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byters with tales of his sojourn in the morning land, or entrance the parishioners of Dolphinton with his vivid accounts of Scriptural localities. He went abroad to observe men and manners, to note the fulfilment of inspired predictions, and to tell the public of the actual state of the regions he traversed. The result is a volume of very considerable interest, containing lively pictures, with sufficient reference to the habitual mode of thought, and the pastoral calling of the author, to render some of the details racy and amusing.

We find the Doctor heaving on the long swell of the Atlantic, on board one of the Ocean steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, whether in the throes of bodily distress and mental anxiety he has not informed a discerning public. We pass by his Spanish reminiscences, and find him looking on Gibraltar; where, more merciful than some other tourists, he does not think it necessary to rehearse the oft-told story of the siege. There is no tariff of the scale of provisions during that exciting period; but our clerical voyager is contented to narrate incidents of personal experience. As we cannot mention more than a portion of our ministerial traveller's career, we commend his readers to peruse his remarks for themselves. He found the Nile voyage tiresome, the scenery tame, the discomforts many, but the sight of the Pyramids at last revived his drooping spirits; and he records the following graphic picture of Cairo :

"The moment I mounted the stair at the pier of Boulee, I found myself in the red dusky haze of an Egyptian atmosphere. It was near noon, and the rays of the hot sun trembled over the boundless valley of the Nile on to the minarets of Cairo, and farther still to the sombre pyramids. Now, indeed, the scene before me presented a superb illusion of beauty. The bold range of the Mukattam mountains, its craggy summits cut clearly out in the sky, seemed to run like a promontory into a sea of the richest verdure; here wavy with breezy plantations of olives; there darkened with acacia groves,—just when the mountain sinks upon the plain, the citadel stands on its last eminence, and widely spread beneath lies the city,-a forest of minarets, with palm-trees intermingled, and the domes of innumerable mosques rising and glittering over the sea of houses." The city presents many a scene of squalor and misery, dark lanes, peopled by mangy dogs, and ragged beggars,-each street a focus of smells the most abhorrent, and all broiling beneath the sun, while farther, at the time of the Doctor's visit, a sand-wind blew over the desert, making respiration difficult, and grievously incommoding the visitor. But all this suffering hindered not Dr. Aiton from hiring a dragoman, mounting a donkey, and strong in the thirst for knowledge, visiting the slave market and the citadel, where our adventurous pastor, on making a night visit to survey the starry heavens, was nearly shot by a sentinel, whose disturbed gaze fastened on the intruder, conceiving him to be "something uncanny," while he was endeavouring to scramble up the southern face of the citadel," the gate being closed. The guard turned out, and but for the attendance of a servant of the Consul's, the consequence, so far as regarded our reverend author, might have been serious.

The ascent of the pyramids is execellently described; and the Doctor gives a vivid account of his experience in the somewhat arduous undertaking. We cannot follow the details of the journey through the Desert, or of the meeting with the overland passengers from India and China, who had landed at Suez, as the Doctor's party were hurrying towards the head of the Red Sea. We have noticed only a small portion of the contents of this interesting and curious volume, which also embraces sketches of the scenery connected with the Seven Churches of Asia, the Hellespont, Greece, and Italy. As already mentioned, the journey was not devoid of some rather romantic and amusing features; but our traveller manfully proceeded as

though animated by the invincible spirit of the north, whether sweltering in a Nile boat, or riding a mule with no saddle, and only Turkish stirrups, until he neared his journey's end in a travel-stained condition enough, but able to resume his ordinary duties, and to indite the goodly volume in which the results of his wanderings are narrated.

Visit to the Holy Land, Egypt, and Italy. By Madame IDA PFEIFFER. Translated from the German by H. W. DULCKEN.

Those of our readers who may have perused Mr. Bartlett's interesting and beautiful volumes on the Holy Land, Egypt, &c., will remember the mention made in one of them, of his meeting with the enterprising female traveller, and the record of his admiration of her prudence, patience, and spirit. Madame Pfeiffer is far from being an unintelligent observer; and if, in these pages, not much novel information is communicated, the volume-which we may add is handsome in form and a wonder for cheapness-may still afford pleasant recreation for a few hours of the winter evenings. It also deserves mention as an exception to the many comparatively uninteresting and made up books of this kind which so frequently issue from the press.

