buy

an extra amount of beef and deal it out piece by piece to these tramps MR. WHITE. Mr. Chairman: As a farmer who, like Mr. Stuart, has that come along. We have got to feed them. I would employ them if lived on a farm and raised his family and supported them out of the they would work for me. But I have always found myself the loser. produce of the soil, I wish just to state at this time that I entirely dis- It is not necessary for me to tell the gentleman this. If he has been a sent from his views in every particular that he has expressed them; and farmer twenty-five years he knows it. Speaking of the girls; it has not I will state, with regard to the farming community with which I am been the case for ten years that you could get a good one that would connected, that of the Pajaro Valley, the facts of the case. In eighteen stay and work. I have paid high prices. I have paid them as high as hundred and fifty, eighteen hundred and fifty-one, eighteen hundred eighty dollars a month, and found them; sixty dollars a month, and and fifty-two, eighteen hundred and fifty-three, and eighteen hundred found them, when I lived in San Francisco. I have paid forty dollars and fifty-four we had plenty of white labor. There was not a Chinaran a month-nothing less than that. Take them up to the ranch, where in our neighborhood. We neither had them as cooks, servants, or in they could not hear the bell ring along the railroad line, and they get workhouses. We never employed them in the harvest field, or in any sick in a week or ten days and go away. other capacity whatever. So it run on for some years, and finally the MR. BEERSTECHER. I would ask the gentleman if he considers Chinamen began to come in and settle in our center, in Watsonville. one dollar a day and board fair wages? They crowded in there, and as they crowded in the white labor seemed MR. STUART. It is fair wages. You can get them East for twelve to disappear. I will say for the farmers of that valley, that they univer- and fifteen dollars a month--that is half a dollar a day; sally had a great objection to employing them at all, but at the time of MR. BEERSTECHER. I don't wonder that they do not work for the harvest they would employ them to bind; and they gave them out you. the jobs of binding in the field because they could not find white men. MR. WHITE. Wages in the Pajaro Valley are two dollars a day, and Now, as to this great army of tramps which is talked about as some con- | always have been, so far as I know. tagious sort of people that come around, I will tell you that my house [Applause and confusion.) is on the trail that was the shortest trail from the County of Santa Clara THE CHAIRMAN. The house will keep order. to Santa Cruz, consequently a great many white laborers came with MR. INMAN. I would like to know if ihis is a political meeting? their blankets, and I will say that I never wanted a man that these men THE CHAIRMAN. The Sergeant-at-Arms will keep order in the would not turn in and work when I asked them.

lobby. In the twenty-five years I lived on that trail I never was refused by

REMARKS OF Mr. O'Sullivan. a single man, and I never even, in any way, was troubled by the tramps. MR. O'SULLIVAN. Mr. Chairman: I must confess that I have lis. When I offered them work they invariably took it. That is my experi- tened to this general tirade with indignation. Who are tramps? There

Even the religious papers talk about tramps, and some of them are just as good men as any on this floor tramps in California. We were even say they ought to be seized and put into prison, at the time when all tramps in forty-nine, will the gentleman remember that? Many the Chinamen were housed around these men's houses. They have no gentlemen here, forty-niners--I am a forty-niner myself, have tramped sympathy at all with the men going around, and say they do not want in this State, in the mines. We were all tramps then and carried our work. I do not know of any such men traveling in this state, and I blankets on our backs, and have seen an honorable and honest workhave had some experience about it. Now, sir, of late years they have ingmen as there are in God's world tramping in this State in search of been determined to get rid of these Chinamen, and they have worked in work and could not find it. I venture to say that the gentleman is an every way to prevent even their binding. For years I have not employed employer of Chinese. them. My son runs the farm, and he does not employ one of them; and MR. STUART. Yes. he finds it more profitable not to employ them. Twenty-five cents an MR. O'SULLIVAN. Yes; I knew it the first words that fell from acre is saved by using white men to bind the grain, and that is about the bis lips; that he had such a hatred of his white fellow man —

REMARKS OF MR. WHITE.

ence.

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