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This cardinal, 9

Though from an humble stock, undoubtedly

This cardinal, &c.] This fpeech is formed on the following paffage in Holinfhed: "This cardinal, (as Edmond Campion in his Hiftorie of Ireland defcribed him,) was a man undoubtedly born to honour; I think, (faith he) fome prince's baftard, no butcher's fonne; exceeding wife, faire-spoken, high-minded, full of revenge, vitious of his bodie, loftie to his enemies, were they never fo bigge, to those that accepted and fought his friendship wonderful courteous; a ripe schooleman, thrall to affections, brought a bed with flatterie; infaciable to get, and more princelie in beftowing, as appeareth by his two collèges at Ipfwich and Oxenford, the one overthrown with his fall, the other unfinished, and yet as it lyeth, for an houfe of ftudentes, (confidering all the appurtenances,) incomparable throughout Chriftendome. He held and injoied at once the bishoprickes of Yorke, Durefme, and Winchester, the dignities of Lord Cardinall, Legat, and Chancellor, the abbaie of St. Albons, diverfe priories, fundriè fat benefices in commendam ; a great preferrer of his fervants, an advauncer of learning, ftoute in every quarrel, never happy till this his overthrow: wherein he fhewed fuch moderation, and ended so perfe&lie, that the houre of his death did him more honour than all the pomp of his life paffed."*

When Shakspeare fays that Wolfey was "a fcholar from his cradle," he had probably in his thoughts the account given by Cavendish, which Stowe has copied: - Cardinal Wolfey was an honeft, poor man's foone-who, being but a child, was very apt to learne; wherefore by means of his parents and other his good friends he was maintained at the university of Oxford, where in a fhort time he profpered fo well, that in a fmall time, (as he told me with his owne mouth,) he was made bachelour of arts, when he was but fifteen years of age, and was moft commonly called the bay batchelour." See alfo Wolfey's Legend, Mirrour for Magiflrates, 1587.

I have here followed the pun&uation of the old copy, where there is a full point at honour, and From his cradle begins a new fentence. This punctuation has likewife been adopted in the late editions. Mr. Theobald, however, contends that we ought to point thus:

"Was fashion'd to much honour from his cradle.” And it must be owned that the words of Holiufhed, here thrown

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Was fashion'd to much honour.

From his cradle,

He was a scholar, and a ripe, and good one;
Exceeding wife, fair spoken, and perfuading:3
Lofty, and four, to them that lov'd him not;
But, to thofe men that fought him, fweet as fum-


And though he were unfatisfy'd in getting,
(Which was a fin) yet in beftowing, madam,
He was moft princely: Ever witnefs for him'
Thofe twins of learning, that he rais'd in you,
Ipfwich, and Oxford! one of which fell with him,
Unwilling to outlive the good that did it; 4

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into verfe, "This cardinal was a man undoubtedly BORN to honour," Arongly support his regulation. The reader has before him the arguments on each fide. I am by no means confident that I have decided rightly. MALONE.

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feems to be countenanced by a paffage in King Henry V:

"Never was fuch a fudden fcholar made." STEEVENS.

Was fashion'd to much honour.] Perhaps our author borrowed this expreffion from Saint Paul's Epifle to the Romans, ix. 21: "Hath not the potter power over the clay of the fame lump, to make one veffel unto honour &c. STEEVENS.

3- fair Spoken, and perfuading:] Eloquence conftituted a part of the Cardinal's real character. In the charges exhibited against him, it was alledged that at the Privy Council he would have all the words to himself, and confumed much time with a fair tale." See 4 Inft. 91. HOLT WHITE.

4 Unwilling to outlive the good that did it;] Unwilling to furvive that virtue which was the caufe of its foundation: or perhaps "the good" is licentiously used for the good man; "the virtuous prelate who founded it." So, in The Winter's Tale: " a piece many years in doing.”



Mr. Pope and the fubfequent editors read the good he did it; which appears to me unintelligible. The good he did it," laying the foundation of the building and endowing it: if therefore we fuppofe the college unwilling to outlive the good he did it, we fuppofe it to expire inftantly after its birth.