Genesis and Geology; or, an Investigation into the Reconciliation of the Modern Doctrines of Geology with the Declarations of Scripture. By DENIS CROFTEN, B.A. Werthum and Mackintosh.

THIS pamphlet, originally an article in a less enlarged and complete form, to Kitto's "Journal of Sacred Literature," is an endeavour to confirm the assertion of the title by a process of ingenious reasoning, accompanied by many critical comments on the texts referred to. We do not pronounce an opinion on the correctness of the author's views, but recommend them to the consideration of such biblical students as are inclined to investigate the topic.


Presentation.-The Queen has been pleased to present the Rev. John Christie to the Church and Parish of Arbirlot, vacant by the death of the Rev. George Addison, late Minister thereof.

Divinity Chair, King's College, Aberdeen. The Rev. Dr. Robert Macpherson, Forres, was admitted and inducted to the Professorship of Divinity on

Tuesday, and received the right hand of fellowship from those present.

Induction at Tweedmouth.-The induction of the Rev. Edward Bayne Rodgers to the pastoral charge of the Scotch Church in Tweedmouth, took place on Thursday the 30th ult.

Died, at the Manse of Blairgowrie, on the 3d ult., the Rev. Archibald O. Greig, A.M., Minister of that Parish.






The Greyfriars' Monastery, the Greyfriars' Church-yard, and the Old Greyfriars' Church.


Ir was somewhere about the year 1430, that the first house in the Grassmarket of Edinburgh was built. This was the Monastery of the Franciscans or Greyfriars, which occupied a site at the south-east corner of the present street, almost opposite the West Bow. Its position is ascertained from the old title-deeds of two houses erected at the spot. One of the houses is described as lying within the burgh of Edinburgh, at the place called the Greyfriars; and the other is designated that Temple tenement lying at the head of the Cowgate, near the Cunzie Nook, besides the Minor or Greyfriars on the east, and the Common King's High Street on the north. The circumstance that led to the erection of the Greyfriars' Monastery was as follows:-At the period referred to, the Franciscan, or, as they were sometimes called, the Minorite Friars, were acting a very prominent part in the Popish countries on the Continent of Europe. This mendicant order had previously existed for upwards of two centuries, but its members had, for a considerable portion of that time, impaired their energies, their influence, and reputation, by their squabbles with their powerful rivals the Dominicans, or Black Friars, by their resistance, on some occasions, to the Pope, and by dissensions and divisions among themselves. They had now succeeded in restoring their order to something like its original harmony, dignity, and authority; and had again attracted the attention of Christendom by their learning, austerity, and zeal. James I. of Scotland, hearing of their great fame, made a request to John de Maubertas, vicar


apostolic and general of the order, to send him some of the brethren, who were distinguished for their piety and learning, in order that the Romish faith, which had for some time been in a corrupt and languishing condition in his kingdom, might be restored to purity and vigour. Maubertas, accordingly, sent P. Cornelius of Zurich, and six other members of the order, from the province of Cologne. These ecclesiastics, by their learning, devotion, and energetic style of preaching, made a powerful impression on Scotland; and, in a short time, succeeded in causing Franciscan Monasteries to be erected at Edinburgh, St. Andrew's, Glasgow, Perth, Aberdeen, Stirling, Jedburgh, Elgin, and Ayr.