"The college unwilling to live longer than its founder, or the

The other, though unfinish'd, yet fo famous,
So excellent in art, and ftill fo rifing,
That Christendom fhall ever speak his virtue.
His overthrow heap'd happiness upon him;
For then, and not till then, he felt himself,
And found the blessedness of being little:
And, to add greater honours to his age
Than man could give him, he died, fearing God.
KATH. After my death 1 with no other herald,
No other speaker of my living actions,

To keep mine honour from corruption,
But fuch an honeft chronicler as Griffith.

Whom I moft hated living, thou haft made me,'
With thy religious truth, and modesty,

Now in his afhes honour: Peace be with him! →→
Patience, be near me ftill; and fet me lower:
I have not long to trouble thee. Good Griffith,
Cause the musicians play me that fad note

I nam'd my knell, whilst I fit meditating
On that celeftial harmony I go to.

Sad and folemn mufick.

GRIF. She is alleep: Good wench, let's fit down


For fear we wake her;


Softly, gentle Patience.

The vifion. Enter, folemnly tripping one after another, fix perfonages, clad in white robes, wearing on


goodness that gave rife to it," though certainly a conceit, is fuffi ciently intelligible. MALONE.

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Good, I believe, is put for goodness. So, ia p. 151:

"May it please your highness

"To bear me fpeak his good now?" STEEVENS.

folemnly tripping one after another,] This whimsical Alagedirecion is exa&ly taken from the old copy. STEEVENS.

their heads garlands of bays, and golden vizards® on their faces; branches of bays, or palm, in their hands. They firft congee unto her, then dance; and, at certain changes, the first two hold a fpare garland over her head; at which, the other four make reverend court'fies; then the two, that held the garland, deliver the fame to the other next two, who obferve the fame order in their changes, and holding the garland over her head: which done, they deliver the fame garland to the last two, who likewife obferve the fame order: at which, (as it were by inspiration,) She makes in her fleep figns of rejoicing, and holdeth up her hands to heaven and fo in their dancing they vanish, carrying the garland with them. The mufick continues.

KATH. Spirits of peace, where are ye? Are ye all gone?

And leave me here in wretchedness behind ye?' GRIF. Madam, we are here.


It is not you I call for:

None, madam.

Saw ye none enter, fince I flcpt?
KATH. No? Saw you not, even now, a bleffed


Of this flage-direction I do not believe our author wrote one word. Katharine's next fpeech probably fuggested this tripping dumbfhew to the too bufy reviver of this play. MALONE.



• golden vizards Thefe tawdry difguifes are allo mentioned in Hall's account of a make deviled by King Henry VIII: -thei were appareled &c. with vifers and cappes of golde."

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↑ And leave me here in wretchedness behind ye?] Perhaps Mr. Gray had this paffage in his thoughts, when he made his Bard exclaim, on a fimilar occafion, (the evanefcence of vifionary forms):

"Stay, O Aay; nor thus forlora

Leave me unbless'd, unpitied, here to mourn!" STEEVENS.

Invite me to a banquet; whofe bright faces
Caft thousand beams upon me, like the fun?
They promis'd me eternal happiness;

And brought me garlands, Griffith, which I feel
I am not worthy yet to wear: I fhall,


GRIF. I am moft joyful, madam, fuch good dreams Poffefs your fancy.


Bid the mufick leave,

They are harsh and heavy to me.

[Mufick ceafes. PAT. Do you note, How much her grace is alter'd on the fudden? How long her face is drawn? How pale fhe looks, And of an earthy cold? Mark you her eyes? GRIF. She is going, wench; pray, pray.



Heaven comfort her!

Enter a Meffenger.

MESS. An't like your grace,


You are a faucy fellow:

You are to blame,

Deferve we no more reverence?

GRIF. Knowing, fhe will not lofe her wonted greatness, To use fo rude behaviour: go to, kneel. 9

Mark you her eyes?] The modern editors read Mark her eyes. But in the old copy there being a ftop of interrogation after this paffage, as after the foregoing claufes of the fpeech, I have ventured to insert the pronoun — you, which at once fupports the ancient pointing, and completes the measure. STEEVENS.

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9 go to, kneel.] Queen Katharine's fervants after the divorce at Dunstable, and the Pope's curfe fuck up at Dunkirk, were directed to be fworn to ferve her not as a Queen, but as Princess Dowager. Some refused to take the oath, and fo were forced to leave her fervice; and as for these who took it and and ftayed, the

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