No description or engraving, so far as is known, now exists of the Greyfriars' Monastery at Edinburgh. In the nineteenth tome of that large work, the "Annales Minorum; seu Trium Ordinum, A S. Francisco, Institutorum," commenced by "Lucas Waddingus," continued by Joseph Maria of Ancona, and published at Rome, by authority of the Pope, in 1745, a short reference is made to the building. It is there stated that it was so remarkable for the conveniency of its situation, the elegance of its buildings, and the pleasantness of its gardens, that it appeared more fitted for the habitation of nobles than poor men. This seemed to be so much the case in the eyes of Cornelius, that he refused to take possession of it, assigning as his reason that the founder of the order had enjoined in his Testament, that his followers should only permanently occupy houses and churches of a mean and retired description. James was at a loss to know in what manner to deal with the refractory Minorite, and at last requested the Archbishop of St. Andrew's, primate of the kingdom, to prevail on him to take up his abode in the buildings. prepared for his accommodation. Neither the advice, nor the authority of the primate, had, however, any effect; and therefore he made application to Pope Pius II., then occupying the pontifical chair, to exert his authority to induce Cornelius to comply with the wishes of the Scottish monarch. The primate persisted in this application "donec," to use 'the words of Joseph of Ancona, "Pius II., litteris apostolicis, eundem locum Romae Ecclesiae incorporavit," that is, until Pius joined the place to the Church at Rome. Cornelius was thus induced, much against his inclination, to give way; and, accordingly, he and a number of other friars took possession of the Monastery, and opened a school in it for philosophy and theology. Their reputation for learning, austerity, and piety, soon brought scholars from all parts of the country, and even from abroad. Cornelius delivered his instructions in this place for fifteen years; and, at the end of that period, returned to his former province of Cologne, and at last died in the Convent of Antwerp. His head was placed in the wall of the church of that town, and remained there till 1566, when the church was burned by the Spaniards.

According to Popish historians, the Franciscans continued greatly to flourish in Scotland down to the time of the Reformation, and were held in high veneration by the people. The founder of the order, St. Francis of Umbria, laid down three methods by which his followers ought to obtain their living, viz., by labour, begging, and voluntary offerings. The Franciscans in Scotland, Joseph Maria tells us, subsisted chiefly by

the last method. The princes, the nobles, the bishops, and the common people, he says, showered so many gifts upon them, that they were at times under the necessity, as they had neither granaries nor cellars, to send some of them back to their pious donors. Their dress was of a very humble description, as became mendicants. It consisted of a cowl, and an inner and outer tunic or cloak, of an ash colour, bound round their waist with a rope. They procured their garments by voluntary offerings, in the same way as their food, and in equal abundance. The ladies of the nobility vied with each other in manufacturing webs of linen for them, and in making their cloaks. An article worn by them was considered to possess a very special virtue, and was held in very high repute. Their cast-off cloaks were, therefore, eagerly sought after by the upper classes; and were employed as sheets, in which they wrapped the dead bodies of their relatives.

The Franciscans received the most marked and respectful attention when they visited the castles of the Scottish nobility for the purpose of preaching, or performing other religious duties. The baron himself held a bason of water, in which they washed their hands; and his lady thought herself honoured in being allowed to wash their feet. They were elevated, though of course against their will, to a chief seat at table during meals; but they would touch no dish till once the whole household had assembled, and they had delivered a portion of the bread of life. They were opposed to jokes and frivolous conversation at table; and it was, therefore, their practice to relate stories from the Old and New Testament, or from the lives of illustrious saints, for the entertainment and edification of the company. Except on holidays they seldom went abroad, unless to preach the Word and receive the confessions of the dying. It was common for the people to remark, when they saw them on ordinary occasions in the streets of the towns in which they dwelt, "The brethren are abroad, some one is near death." Their wisdom and sanctity were held in such estimation, that all classes consulted them as oracles, so that scarcely any thing was done either in public or private life without their advice. They could also cure bodily diseases, and even work miracles. In short, according to Popish authority, they possessed every sort of virtue and power.

The Protestant reformers give a very different account of them. They hold them up as consummate hypocrites, and load them with every foul and opprobrious epithet. The illustrious George Buchanan, in his celebrated Latin poem entitled "Franciscanus," lashed their vices, their ig norance, their frauds, and their pride, with unsparing ridicule; and of course brought the whole order, at home and abroad, like a nest of hornets about his ears. Alexander, Earl of Glencairn, in a poem inserted in Knox's History of the Reformation in Scotland, makes the holy hermit of Loretto recapitulate some of the hard names which the Lutherans were in the habit of conferring on his Franciscan brethren.

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